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武汉华夏男子医院男性功能检查飞度咨询

2019年10月15日 22:52:36|来源:国际在线|编辑:妙手频道
Im in the baking heat of the Kimberley in north Australia. Out here, over 3,000 people each year get bitten by snakes. Im gonna show you what to do if you come face-to-face with one. Its an olive python. Lets just get him out here. There you come. Well just leave his head on the ground. They are always calmest when they got their head on the ground like that. This is a pretty common snake in Australia. And here we go. Well just get his head. Hell probably live off like rodents, skinks, even other, actually other small snakes. And one thing theres no shortage of in Australia are snakes. In fact, I think its something like 21 of the 25 most poisonous snakes in the world are actually in Australia.我在澳洲北部最炎热的地带金伯利。在这里,每年有超过3000人被毒蛇咬伤。我会为你们展示与蛇面对面时应该怎么做。这是条巴布亚蟒。我们把它抓出来,出来。让蛇头留在地面,这样它就不会挣扎攻击。巴布亚蟒在澳洲相当常见。现在抓住其头部。它的食物有啮齿动物、石龙子、甚至是其它较小的蛇类。实际上,澳洲最不缺的就是蛇,全球毒性最强的蛇,在澳洲就有21至25种。The Aborigines have always lived in harmony with the land, only taking what nature can maintain. And today, they are the only people in Australia allowed to kill indigenous species. They would carry their live prey until they needed to eat it. As Im not a native Australian, Im gonna let this snake go. As its so humid, I dont need a shelter tonight. Ill just sleep under the stars.当地土著人一直与这片土地和谐相处,只索取自然界富余的资源。现如今,他们是澳洲唯一一群能猎杀本土物种的人群。他们会等到要吃的时候才将猎物杀死。我不是澳洲本地人,因此我会放了这条蛇。今天空气太潮湿了,晚上睡觉就不需要庇护所了。我会以星星为伴进入梦乡。Its kind of hard to sleep at the moment just because Im still just pouring in sweat. Its so humid. But it has just given me time just to sit and look around and listen. I can hear the river flowing. Theres a distant thunderstorm. So I can hear the odd crack of lightning occasionally. And it just gives me that time just to go actually, wow, this is special. And its just for me a real privilege to be in somewhere so wild but also so unique. And that for me keeps my spirits going.这个时候很难睡着,因为我依然汗流浃背。天气太潮湿了。不过这让我有时间静坐一会,观察四周,聆听大自然。我听见河流的声音。远处有雷雨。所以我能时不时听见奇特的咔嚓声。实际上,这也让我有时间继续前行,这种感受很特别。能到这么独特的地方一游,对我真的是一种优待。而且会让我的灵魂继续前行。原文译文属!201207/189102Science and Technology Solar power The third way科技 太阳能 利用太阳能发电的第三种方法A new method of making electricity from sunlight has just been tested一种新的利用太阳能发电的方法刚刚得到测试AT THE moment, there are two reliable ways to make electricity from sunlight.目前,利用阳光发电的可靠方法有两种。You can use a panel of solar cells to create the current directly, by liberating electrons from a semiconducting material such as silicon.你可以使用一块太阳能电池板从硅等半导体材料中释放电子来直接制造电流。Or you can concentrate the suns rays using mirrors, boil water with them, and employ the steam to drive a generator.也可以用镜子集中太阳光线,利用它们烧开水,利用蒸汽驱动发电机。Both work. But both are expensive.这两种方式都能进行也都很昂贵。Gang Chen of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Zhifeng Ren of Boston College therefore propose, in a paper in Nature Materials, an alternative.为此,麻省理工学院的陈刚和波士顿大学的任志峰在《自然-材料》杂志上刊登的一篇论文中提出了另一种方式。They suggest that a phenomenon called the thermoelectric effect might be used instead—and they have built a prototype to show that the idea is practical.他们提出可以利用一种名为热电效应的现象——而且还建立了一个模型来明这个想法的可行性。Thermoelectric devices are not new.热电器件并不是什么新鲜事。They are used, for example, to capture waste heat from car engines.比如它们被用来捕捉从汽车引擎排出的废热。They work because certain materials, such as bismuth telluride, generate an electrical potential difference within themselves if one part is hotter than another.它们之所以能起作用是因为某些材料,比如碲化铋,如果其中一部分比另一部分热,内部就会产生电位差。That can be used to drive a current through an external circuit.通过外部电路就可以利用这一点来导通电流。The reason thermoelectric materials have not, in the past, been applied successfully to the question of solar power is that to get a worthwhile current you have to have a significant temperature difference. (200oC is considered a good starting point.)为什么在过去热电材料没能成功地应用到太阳能上呢,这是因为如果要获得有价值的电流必须有巨大的温度差。(200摄氏度被视为合适的起点。)In a car engine, that is easy.汽车引擎里很容易达到这个温度差。For sunlight, however, it means concentrating the heat in some way. And if you are going to the trouble of building mirrors to do that, you might as well go down the steam-generation route, which is a much more efficient way of producing electricity.但是对于阳光来说,这意味着通过某种方式集中热量,而如果你费尽力气用一堆镜子达到这个温度差,你很可能走回蒸汽发动的老套路上了,那是一种效率更高的发电方式。If the heat concentration could be done without all the paraphernalia of mirrors, though, thermoelectricitys inefficiency would be offset by the cheapness of the kit.倘若能集中热量而不需要使用镜子的复杂步骤,虽然热电效率不高,但设备的廉价却可以弥补这点。And that is the direction in which Dr Chen and Dr Ren hope they are heading.而陈士和任士希望他们可以朝这个方向努力。In their view, three things are needed to create a workable solar-thermoelectric device.他们认为创造一种可行的太阳能热电设备需要具备三个条件。The first is to make sure that most of the sunlight which falls on it is absorbed, rather than being reflected.第一是确保大多数射入该设备的阳光被吸收而不是被反射回去了。The second is to choose a thermoelectric material which conducts heat badly (so that different parts remain at different temperatures) but electricity well.第二是选择的热电材料的导热性差(这样不同部分就能保持不同的温度)但是导电性良好。The third is to be certain that the temperature gradient which that badly conducting material creates is not frittered away by poor design.第三是确保那种导热性差的材料产生的温度变化率不因为设计缺陷而白白浪费。The two researchers overcame these challenges through clever engineering.两位研究者经由巧妙的工程技术克了上述挑战。The first they dealt with by coating the top of the device with oxides of hafnium, molybdenum and titanium, in layers about 100 nanometres thick.他们在设备顶上盖上了大概100纳米厚的二氧化铪、氧化钼和氧化钛的混合物。These layers acted like the anti-reflective coatings on spectacle lenses and caused almost all the sunlight falling on the device to be absorbed.它们的作用类似玻璃眼镜上面防反射的覆盖层,使所有落到设备上的阳光都被吸收。这样第一个问题就解决了。The second desideratum, of low thermal and high electrical conductivity, was achieved by dividing the bismuth telluride into pellets a few nanometres across.低导热性和高导电性则通过把碲化铋分成几纳米的粒状物来实现。That does not affect their electrical conductivity, but nanoscale particles like this are known to scatter and obstruct the passage of heat through imperfectly understood quantum-mechanical processes.它们的导电性不会因此受到影响,但是人们知道像这样的纳米级颗粒会分散开来并通过人们还尚未完全理解的量子力学过程阻碍热量通道。The third objective, efficient design, involved sandwiching the nanostructured bismuth telluride between two copper plates and then enclosing the upper plate (the one coated with the light-absorbing oxides) and the bismuth telluride in a vacuum.第三个目标是高效的设计,它涉及到把纳米级的碲化铋夹在两片铜薄片之间然后把位于上方的薄片(这个薄片被覆盖上了吸收光线的氧化物)和碲化铋封入一个真空内。The copper plates conducted heat rapidly to and from the bismuth telluride, thus maintaining the temperature difference.铜片可以把热量迅速地传递到碲化铋上或从碲化铋上导出,这样就能保持气温差。The vacuum stopped the apparatus losing heat by convection.容器防止该设备通过对流失去热量。The upshot was a device that converts 4.6% of incident sunlight into electricity.结果就是这样一个可以把射入阳光的4.6%转化为电能的设备。That is not great compared with the 20% and more achieved by a silicon-based solar cell, the 40% managed by a solar-thermal turbine, or even the 18-20% of one of the new generation of cheap and cheerful thin-film solar cells.以硅晶为基础的太阳能电池的转化率为20%甚至以上,太阳能热力涡轮的为40%,就连一种新一代价廉物美的薄膜太阳能电池的转化率也能达到18%-20%,与它们相比,4.6%并不可观。But it is enough, Dr Chen reckons, for the process to be worth considering for mass production.但是陈士认为这已经足够了,值得考虑对该设备进行大规模生产。He sees it, in particular, as something that could be built into the solar water-heaters that adorn the roofs of an increasing number of houses.他特别指出该设备可以安装到越来越多的房屋顶上装有的太阳能热水器上去。If such heaters were covered with thermoelectric generators the suns rays could be put to sequential use.如果这样的热水器配上热电发动机,那么太阳光就可以被连续使用。First, electric power would be extracted from them.首先,从它们身上可以获取电能。Then, the exhaust heat from the bottom plate of the thermoelectric device would be used in the traditional way to warm water up.其次,从热电设备中位于底部的薄片中出来的排气可以用于传统方式来加热水。Two-for-one has always been an attractive proposition for the consumer.对消费者来说,二合一总是很有吸引力的建议。This kind of combined heat and power might enable more people to declare independence from the grid.这种结合热力和电力的方式可以让更多人摆脱输电网。 /201212/214277

Back in Los Angeles, last-minute preparations are under way to get the dinosaurs y for the public.回到洛杉矶后,紧锣密鼓地展开了面向公众的恐龙展的最后准备。Its only now that you get a sense of just how many people have been involved in creating this exhibition, from the artists to the designers, to the teams that made the interactive media and mounts for the dinosaurs, all of it bring into life of decades of research that our current scientific understanding relies on.现在你意识到组织这场展会有多少人的参与,从演员到设计师,再到制作互动媒体和恐龙的撑架,这些都展现了我们当今科学家花几十年恐龙研究的成果。The exhibition consists of over 300 specimens. Its taken more than six years to complete and cost tens of millions of dollars.展览由300多个标本组成。花了六年的时间和数千万美元的成本。Weve created an exhibit that this part of the world has never seen.我们创建了一个从未见过的一部分世界。And its very rewarding for me to think about the millions of kids and the millions of people that during the next twenty years will visit this exhibit and will remember this exhibit for the rest of their lives.让我感到非常欣慰的是,在接下来的二十年里,会有数以百万计的孩子和成人将会参观这个展会,并且在他们的一生中留下深刻的印象。These animals look like something out of a comic book or a Hollywood studio, but they were real.这些恐龙看上去像漫画书里的或者是好莱坞工作室中的,但是它们是真实的。From a pile of dusty bones millions of years old, we can put a skeleton back together, flesh it out, tell what colour there creatures were and even say something about how they grew up.从一堆尘土飞扬有几千万年历史的骨头中,我们可以把骨骼拼凑到一起,充实肌肉,说出恐龙的颜色,甚至能说出他们是怎么生长的。I think this is a unique time to be a dinosaur paleontologist.我认为这是成为恐龙古生物学家的特别时刻。We are finding so much, discovering new dinosaurs and learning new things about them.我们找到这么多,发现新的恐龙,知道有关它的新知识。There are certainly still gaps in our knowledge, but I find it amazing just how much we do know about there extinct animals that no one has ever actually seen alive and that lived so many millions of years ago.我们掌握的知识还是有欠缺,但是我觉得我们发现了那么多有关我们从来都没有见过,已经灭绝了的恐龙的知识还是很了不起的。The creatures themselves are utterly all inspiring.恐龙本身是非常鼓舞人心的。But I think so is the incredible amount of work and vast numbers of people involved in reconstructing them so that we can come face to face with a dinosaur.但是我是这么认为的,很多重建工作的伙伴承受着难以置信的工作量,是大家的共同努力,今天才为观众们带来与恐龙面对面的展会。201302/227442

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