2020年01月22日 01:43:51|来源:国际在线|编辑:医信息
Think you#39;ve got the Vikings pegged? With all the caricatures and stereotypes out there, there#39;s probably a lot you#39;ve never heard about the seafaring Scandinavians who raided and settled coastal sites in the British Isles and beyond between the ninth and 11th centuries. Explore 10 surprising facts about the Vikings below.你是否意识到“维京人”在你的思维中已经被贴上了标签?在漫画和定式思维的影响下,关于这些在九世纪到十一世纪之间,侵略了大不列颠岛以及更远的一些邻海地域,并在当地定居的维京人,也许还有许多事实是你不知道的。下面,就让我们一起探索关于维京人的10个惊人事实吧!1. Vikings didn#39;t wear horned helmets.1. 维京人并没有戴角盔的习惯Forget almost every Viking warrior costume you#39;ve ever seen. Sure, the pugnacious Norsemen probably sported headgear, but that whole horn-festooned helmet look? Depictions dating from the Viking age don#39;t show it, and the only authentic Viking helmet ever discovered is decidedly horn-free. Painters seem to have fabricated the trend during the 19th century, perhaps inspired by descriptions of northern Europeans by ancient Greek and Roman chroniclers. Long before the Vikings#39; time, Norse and Germanic priests did indeed wear horned helmets for ceremonial purposes.忘掉你看到的每一套维京战士装吧!当然,好战的北欧人也许有戴帽子的习惯,但一定是绑有角的吗?维京人时期的壁画并没有描绘这样的角盔,而唯一所挖掘出来的真实头盔是没有角的。在古希腊人和罗马编年史对古代北欧人所做的描述的影响之下,画家们也许是对十九世纪的”潮流”进行了自由发挥。而远早于维京人时期的挪威和日耳曼牧师们,的确会在仪式上戴角盔。2. Vikings were known for their excellent hygiene.2. 维京人对卫生的注重远近驰名Between rowing boats and decapitating enemies, Viking men must have stunk to high Valhalla, right? Quite the opposite. Excavations of Viking sites have turned up tweezers, razors, combs and ear cleaners made from animal bones and antlers. Vikings also bathed at least once a week—much more frequently than other Europeans of their day—and enjoyed dips in natural hot springs.除了驾船和斩首敌人,维京男人们就只能在瓦尔哈拉宫(尘世阵亡的英雄的住所)里发出恶臭?恰恰相反,在对维京人居住地的挖掘过程中,考古学家们发现了由动物骨头和鹿角制作的镊子、刮胡刀、梳子,以及耳勺。维京人每周至少沐浴一次--远比同一时期的其他欧洲人频繁得多--并且懂得享受纯原生态的温泉。3. Vikings used a unique liquid to start fires.3. 维京人用一种特殊的液体生火Clean freaks though they were, the Vikings had no qualms about harnessing the power of one human waste product. They would collect a fungus called touchwood from tree bark and boil it for several days in urine before pounding it into something akin to felt. The sodium nitrate found in urine would allow the material to smolder rather than burn, so Vikings could take fire with them on the go.维京人虽然是”洁癖怪人”,但他们却能够很好的利用人类所产生的废物。维京人会从树皮上收集一种叫做火绒的真菌,并在尿液中将火绒沸煮几天,再将其捶打至与原来相似的物质。尿液中的硝酸盐会使物质慢慢燃烧而不是迅速的烧尽,所以维京人可以持续的使用这种物质生火。4. Vikings buried their dead in boats.4. 维京人将尸体葬于船中There#39;s no denying Vikings loved their boats—so much that it was a great honor to be interred in one. In the Norse religion, valiant warriors entered festive and glorious realms after death, and it was thought that the vessels that served them well in life would help them reach their final destinations. Distinguished raiders and prominent women were often laid to rest in ships, surrounded by weapons, valuable goods and sometimes even sacrificed slaves.无法否认,维京人极爱他们的船--以至于他们认为被葬在船里是一个极大的荣耀。在北欧地区,勇敢的战士们有资格进入荣耀之地,而他们生前所使用的战船会送他们到最终的回归之地。优秀的战士和杰出的女性常常在武器、珍贵的货物,甚至是陪葬奴隶的围绕下,安息于船中。5. Vikings were active in the slave trade.5. 维京人在奴隶交易中非常活跃Many Vikings got rich off human trafficking. They would capture and enslave women and young men while pillaging Anglo-Saxon, Celtic and Slavic settlements. These “thralls,” as they were known, were then sold in giant slave markets across Europe and the Middle East.许多维京人通过贩卖人口致富。当他们入侵了盎格鲁-撒克逊人(生活在大不列颠东部、南部)、凯尔特人或者斯拉夫人的居住地之后,会抓住当地的女人和年轻男人作为奴隶。这些所谓的”奴隶”会被贩卖于跨越欧洲和中东的巨大奴隶交易市场之中。6. Viking women enjoyed some basic rights.6. 维京女人们享有一些基本权利Viking girls got hitched as young as 12 and had to mind the household while their husbands sailed off on adventures. Still, they had more freedom than other women of their era. As long as they weren#39;t thralls, Viking women could inherit property, request a divorce and reclaim their dowries if their marriages ended.维京女孩在12岁时就会”绑”住:嫁做人妇、在丈夫外出航行时看家。但她们相比同时代的女性有更多的自由。只要她们不是奴隶,维京女人就能够继承财富、主动提出离婚,并在婚约解除之时要求拿回她们的嫁妆。7. Viking men spent most of their time farming.7. 维京人生活中的大多数时间都在务农This may come as a disappointment, but most Viking men brandished scythes, not swords. True, some were callous pirates who only stepped off their boats to burn villages, but the vast majority peacefully sowed barley, rye and oats—at least for part of the year. They also raised cattle, goats, pigs and sheep on their small farms, which typically yielded just enough food to support a family.这也许是挺让人失望的一件事,维京男人们最经常使用的不是剑,而是镰刀。没错,有些维京人的确是冷酷无情的海盗,只会烧杀抢夺,但大多数人还是在种植大麦、黑麦和燕麦——至少一年中总会有一段时间都在这样做。他们也在自己的小农场中饲养牛、山羊、猪和绵羊,而这些常常只够他们恰好养活一家人。8. Vikings skied for fun.8. 维京人以滑雪为乐Scandinavians developed primitive skis at least 6,000 years ago, though ancient Russians may have invented them even earlier. By the Viking Age, Norsemen regarded skiing as an efficient way to get around and a popular form of recreation. They even worshipped a god of skiing, Ullr.虽然古俄罗斯人比斯堪的纳维亚人更早发明滑雪橇,但早在6000年前,斯堪的纳维亚人(主要是指生活于古代北欧地区的人)已经发展出了极其精美的滑雪橇。直到维京时期,北欧人们都把滑雪视为一种有效的交通方式,同时也是一种受欢迎的方式。他们甚至崇拜滑雪之神--乌勒尓。9. Viking gentlemen preferred being blond.9. 维京绅士们更偏好把头发弄成浅色To conform to their culture#39;s beauty ideals, brunette Vikings—usually men—would use a strong soap with a high lye content to bleach their hair. In some regions, beards were lightened as well. It#39;s likely these treatments also helped Vikings with a problem far more prickly and rampant than mousy manes: head lice.为符合他们的审美观,深棕色的维京人--通常是男性--会使用一种含有强碱性物质的肥皂漂白他们的头发。在某些地区,胡子也会被漂白。这种处理方式似乎能够解决维京人原本头发还是灰褐色时,无法控制且令他们无时无刻感到刺痛的难题:头虱。10. Vikings were never part of a unified group.10. 维京人并非是一个集体Vikings didn#39;t recognize fellow Vikings. In fact, they probably didn#39;t even call themselves Vikings: The term simply referred to all Scandinavians who took part in overseas expeditions. During the Viking Age, the land that now makes up Denmark, Norway and Sweden was a patchwork of chieftain-led tribes that often fought against each other—when they weren#39;t busy wreaking havoc on foreign shores, that is.维京人并不承认他们的同胞。事实上,也许他们根本不称呼他们自己为维京人--特指所有参与海外征途的斯堪的纳维亚人。在维京人时期,现在丹麦、挪威和瑞典组成的地域是由各个酋长领导的部落组成,当他们不再忙于在外国海岸烧杀抢夺时,他们就会相互入侵。注:本文章转载自前十网,译者张秋月 /201504/368706在网上,雾霾的英文通常有以下3种:smoke,haze以及smog。究竟哪种说法最准确?这就要从雾霾的成分说起了。《穹顶之下》告诉我们,雾霾是PM2.5等可吸入颗粒物悬浮在空中形成的。它的来源主要是煤炭燃烧、汽车尾气和光化学污染。Haze A slight obscuration of the lower atmosphere, typically caused by fine suspended particles。Haze虽然可以译作烟雾,但它的本意是指空气中的蒸汽、微粒形成的雾气,并不特指污染物。Smoke A visible suspension of carbon or other particles in air, typically one emitted from a burning substance。Smoke是指燃烧释放的微粒形成的烟。雾都人民看不见河北省的火焰,而且光污染和汽车尾气也制造了一大批PM2.5。因此唐山人民可以管钢铁厂排出烟叫smoke,帝都魔都的雾霾却应该换一种说法:smog。Smog Fog or haze intensified by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants。因为没有现成的单词准确形容雾霾,英国人在20世纪初用smoke和fog合成了一个新单词smog,专指空气污染形成的雾霾。《穹顶之下》里提到的英国1952年污染事件的学名就叫做great smog of ’52。 /201503/363247Everywhere one ventures in cities, skyscrapers are being built or planned. Even Paris is getting one. The French capital last week backed plans for a 180-metre high triangular tower by Herzog amp; de Meuron of Switzerland, its first in four decades.无论你去世界各地哪座城市,都可以看到那里正在建造或规划天大楼。甚至连巴黎都将拥有一座天大楼。日前,巴黎当局40年来首次批准了一个高楼项目,建造一座由瑞士赫尔佐格-德梅隆建筑公司(Herzog amp; de Meuron)设计、高180米的三角形塔楼。There may never have been a better time to be an ambitious young architect. For an office skyscraper at the World Trade Center site in New York, James Murdoch, scion of the media dynasty, has just replaced a design by Britain’s venerable Lord Foster with a jazzier idea by Bjarke Ingels, the 40-year-old Danish architect.对于一名雄心勃勃的年轻建筑师来说,生在这个时代可谓正逢其时。对于将在纽约世贸中心遗址建造的一栋天办公楼,世界最大传媒帝国接班人詹姆斯#8226;默多克(James Murdoch)刚刚否决了英国建筑大师福斯特勋爵(Lord Foster)的设计,转而采用40岁的丹麦建筑师比亚克#8226;英厄尔斯(Bjarke Ingels)的前卫创意。There is plenty of work to go around for any global “starchitect” who can produce an iconic museum, office or residential tower from London to Chongqing. Mr Ingels is building a campus for Google with Thomas Heatherwick, the UK designer; Herzog amp; de Meuron are to remodel Chelsea’s football stadium; Rafael Vi#241;oly is finishing an apartment block at 432 Park Avenue that is New York’s second-tallest building.从伦敦到重庆,对任何能够设计标志性物馆、办公楼或住宅大厦的全球“明星建筑师”来说,都有大量业务可供争取。英厄尔斯正在与英国设计师托马斯#8226;赫斯维克(Thomas Heatherwick)一起为谷歌(Google)打造一个校园;赫尔佐格-德梅隆建筑公司将改造切尔西的足球场;尔#8226;维诺里(Rafael Vi#241;oly)即将完成纽约第二高楼——位于派克大街(Park Avenue) 432号的公寓大楼。Every first-tier global city, and many a second and third-tier one in Asia, wants to put itself on the map with an iconic tower, or several. This creates plenty of strange shapes on the skyline — a firm of architects in Melbourne has just unveiled plans for an undulating 68-storey apartment and hotel block inspired by the fabric-clad dancers in a Beyoncé .每个全球一线城市以及亚洲许多二、三线城市都想拥有一幢或几幢标志性大楼。这使得城市天际线出现了大量奇奇怪怪的轮廓——墨尔本的一家建筑设计公司刚刚公布了一栋68层波浪形公寓和酒店大楼的设计方案,其灵感来自碧昂斯(Beyoncé)视频中穿着紧身衣的舞者。Such expressions of architectural individuality have the paradoxical effect of making cities look more and more like each other. Once upon a time, Chicago and New York were skyscraper-villes, while European capitals such as Paris and London had muted streetscapes. Now, many are converging on what Rem Koolhaas, the avant-garde architect, dubbed “the generic city”.如此表现建筑个性产生了矛盾的效果:使城市看起来越来越千篇一律。曾几何时,芝加哥与纽约是天大楼的聚集地,而欧洲国家首都(如巴黎和伦敦)的街貌看起来更加平缓。如今,许多城市在迈向先锋派建筑师雷姆#8226;库哈斯(Rem Koolhaas)所称的“泛化城市”。This worries some designers. Moshe Safdie, the Israeli-American architect who has designed towers in cities including Chongqing, says some skyscrapers are “objectified, branded ego trips” that are more like giant sculptures than buildings forming parts of a public space. In Asia, “hundreds of towers are being built but you do not get a city from it, just individual pieces”.这让一些设计师感到担忧。在多个城市(包括重庆)设计过高楼的以色列裔美国建筑师萨夫迪(Moshe Safdie)说,一些天大楼是“物化的、追求个人虚荣的旅行”,它们更像是巨型雕塑,而非构成公共空间一部分的建筑物。在亚洲,“数以百计的天大楼正在建设中,但它们不会形成城市,而只是一栋一栋的高楼”。The advantage is that the best new towers are superior to what came before — an era of second-rate modernism in which skyscrapers were designed by the large, anonymous architecture firms that still build most offices and infrastructure. The centres of many cities are stuffed with buildings designed mainly to hold bank trading floors.如今的优势在于,最优秀的新天大楼胜过之前那个平庸现代主义时代的产物,那时的天大楼由不知名的大型建筑公司设计,这些公司仍在设计大多数办公楼和基础设施。许多城市的中心都挤满了主要设计用作交易部门的高楼。The City of London’s skyline is sprouting unusual shapes, from Lord Rogers’ “Cheesegrater” Leadenhall Building to Mr Vi#241;oly’s “Walkie Talkie” at 20 Fenchurch Street. But both beat the mundane blocks that dominate Canary Wharf and other financial hubs. The rapid expansion of global finance in the two decades up to 2008 created many boring monuments.伦敦金融城的天际线正在涌现不规则的形状,从罗杰斯勋爵的被称为“奶酪刨”(Cheesegrater)的Leadenhall大楼,到维诺里的位于芬丘奇街(Fenchurch Street) 20号的“对讲机”(Walkie Talkie)大楼。但这两栋天大楼使占据金丝雀码头和其他金融中心的普通高楼相形见绌。2008年之前,全球金融业20年的快速扩张造就了许多乏味的建筑物。One symbol of changing times is Two World Trade Center, Mr Ingels’ design for 21st Century Fox and News Corp’s headquarters. Lord Foster’s tower, topped by diamond-shaped panes, was designed with banks in mind. Mr Ingels’ replacement is a stack of cubes mirroring Tribeca’s streets while offering a smooth face to the memorial site.时代变化的一个标志是英厄尔斯为21世纪福克斯(21st Century Fox)和新闻集团(News Corp)总部设计的世贸中心二号大楼(Two World Trade Center)。福斯特勋爵菱形屋顶的顶部设计是为设计的。英厄尔斯的替代方案是一堆可以反射翠贝卡街区(Tribeca,纽约市曼哈顿下城的一个街区——译者注)的立方体,同时为纪念遗址留下平滑的一面。Media and technology companies — the city’s rising forces — are more imaginative clients than banks. They do not want a plain skyscraper but something smarter that they can show off. The pioneer of this trend in New York was Frank Gehry’s curvy IAC building, and Mr Ingels says such buildings “must accommodate diversity, so a single extruded form does not make the cut”.这座城市正在崛起的力量——传媒和科技公司——是比更富有想象力的客户。它们想要的不是一座普通的天大楼,而是一座可以炫耀的、更智慧的大楼。在纽约,这种趋势的先驱是弗兰克#8226;格里(Frank Gehry)设计的曲线形IAC大厦。英厄尔斯称,这样的建筑“必须包容多样性,因此单调的挤出形状是达不到要求的”。Another set of demanding clients are high-end property developers, who can secure higher prices if an apartment block has been stamped by a “starchitect”. Mr Gehry and Mr Vi#241;oly have designed such blocks in New York; while Herzog amp; de Meuron’s new Paris building, with its glass triangle echoing IM Pei’s Louvre pyramid, will hold office space and a hotel.另一群高要求客户是高端房地产开发商。如果一幢公寓楼被贴上“明星建筑师”的标签,就能确保较高的定价。格里和维诺里已经在纽约设计了这样的楼群;而赫尔佐格-德梅隆建筑公司为巴黎设计的新大厦将包括办公空间和一家酒店,其玻璃三角形设计呼应了贝聿铭(IM Pei)设计的卢浮宫玻璃金字塔。The proliferation of skyscrapers has its problems. One is that many are being built but only a small number by the most thoughtful architects. Many Asian and Middle Eastern cities are filling with what Mr Ingels calls “perfume bottle” designs — flamboyant towers intended to attract attention rather than to respond to the local setting.天大楼的大量出现也带来问题。其一是,许多天大楼都在建设,但其中只有少数出自最有思想的建筑师之手。亚洲和中东的许多城市都布满了英厄尔斯所称的“香水瓶”设计——夸张的外形旨在吸引注意力,而不是适应周边环境。Mr Koolhaas celebrated the notion of cities being “liberated from the captivity of identity”, but that looks better on paper than set in concrete. There used to be no difficulty in knowing whether you were in London or Paris, or which continent you were on, but many cities now resemble a mash-up between Hong Kong and Las Vegas.库哈斯赞同将城市“从身份桎梏中解放出来”的理念,但将这一理念付诸实践的效果不怎么好。过去,很容易就能知道你身处伦敦还是巴黎,或者哪个大洲,但现在许多城市都像是香港与的混合体。The second problem is the one identified by Mr Safdie: that towers are individual sculptures rather than buildings that form part of a streetscape. The best-loved urban constructions are often terraces and rows of houses not single buildings.第二个问题是萨夫迪所指出的:天大楼成了个别的雕塑品,而非构成街景一部分的建筑物。最受欢迎的城市建筑往往是排屋和成排的房子,而非独栋的大楼。This may be inevitable — attempts at central planning of cities in the 1960s and 1970s by razing streets and building towers mostly turned out to be a disaster. For better or worse, this is the era of individual patronage, of tenants commissioning their own fortresses.这可能是不可避免的——上世纪60和70年代实行城区中央规划、推倒街道建造高楼的尝试,最终成为一场灾难。无论是好是坏,当今是一个注重个性的时代,房客委托建造自己的堡垒。Yet the best architecture is often the quietest, taking what is there and knitting it into a public space — from the High Line park in New York to the restoration of King’s Cross station in London. You would not notice either from a distance, but they matter.不过,最好的建筑往往是最不显眼的——从纽约的高线公园(High Line Park)到整修一新的伦敦国王十字车站,它们都无缝融入公共空间。从远处,你不会注意到它们,但它们很重要。 /201507/385733

The New Republic will celebrate its 100th birthday on Wednesday with a black-tie gala in Washington featuring remarks by Bill Clinton and Ruth Bader Ginsburg, a performance by Wynton Marsalis and a 400-person guest list studded with boldface names.《新共和》(The New Republic)杂志将于周三在华盛顿举办一场正装庆典,庆祝该杂志成立100周年,出席者包括比尔·克林顿(Bill Clinton)与拉斯·巴达·金斯堡(Ruth Bader Ginsburg)。温顿·马萨里斯(Wynton Marsalis)将献上演出,共有400名宾客出席,其中不乏重要人物。For those in an extra-nostalgic mood, the party has brought to mind the magazine’s semilegendary 70th-anniversary gathering in 1984, when Barney Frank and Gary Hart mingled with Henry A. Kissinger, who in an after-dinner speech declared it “traumatic” to be photographed with so many liberals.对于那些格外怀旧的人来说,这场派对会令他们想起1984年该杂志那场近乎传奇的70周年庆典,当时的出席者包括巴尼·弗兰克(Barney Frank)、加里·哈特与亨利·A·基辛格(Henry A. Kissinger)。基辛格在餐后讲话上声称,和这么多自由主义者一起合影,让他觉得“很受伤”。“The pictures are kind of a scream,” said Franklin Foer, the magazine’s 40-year-old editor, vicariously reminiscing about the days when The New Republic was toasting its status as the hot political magazine of the moment. “You look at them and then at Washington now, and you think, ‘Wow, that’s quite a tumble.#39; ”“这些照片就像一声呐喊,”杂志编辑,40岁的富兰克林·弗尔(Franklin Foer)说,人们通过照片可以间接感受到《新共和》身为最热点的政治杂志的时代。“看着他们,再看看如今的华盛顿,就会觉得‘哦,一代不如一代’。”Like Washington’s cast of characters, The New Republic has also changed. Under Chris Hughes, the Facebook multimillionaire who bought the magazine in 2012 from a consortium including its longtime owner Martin Peretz, the biweekly publication has more than doubled its staff, redesigned its print edition and broadened its coverage to be less Beltway-centric. It has also vastly increased its web traffic to more than four million unique users a month, according to the magazine.正如华盛顿的变化,《新共和》杂志也在改变。2012年,Facebook的亿万富翁克里斯·休斯(Chris Hughes)从一个财团手中买下这本杂志,杂志的长期所有者马丁·佩雷兹(Martin Peretz)也在该财团之中。在休斯领导下,这本双周刊的员工扩充了一倍,它重新设计了纸质版,拓宽了报道范围,使其不再像以前那样以华盛顿为中心。它的网络流量也大幅增加,杂志声称,杂志网站每月有400万名用户。And further changes are afoot. As the anniversary arrives, Mr. Hughes has hired Guy Vidra, a 40-year-old former Yahoo News executive, for the top of masthead as The New Republic’s first chief executive. This has set off speculation in Washington journalism circles that a magazine as famous for its ferocious office politics as for its contrarian political coverage might be on the verge of another round of upheaval.更多变化亦在发生中。周年庆典到来之际,休斯聘请了雅虎新闻的前任执行官,40岁的盖伊·维德拉(Guy Vidra),他的名字被印在刊头,成了《新共和》的第一位首席执行官。这在华盛顿新闻界引发了一阵推测,一家以残酷的办公室政治斗争和离经叛道的政治报道而闻名的杂志,或许正处于另一场巨变的边缘。Eyebrows were raised last year when Mr. Hughes, a former organizer for Barack Obama, introduced the redesigned magazine with an editor’s letter that omitted the words “liberal” or “liberalism.” These days, while he says he remains committed to print, he is also y to jettison “magazine.”去年,曾为贝拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)做过组织工作的休斯推出这本经重新设计的杂志,附有一封编辑致读者信,其中没有提到“自由”或“自由主义”这些词,当时有不少人对此表示疑虑。如今,休斯说自己仍对纸质印刷出版保持忠诚,但也准备好了抛弃“杂志”概念。“Twenty years ago, no question, it was a political magazine, full stop,” Mr. Hughes said in a joint interview with Mr. Vidra in New York. “Today, I don’t call it a magazine at all. I think we’re a digital media company.”“20年前,毫无疑问,它是一本政治杂志,这一点没什么可说的,”休斯在纽约与维德拉共同接受采访时说。“如今,我并不把它称为一本杂志。我觉得我们是一家数字媒体公司。”Mr. Hughes (who gave up the editor in chief title but remains publisher) and Mr. Vidra dismissed speculation that they wanted to take the magazine in a more lowbrow, BuzzFeed-like direction. But they did say there was room to increase the digital audience to as much as “tens of millions” of unique monthly visitors by focusing on a broader range of topics and on new forms of digital storytelling that “travel well” on the web.休斯放弃了总编地位,但保留出版人这个头衔。有人推测他和维德拉将把这本杂志引向低俗,走向BuzzFeed的方向,他和维德拉否认了这一说法。但他们也说,有可能通过关注更广泛的题材,采取新的数码叙事形式,在网上“走得更好”,为杂志吸引数以千万计的网络读者。Whatever The New Republic is today, it has been busy flogging its storied past. Mr. Foer and Mr. Hughes, 30, have been out promoting “Insurrections of the Mind,” an anthology of about 50 articles spanning the magazine’s history. Leon Wieseltier, the publication’s silver-maned longtime literary editor, has thrown out the first pitch at a Washington Nationals game (“high and away,” he admitted) and appeared on “The Colbert Report” to debate the merits of “centrist hair.”不管《新共和》如今变成了什么样,它仍在忙于利用自己传奇的过去。弗尔和30岁的休斯正忙着宣传《头脑的叛乱》(Insurrections of the Mind)这本文选,它收录了贯穿该杂志历史的50篇文章。长期在杂志工作的自由主义编辑里昂·维塞尔迪尔(Leon Wieseltier)如今已是满头白发,他刚刚为华盛顿国民队的一场比赛开球(他确认“开得又高又远”),后来又上综艺节目《科尔伯特报告》(The Colbert Report)中,探讨“中分头发”的价值。During Mr. Peretz’s tempestuous three-decade reign, whose door-slamming fights were recalled (mostly) fondly in an article in the anniversary issue by a former editor, Hendrik Hertzberg, The New Republic enraged many on the left, including many on its own staff, with its support for the contras, the anti-Communist insurgents in Nicaragua; an excerpt from “The Bell Curve,” Charles Murray’s 1994 book on race and I.Q.; and its full-throated support, later reconsidered, for the Iraq war. (Mr. Peretz, who attacked Mr. Hughes last year in an op-ed article in The Wall Street Journal, is not invited to the party, Mr. Hughes said.)在佩雷兹暴风骤雨般的30年任期中,有过很多激烈的争吵。周年纪念专刊上,前任编辑亨德里克·赫兹伯格(Hendrik Hertzberg)在一篇文章中以亲切的口吻回忆了这些往事(大部分)。《新共和》得罪了许多左派,其中包括不少自己的员工,它持尼加拉瓜反共产党的反对派起义者、持查尔斯·穆雷(Charles Murray)1994年的书《弧线排序》(The Bell Curve)中关于种族与智商的章节,还在事后的反思中全力持伊拉克战争。去年佩雷兹曾在《华尔街时报》(Wall Street Journal)的专栏文章中攻击休斯,休斯表示没有邀请佩雷兹来参加派对。These days, The New Republic’s goal of parting its hair down the middle, starting with its decision to stop running editorials, strikes some as a diminishment.最近,《新共和》开始走中立路线,最初的举措就是决定取消社论,有人认为这是一种衰退。“The magazine used to be schizophrenic,” said Eric Alterman, a columnist for The Nation and a longtime critic of Mr. Peretz’s. “But now, the most you can compare it to is a nice sailboat that usually has something smart in it but isn’t taking you anywhere.”“这家杂志曾经是精神分裂的,”《国家》(The Nation)杂志的专栏作家和佩雷兹的长期批评者埃里克·阿尔特曼(Eric Alterman)说,“但是现在,最好的比喻是,它就像一艘美丽的小帆船,上面总有很漂亮的东西,但是没法带你去往任何地方。”But others say the magazine’s direction under Mr. Hughes represents a return to the pragmatic idealism of its Progressive Era roots. “There’s a greater public-spiritedness and broadness of vision to the magazine now,” said Robert S. Boynton, director of the literary journalism program at New York University. “The fact that there’s some confusion about its identity is actually a healthy sign.”但其他人说,这家杂志在休斯治理下,开始回归它在进步时代的根源,即实用理想主义。“现在的杂志有更大的公众精神和更广泛的视野,”纽约大学自由主义新闻项目的负责人罗伯特·S·伊恩顿(Robert S. Boynton)说。“事实上,它的身份引起了一些困惑,这其实是一个健康的信号。”Intraoffice fights still happen, but not always in the magazine’s pages. When The New Republic ran an excerpt from a book on the history of the pro-Israel lobby by John Judis, a longtime senior editor, Mr. Wieseltier vented his displeasure in a scathing, semiprivate email published by The Washington Free Beacon, a conservative website.办公室内的斗争还在继续,但并不总是体现在杂志的版面里。杂志多年的高级编辑约翰·朱迪斯(John Judis)写了一本关于亲以色列游说集团历史的书籍,《新共和》刊登了节选,维塞尔迪尔在一封半私人的电子邮件中尖锐地表达了自己对此感到不快,这封邮件被刊登在保守派的网站“华盛顿自由灯塔”(The Washington Free Beacon)上。“Spirited debate is an incredibly important value to the institution,” Mr. Hughes said of that incident. “So is mutual respect.”“激烈的争辩是这家杂志非常重要的价值观,”休斯这样评价这场风波,“互相尊重也是如此。”That might come as a relief to Mr. Clinton, who could deliver a marathon self-roast at Wednesday’s gala simply by ing choice vituperative ’90s-era coverage of him and Hillary Rodham Clinton in The New Republic.这对于克林顿先生来说可能是个安慰。周三庆典上的祝酒词中,光是朗读90年代《新共和》就他与希拉里·罗德姆·克林顿(Hillary Rodham Clinton)的报道中的辱骂之词,他就可以马拉松般说上半天。Not that The New Republic has gone nice. It has “dialed back on the smartypants-ness” but still runs tough pieces about Republicans and Democrats alike, Mr. Foer said, pointing to Noam Scheiber’s much-talked-about critical profile of the Obama adviser Valerie Jarrett in the anniversary issue.并不是说《新共和》变得温和了。弗尔说,它只是“减少了自作聪明”,仍然在刊登对共和党与民主党同样严厉的文章。他指的是周年纪念刊上诺姆·谢伯(Noam Scheiber)关于奥巴马的顾问瓦莱丽·贾勒特(Valerie Jarrett)的批评性特写,这篇文章受到很多议论。And in the culture pages, long Mr. Wieseltier’s autonomous domain, no-holds-barred criticism still reigns, as in the same issue’s gleeful takedown of Lena Dunham by James Wolcott and a long essay by Mr. Wieseltier declaring, among other things, that “ferocity is as essential to our system as civility.”在长期处于维塞尔迪尔自治状态下的文化版面,仍然实行无拘无束的批判主义,纪念刊中登出了詹姆斯·沃尔科特(James Wolcott)的一篇文章,欢快地讽刺莉娜·杜汉姆(Lena Dunham);还有一篇维塞尔迪尔的长文,宣布,“对于我们的体系来说,凶狠和礼貌同等重要。”Mr. Wieseltier also gets in the issue’s last word, with a closing column warning against giving technology “ultimate authority over human existence.”维塞尔迪尔还为这期杂志做了总结,在刊尾文章中,他警告那种赋予技术“超越人类存在的至高无上的权威”的做法。To connoisseurs of old-school intrigue in The New Republic, that may sound like a shot at the magazine’s digital future. But Mr. Wieseltier, who calls himself a “platform pluralist,” waved away the suggestion.品味《新共和》的老式技巧或许像是在攻击杂志的数码化未来。但维塞尔迪尔否定了这种看法,把自己称为“平台多元论者”。“This is a moment to celebrate,” he said. “For a hundred years, the country has been a little less dumb than it might have been without us.”“这是庆祝的时刻,”他说,“百年以来,如果没有我们,这个国家怕是会更蠢一些。” /201411/343602

In 1957, when Americans took for granted electric ovens, hand-held mixers and finned cars, their British cousins were, comparatively speaking, just emerging from the cave. In a telling indicator, only 5 percent of working-class Britons owned a refrigerator, and only 12 percent over all. Yet this was the year that Harold Macmillan, the new prime minister, proclaimed, “Most of our people have never had it so good.”1957年,当电烤箱、手持搅拌机、有侧翼轿车在美国已司空见惯的时候,他们的英国亲戚相对来说好像还刚从洞穴里钻出来。一个数据很有说力:在当时的英国,只有5%的工薪阶层拥有冰箱,在整个人口中,只有12%拥有冰箱。同年,新上任的首相哈罗德·麦克米伦(Harold Macmillan)称:“我们当中的大多数人从来没有过这样的好日子。”It was true. As David Kynaston documents, exhaustively and exhaustingly, in “Modernity Britain: 1957-1962,” the Macmillan years felt good to a country recovering from war, austerity and rationing. It was a period of full employment, rising wages, affordable consumer goods and artistic ferment, as new working-class voices made themselves heard in fiction, drama and film.这是真的。正如大卫·基纳斯顿(David Kynaston)在他的《现代性英国:1957-1962》(Modernity Britain: 1957-1962)一书中详尽记述的,对于一个刚刚从战争中恢复过来、厉行节约、实行配给制的国家来说,麦克米伦的年代已经很好了。这个时期实现了充分就业、工资上涨,生活消费品更便宜了,艺术的发展也在酝酿之中,新兴工人阶层开始在小说、戏剧与电影中发出自己的声音。The book, an all-enveloping and mesmerizing social panorama, continues Mr. Kynaston’s grand project of chronicling everyday life in Britain from the end of World War II to the beginning of the Thatcher era. Under the collective title “Tales of the New Jerusalem,” he has aly completed “Austerity Britain: 1945-1951” and “Family Britain: 1951-1957,” whopping big books in which the author marshals vast quantities of data to create, dot by pointillistic dot, a vivid national portrait.这本书是一幅包罗万象、非常迷人的社会全景图,是基纳斯顿按时间顺序记述从“二战”后到撒切尔时代初期英国的日常生活的宏伟计划的一部分。这个计划合称《新耶路撒冷故事》(Tales of the New Jerusalem),除了本书,他已经完成了《节衣缩食的英国:1945-1951》和《家庭英国:1951-1957》两卷,在这几本巨著之中,他列举了大量数据,如同点派画家一样,一点点为这个国家描绘出一幅生动鲜明的肖像。No fact is too large, no fact too small for Mr. Kynaston, whose scrutinizing eye delights in particulars drawn from diaries, memoirs, the daily press and a host of other primary sources.对于基纳斯顿来说,没有绝对的大事,也没有绝对的小事,他那洞察一切的双眼从日记、回忆录、日报和其他重要来源中悉心寻找细节与详情。“On Monday, 6 January 1958,” a typical passage begins, “a disgruntled housewife in Paddington gave her Detergent Survey interview to Mass-Observation; Dennis Dee in Winestead did ‘hedging and ditching at the farm’ amidst ‘heavy rain nearly all the day’; Madge Martin in Oxford went to ‘Barnacle Bill’ at the Ritz (‘amusing enough, but a little too farcical’).” There is more. Queen Elizabeth, we learn, “took Charles and Anne to the Bertram Mills Circus at Olympia (both the Royal children bounced up and down in the seats with excitement’); and all three treasury ministers resigned — a unique event in 20th-century British political history.”他的书中,典型的一段是这样写的:“1958年1月6日星期一,帕丁顿一个闷闷不乐的家庭主妇接受了关于洗涤剂的民意调查采访;温斯蒂德的丹尼斯·迪伊(Dennis Dee)冒着‘持续整日的倾盆大雨’,‘在农场里扎篱笆,挖沟渠’”;牛津的马奇·马丁(Madge Martin)去了里兹影院看《巴纳寇·比尔》(Barnacle Bill)这部电影(‘它很有趣,不过有点太荒唐了’)。”还有更多内容,我们在书中读到,伊丽莎白女王“带着查尔斯和安妮去奥林匹亚看波特拉姆·米尔斯马戏团演出(两位皇子在座位上兴奋得跳上跳下);同时三位财政大臣都辞职了——这在20世纪的英国政治史上是唯一一次。”The fact stream flows on, page after page, like an unending newsreel. This is half the fun of the book, which proceeds at a lively pace in a brisk, appealing style. Mr. Kynaston, who seems to miss nothing, is like an air traffic controller, picking up incoming planes when they are tiny blips and following their progress intently throughout the book.一页一页,无数事实流淌而过,就像永无止境的新闻电影胶片。这还只是这本书趣味的一半。除此之外,它还有着生动的节奏与轻松美妙的文风。基纳斯顿似乎什么都不会放过,就像空中交通管制员盯着屏幕上的小光点,密切注视着飞机的飞行情况。Conservatives select a promising young woman, Margaret Thatcher, as their candidate for Finchley. The headline in the local newspaper: “Tories Choose Beauty.” Mike Jagger (not yet Mick) attends a Buddy Holly concert. A young actress named Judi Dench makes her debut as Ophelia at the Old Vic. The Evening Standard says she has talent and may get somewhere if she acquires some technique.保守党选择了玛格丽特·撒切尔(Margaret Thatcher)这位大有前途的年轻女子作为芬奇利选区的议员,当地报纸当天的头条是:“保守派选了美女”。迈克·贾格尔(Mike Jagger,当时还没改名“米克”)去看了巴迪·霍利(Buddy Holly)的演唱会。一个名叫朱迪·邓奇(Judi Dench)的女演员在老维克剧团首演,出演奥菲莉亚一角。《旗帜晚报》(The Evening Standard)说她很有才华,如果再掌握点技巧一定大有可为。The cultural markers of the period shower down like confetti: the first E-type Jaguar, the birth control pill, “Dr. No,” holidays in Spain, Beyond the Fringe, the first flavored potato chips (cheese and onion), the satirical journal Private Eye, the first legal betting shops and the 8.5-mile Preston Bypass, Britain’s first highway. Bronco toilet paper, described by Mr. Kynaston as “cheap, traditional, notoriously nonabsorbent,” tests new pastel colors, and on Dec. 9, 1960, the working-class soap opera “Coronation Street” airs for the first time. A critic for The Daily Mirror found it “hard to believe that viewers will want to put up with continuous slice-of-life domestic drudgery two evenings a week.” The show is still on the air.这个时期的文化标志性事件像婚礼上的五纸屑一样向读者洒来:第一辆E-type捷豹汽车、避药、《诺士》(Dr. No)、去西班牙度假、《边缘之外》(Beyond the Fringe)、奶酪味和洋葱味薯片、讽刺日报《私密之眼》(Private Eye)、第一批合法的票销售点,还有8.5英里长的普莱斯顿大路,这是英国的第一条高速公路。基纳斯顿说,野马牌厕纸“便宜、历史悠久,出了名的不吸水,”它开始尝试使用新的淡色;1960年12月9日,工人阶层肥皂剧《克罗内申街》(Coronation Street)首播。《每日镜报》(The Daily Mirror)的家说,“很难相信观众愿意每周花两天时间,忍受这样一部乏味的家庭琐事剧。”Mr. Kynaston does not have an argument, but he does have some big themes. He traces the rise of a consumer society enjoying, for the first time, televisions and cars and washing machines — all the outward signs of the good life — and undergoing profound change as a result. Increasingly, the industrial proletariat — visible as never before in novels and films like “Room at the Top” and “Saturday Night and Sunday Morning” — began to think of itself as middle-class, setting off an identity crisis for the Labour Party that continues to this day.基纳斯顿并不争论,但他的书中确实有重大的主题。他追溯消费社会如何第一次开始享受电视、汽车和洗衣机——这是美好生活的外在特征——以及因此而带来的深刻变革。劳工阶级前所未有地在小说和电影中大量出现,诸如《顶层房间》(Room at the Top)和《星期六的夜晚与星期日的早晨》(Saturday Night and Sunday Morning),他们开始自视为中产阶级,开始有了身份认同危机,今日的工党也仍旧如此。Race is another big topic. Open immigration from the Commonwealth, attracting thousands of West Indians, put Britain on the road to becoming a multiracial society, a fraught process, underscored by race riots in Notting Hill in the summer of 1958.种族是另一个大的主题。随着英联邦开放移民的政策,成千上万西印度移民开始涌入,英国开始走向多种族社会,这是一个令人忧虑的过程,1958年夏的诺丁山种族暴动更是其间的重大事件。A hefty portion of the book is devoted to housing. Horizontal cities became vertical, as ambitious slum-clearance projects plunked down high-rise apartment blocks in cities from London to Glasgow and relocated Britain’s poorest citizens, in a vast social experiment that did not always end happily. “Across much of urban Britain, modernism was being imposed upon a deeply unmodernist populace,” Mr. Kynaston writes.全书也有很大一部分写了住房问题。平房变成了楼房,从伦敦到格拉斯哥,雄心勃勃的贫民窟改造计划在城市里建起了高层公寓,令英国最穷困的城市居民有了住处,而这项宏大的社会实验的结果并不总是好的。“在英国城市的很多地方,现代主义被强加给非现代主义的大众,” 基纳斯顿写道。Still, for the average Briton, life seemed sweet — or at least diverting — a far cry from the years of gray, postwar deprivation and slow recovery. It was not just appliances; it was Harold Pinter, Vanessa Redgrave, Michael Caine, Albert Finney, Peter Hall, Peter O’Toole, Benny Hill and many others. Mr. Kynaston’s lists and factoids really do go on and on and on, and American ers will be lost when it comes to many of the popular television shows, athletes, comedians and singers who figure in the narrative. Still, his total-recall approach does get across the flavor and excitement of the time.不过,对于普通英国人来说,生活似乎很美好,至少也是在好转,和战后那段贫穷、灰色、缓慢康复的时光大不相同。不仅有家电,也有哈罗德·品特(Harold Pinter)、凡妮莎·雷德格雷夫(Vanessa Redgrave)、迈克尔·凯恩(Michael Caine)、阿尔伯特·芬尼(Albert Finney)、彼得·霍尔(Peter Hall)、彼得·奥图(Peter O’toole)、本尼·希尔(Benny Hill)等许多人。基纳斯顿的清单和陈述确实冗长,美国读者读到叙述中大量出现的流行电视剧,还有当红的体育运动员、喜剧演员和歌手时,可能会感到混乱。不过,作者的整体回忆确实把握住了那个时代的韵味与令人兴奋之处。In the book’s final pages, a turning point looms. The Beatles perform on national radio for the first time, taking second billing to the Trad Lads on the show “Teenagers Turn.” John Profumo meets Christine Keeler for the first time. A new era beckons. But that is a story — a long one — for another day.在全书的最后几页,一个转折点出现了。“披头士”(The Beatles)首次在全国广播电台演出,他们在“青少年节目”这个栏目中成了二号头牌,仅次于“传统孩子”(Trad Lads)。约翰·普罗富莫(John Profumo)第一次遇到克里斯汀·基勒(Christine Keeler)。一个新时代即将到来,但这将会是另一天的故事——另一个很长的故事。 /201502/357851

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