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Liverpool and China利物浦与中国Here comes the yuan人民币驾到A city’s bid to revive its fortunes through the local and the global利物浦努力通过本地特色和全球投资重振其经济Sep 3rd 2011 | LIVERPOOL | from the print edition AT THE new Museum of Liverpool (above), a sleek limestone affair of Danish design, the city’s Chinese community, which began with an influx of sailors at the start of the 19th century, gets an exhibit to itself. The emphasis seems a little odd, until you consider the city’s regeneration strategy, which rests on a characteristically 21st-century mix of the local and the global. The aim is to use Liverpool’s storied past to attract investment from around the world—and from China in particular.在一座丹麦风格的优美石灰石建筑——新建的利物浦物馆里(上图),城市的华人社区开了一个展览会。利物浦的华人社区兴起于19世纪初期大量中国水手涌入城市之时。如此强调这件事,似乎有些奇怪,除非你仔细考虑过城市的复兴策略。利物浦的复兴策略的基础是一个典型的21世纪本地特色与全球投资的混合体。这个策略的目的在于:利用利物浦赫赫有名的历史吸引来自世界各地的投资,尤其是中国。Liverpool has been through tough times. Once an imperial entrepocirc;t, the city built its wealth on the exchange of slaves, cotton and commodities. But the end of empire, the rise of air travel and the advent of shipping containers slashed maritime employment after the 1960s. Manufacturing failed to compensate for the losses, even if a cultural efflorescence led by the Beatles accompanied the economic woes.利物浦曾经历艰难困苦的时期。从前,作为帝国的贸易中心,利物浦通过交换奴隶、棉布和日用品创造财富。但是在19世纪60年代之后,大英帝国的衰落、航空交通的兴起和集装箱船的出现这种种因素使航海业的员工被大幅裁员。即使披头士在经济萧条下引起了一场文化繁荣,制造业仍无法弥补这种损失。Many problems persist. A city that held 856,000 people in 1931 now houses just over half that number. In the suburb of Anfield, home to Liverpool Football Club, an aborted regeneration scheme has bequeathed row after blighted row of boarded-up houses; gardens are overgrown with weeds and poppies sprout on street corners. The proportion of people on state benefits is twice the national average, as is the proportion of Liverpudlians who lack formal qualifications. Health is poor and life expectancy is low. Only two-thirds of residents work—41% of them in the public sector, which puts the city at especial risk in an era of government austerity.很多问题继续存在。一个在1931年人口为85万6千的城市,如今的居住人数却只有那时的一半多一点。利物浦足球俱乐部的所在地安菲尔德郊区曾实行过一个复兴策略,但最终流产,遗留下来的是一排又一排门窗被木板钉住的房屋,景象一派衰颓;住宅的花园里野草丛生,街头角落处罂粟疯长。安菲尔德郊区领取政府救济的人数比例两倍于全国平均水平,利物浦没有正式文凭的市民比例也是如此。健康状况相当不堪,平均寿命也不高。只有三分之二的居民有工作——其中41%在政府部门上班,在政府采取紧缩财政措施的年代里,这种情形会使城市的处境特别危险。201109/152524The.First.EmperorMajesty, it would be my honor to serve you as Prime Minister.Let’s not talk about these things tonight, but you should confirm Uncle Lv Buwei as your Prime Minister as soon as you can. We all think it’s for the best. Sleep now. Good nightI should serve you and guide you as a father. Nations like Qin have always been run as a feudal family business by man like Lv Buwei. But there is a revolution coming that will change all that. First, here in Qin, and ultimately the whole of China. The revolution will be led by a young scholar named Li Si. Just months after Ying Zheng becomes King, Li Si arrives at his court, looking for a job. But the man who hires and fires here is the Queen’s lover Lv Buwei, now Prime Minister. Impressed by Li Si’s obvious ambition, he is quick to take him onto his staff. It’s an impulsive decision he will come to regret. Prime Minister Lv Buwei allows Li Si an audience with the young king without taking care to be present himself. We are the strongest state within the seas. By taking advantage of our own strength and the weaknesses of our enemies, surely with the power Qin has at its disposal it will be possible to completely wipe out the feudal lords, uniting the whole world under one rule. This kind of opportunity, Sire, only comes once in ten thousand years. Yet destiny rarely ever creates a man great enough to take advantage, but I believe the great ruler is you, Majesty, and the time is now.07/77696Strikes taking place across France and London have closed down major transport routes and turned transport links into chaos.法国各地和伦敦发生罢工,主要交通道路被关闭,运输线路混乱。London's tube workers went on a 24-hour strike starting Monday evening that left commuters struggling to make it to work Tuesday morning. 伦敦地铁工人从星期一傍晚开始24个小时的罢工,给星期二早上上班的乘客造成不便。Buses were diverted from central London because streets were at a standstill. Many people were on foot. 由于道路陷于瘫痪,公交车改变路线,避开伦敦中心地区。许多人步行上班。This London worker didn't arrive at work until two in the afternoon.一位伦敦工人直到下午两点才开始工作。"Normally it takes me 45 minutes and today it took me five hours," she said. "I think it was totally unnecessary; it should have been avoided rather than costing all the people trouble because there's been a lot of traffic and disruptions all over." 她说:“通常我路上用45分钟,但今天花了5个小时。”她说她烦透了。她说:“我认为这完全没有必要,它应该是可以避免的,而不是给所有人造成麻烦,现在到处都是交通拥挤,混乱不堪。”Thousands of workers on London's transport system walked out because they say proposed job cuts will hurt the service and create safety risks. 伦敦交通系统的数千名工人举行罢工。他们说,拟议中的裁员会对务产生不良影响,带来安全风险。201009/113293Wealth, poverty and fragile states 富国、穷国和弱国MIFFed by misrule 劣政生怨A new category of countries mixes modest affluence with miserable governance 有点钱却又不善管制的新型国家Jul 21st 2011 | from the print edition MOST people think they know what a failed state looks like. An obvious one is Somalia, where an outbreak of famine in the south was formally acknowledged by the ed Nations this week. Help has started to trickle in after the Shabab, an Islamist militia, lifted its ban on aid agencies that it once termed anti-Muslim. In most ways the afflicted region epitomises the collapse of authority: extremists control roads and markets; the government is powerless outside the capital; outsiders provide what little assistance exists.大多数人自以为懂得何谓失败的政权。索马里就是一个典型的例子。这个星期联合国正式承认索马里南部闹饥荒。伊斯兰民兵组织Shabab解除被它称为“反伊斯兰教”的援助机构入境的禁令之后,援助终于缓缓而来。这个备受磨难的地区很大程度上体现了这个国家政权的崩塌:极端主义者控制了道路和市场;政府在首都外无能为力;外援少之又少。But not all failed or fragile states look like Somalia. This month the World Bank issued its annual list of countries by income category: rich, middle, poor. Several African countries are faring rather better than Somalia; they have graduated from poor to middle-income status. Yet strikingly, some 15 of the 56 countries on the bank’s lower-middle income list (ie, over a quarter) also appear on the list of fragile and failed states maintained by the OECD, a rich-country club. They range from Cocirc;te d’Ivoire to Yemen; the most important of them are Pakistan and Nigeria. State failure, it appears, does not necessarily go hand in hand with other human woes, such as poverty.但并非失败或脆弱的政权就该这样。这个月世界发布了一份清单:它将国家分为富裕、中等、贫穷几个级别。好几个非洲国家的状况比索马里好:它们脱离贫穷了。然而令人惊讶的是,在56个收入属于中等偏低的国家(超过四分之一的国家属于这一行列)里,大约有15个被经合组织(一个富国俱乐部)列为政权不稳。从科特迪瓦到也门都属于这一行列,其中最重要的是巴基斯坦和尼日利亚。似乎政权衰败并不总是与人类其它灾难——例如贫穷——共进退。Why should it matter that a group of countries has crossed some arbitrary line separating poor from middle-income status? Perhaps, some may say, it shows that state failure is an extremely elastic term, embracing both countries in total collapse (Somalia, Chad) and those which merely contain large ungoverned spaces. In fact, the emergence of a group of middle-income but failed or fragile states is more than a curiosity. The group—call them MIFFs—includes countries crucial to the future of west Africa and South Asia. The new state of South Sudan , which combines oil wealth with instability and underdevelopment, will surely join its ranks.为什么一些不贫穷的国家也表现出贫穷国家的一些特征呢?有人也许会说,这反映了政权衰败是一个很灵活的用语,既包括哪些完全分崩瓦解的国家(如索马里和乍得),也包括那些有大半领地处于无政府管辖的国家。确实,这些不贫穷但政权衰弱的国家的存在显得很怪。这些国家(暂且叫做MIFFs)中,有些对西非和南亚的未来发展很关键。石油为苏丹南部的新政权带来财富,但那里依旧属于欠发达地区,并且不稳定。毫无疑问,它将会加入这一行列。201108/147320Vann Nath凡纳Vann Nath, a Cambodian who painted to stay alive, died on September 5th, aged 65凡纳,用绘画保命的柬埔寨人,9月5日去世,享年65岁Sep 17th 2011 | from the print edition WHEN he was 52, with a hand that still trembled, Vann Nath produced a painting of a young man lying under a blossoming tree. He was playing a pipe while, in the background, cattle grazed by green palms in some bucolic corner of Cambodia. It was meant to be a self-portrait, he said, a beautiful memory from his childhood. He wanted only to paint idyllic landscapes now, in the style of temple murals or the French Impressionists who had first inspired him to take up art. 52岁的时候,用还在颤抖的手,凡纳(Vann Nath)画了一幅画:一位少年躺在开满花的树下吹着牧笛,牛儿在吃草,背后是柬埔寨某些村落里可见的绿棕榈。他说这原本是幅自画像,是童年的美好回忆。现在的他只想画田园风光,像寺院壁画或法国印象派那样,是他们把自己领上了艺术之路。That was because, in 1978-79, he had been made to paint quite different pictures. In those months he was interned in S-21 prison, a former French lycée in Phnom Penh which had been converted into a torture-compound for alleged enemies of the Khmer Rouge regime. Perhaps 14,000 people were sent to S-21 for a daily routine of electrocution, water-boarding and flagellation before being carted off for execution—a shovel or spade to the head—at the nearby “killing fields”. Mr Vann Nath was one of only six or seven prisoners to make it out alive.这是因为,1978-79年间他被迫作的画与此大相径庭,他被囚禁在S-21监狱数月,S-21前身是金边市内一所法国高中,后被红色高棉政权改造成为关押其宣称敌人的刑讯地。据计大概有14,000人被送进S-21监狱,接受日常惯例的电击,水刑和鞭刑,直到在附近的“杀人场”被断头处决——用铁锹或铁锨击打头部。凡纳是仅存的六七名生还者之一。He never expected to. Like almost all the others, he had no idea why he had been sent there. He was not an intellectual; his family was poor and provincial, and he just a painter in a small business making signs and billboards. In 1975, obedient to the Khmers Rouges, he had joined a peasant commune and worked hard there. When he first saw the wasted prisoners in S-21, he thought it was all over for him. But after withering away for a month, fed so sparely on rice gruel that he felt an urge to consume the flesh of the dead, he was asked to paint portraits of the regime’s leader, Pol Pot.他从未想到这些。和众多人一样,他不知道自己为什么被送到这里。他不是知识分子,远在乡下,家境贫寒,他只是一家小牌匾公司的画师。1975年,他从红色高棉下达的命令,加入一个农民公社,在那里卖力劳动。第一次看到S-21里羸弱不堪囚犯的时候,他想一切都结束了。一个月过去他逐渐消瘦萎靡,吃的不过是稀粥,他只想速死。但这时有人要他去画领袖像:红色高棉的领袖波尔布特(Pol Pot)。 At first he thought he could not do it. The shocks and beatings meant that he could barely stand. Besides, he had no idea what Pol Pot looked like, and only a black-and-white photograph to copy. All the time he painted, day and night, the screams of the tortured echoed from other rooms. He hoped, with every brush-stroke, that his jailers would like his work and let him live. He focused by thinking how much he would like to kill the man he drew.起初他觉得自己做不来。但他受不了电击和殴打。此外,除了一张黑白照片可供描摹,他不知道波尔布特是什么模样。他一直在画,夜以继日,其他的房间里回荡着受刑者的惨叫。每画一笔,他都希望看管他的狱卒会喜欢这幅画,让他活命。他多想杀掉画中人,他靠着这种想法来集中精力。201109/155232

Psychology心理学How dead is dead?怎样死才算死?Sometimes, those who have died seem more alive than those who have not有时,死人似乎比活人更"活"。Aug 20th 2011 | from the print edition IN GENERAL, people are pretty good at differentiating between the quick and the dead. Modern medicine, however, has created a third option, the persistent vegetative state. People in such a state have serious brain damage as a result of an accident or stroke. This often means they have no hope of regaining consciousness. Yet because parts of their brains that run activities such as breathing are intact, their vital functions can be sustained indefinitely.通常,人们都比较擅长分辨生者与死者。然而,现代医学技术创造了第三个选项——永久性植物人状态。处于这种状态的人,其大脑因意外或中风而严重受损。这经常意味着他们没有希望再恢复意识。但是,由于他们大脑里负责某些生理活动(如呼吸)的部分仍然完好,所以他们的生命机能可以被永远维持下去。When, if ever, to withdraw medical support from such people, and thus let them die, is always a traumatic decision. It depends in part, though, on how the fully alive view the mental capacities of the vegetative—an area that has not been investigated much.何时撤走维持他们生命的医疗手段,任其死去(如果真的要这样做的话)?这是个痛苦的决定。不过,这在某种程度上取决于真正活着的人如何看待植物人的心智活动能力,这个领域人类还未作过深入研究。To fill that gap Kurt Gray of the University of Maryland, and Annie Knickman and Dan Wegner of Harvard University, conducted an experiment designed to ascertain just how people perceive those in a persistent vegetative state. What they found astonished them.为了填补这个领域的空白,马里兰州大学的库尔特#8226;格雷和哈佛大学的丹#8226;魏格纳进行了一个实验,旨在确定人们如何认知植物人。实验结果令他们大吃一惊。201109/155230

Record high prices of gold have failed to dent its consumption in India – the world's largest market for the precious metal.黄金价格一再飙升并没有削弱印度民众购买力。印度是贵金属黄金在全球最大的市场。R.K. Garg, 50, and his wife are shopping for gold earrings at the Gold Souk Mall in Gurgaon, close to New Delhi. Prices are up by 25 percent since he bought gold jewelry for his daughter's wedding last year, but he says he has no choice except to buy another piece.55岁的加格和他的妻子一起在新德里附近的古尔冈黄金市集选购黄金耳饰。自他去年为女儿的婚礼购买金首饰以来,黄金价格已经上涨了25%。但加格说,他除了再选购一件金饰以外,没有别的选择。"For the first anniversary we have to give some gift to her," Garg said. 他说:“这是(女儿)结婚一周年,我们不得不送点什么礼物给她。”A centuries-old tradition of gifting gold at marriages and other occasions and buying it during festivals is keeping the gold market buoyant in India, although prices are hovering around 40 an ounce – an all-time high.印度数百年以来的一个传统是在婚礼和其他重要场合赠送金饰,并且在节庆日购买黄金珠宝。这个传统使得印度黄金市场持续走俏,尽管黄金价格已经飙升至每盎司1340美元左右,创下历史新高。The economic recession and a drought had led to a sharp fall in demand, last year. But those memories have faded as the Indian economy grows briskly once again and good rains this monsoon season boost farm incomes.去年的经济衰退和干旱导致印度国内需求急剧下降。但随着印度经济再次迅速增长,那些记忆已经渐渐淡去了。印度今年雨季的几场好雨也促进了农业收入增长。Wedding season, new designsAs the main festival and wedding season gets underway, jewelers are getting y with new designs and attractive offers to lure customers.随着主要节假日和婚礼季节的迫近,珠宝商正准备以新的设计和具有吸引力的促销优惠招徕顾客。Rajinder Bhola's jewelry shop at the Gold Souk is buzzing with customers. He says he sees fewer casual customers walk in to buy pieces of jewelry, probably due to the high prices. 波拉开在黄金市集上的珠宝店挤满了顾客。他说,可能由于价格高昂的缘故,他很少看到进店闲逛的顾客会购买珠宝。201010/116265

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