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楼主:龙马中文 时间:2019年10月24日 03:24:42 点击:0 回复:0
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Chinese food- or at least some portion of it - may be soon joining the likes of kimchi and Mediterranean food on Unesco#39;s list of intangible cultural heritage items.中国美食,或者至少是其中一部分,可能将很快加入韩国泡菜和地中海食物的行列,进入联合国教科文组织(Unesco)的非物质文化遗产名录。The Chinese Cuisine Association, which tried to get Chinese cuisine on the list in 2011 when it proposed more than 30 foods and food-preparation techniques, is making another go at getting Chinese food on the organization#39;s list. But this time, they#39;re making a more targeted recommendation.中国烹饪协会在2011年就曾试图让中国美食加入非物质文化遗产名录,并在当时申报了逾30种食物和烹饪技艺。如今,该协会再次作出尝试,然而这一次,他们的推进更加具有针对性了。#39;One thing is certain,#39; says Bian Jiang, the association#39;s vice director. #39;We#39;re not going to get Chinese cuisine in general listed.#39;该协会副会长边疆称,有一件事是确定的,那就是该协会将不再会把中国美食打包申请了。The association tried that tactic in 2011, he says. But the attempt didn#39;t even make it past Beijing#39;s Ministry of Culture, which has to approve all Unesco bids.他说,该协会在2011年曾尝试过这一策略,但是甚至都没有在中国文化部获得通过。“申遗”均需要先获得文化部的批准。So this year, the association is putting together a panel of experts to narrow down the list.所以今年,该协会召集了一个专家团队来缩短名单。#39;Chinese cuisine is so complicated and complex that it#39;s hard for the Unesco officials to understand it as a whole,#39; Mr. Bian says. #39;In the end, we will probably choose one specific food, like dumplings, or a kind of cuisine technique,#39; such as pickling, he says.边疆称,中国美食体系庞大、复杂,Unesco官员把它作为一个整体去理解是很难的。他说,最终他们可能将会挑选一种特色食品(例如饺子),或者一种烹饪技巧(例如腌制)。The intangible cultural heritage list is Unesco#39;s attempt to honor things like rituals and community-based activities, intended especially for cultures that may not have Machu Piccus or Parthenons. The intangibility, in turn, sometimes translates into something as tangible as food and its preparation. In 2013, both Koreas#39; kimjang - the making and sharing of kimchi - and the Mediterranean diet made the list. The Mediterranean diet, Unesco says, brings about moments #39;of social exchange and communication, an affirmation and renewal of family, group, or community identity,#39; which might be translated into drinking wine at three-hour lunches.Unesco设立非物质文化遗产名录,目的在于对仪式和民俗文化表示敬重,尤其是对可能没有马丘比丘(Machu Piccus)或帕特农神庙(Parthenons)的文化。而非物质这个词,有时候就可以解读为美食及其工艺这类的东西。在2013年,韩国的泡菜(既包括制作又包括分享)以及地中海餐饮都进入了该名录。Unesco称,地中海餐饮反映了社会交流和沟通,是对家庭、集体或者社区身份的一种确认和延续,这也许可以解读为在一顿吃了三个小时的午餐时喝酒。So which Chinese foods should make the Unesco list? Opinions are nearly as diverse as Chinese cuisine itself.那么,哪些中华美食应该被列入Unesco文化遗产名录呢?就像玲琅满目的中华美食一样,人们给出的也是五花八门。Judith Farquhar, author of #39;Appetites: Food and Sex in Post-Socialist China,#39; says she#39;d go for dumplings.《饕餮之欲:当代中国的食与色》(Appetites: Food and Sex in Post-Socialist China)一书的作者冯珠娣(Judith Farquhar)说,她认为饺子该上榜。#39;They have a certain symbolic form, they have an inside and outside, and include meat and grain, the two fundamental divisions of food for Chinese cuisine,#39; she says. #39;Dumplings have a social life - they#39;re made in groups and eaten in groups.#39;她说,饺子有特定的符号形式,有外表有内在,兼有肉和小麦这两种中华美食的基本元素。饺子拥有社交生活,它们成群做好,吃的时候也是成群下肚。Qu Hao, a Chinese chef who won the China Golden Chef Award given by The Chinese Cuisine Association, recommends braised sea cucumber with leeks because it #39;enjoys a long history,#39; he says. #39;Many famous Chinese chefs have contributed to the development of this dish, and it#39;s now widely known by Chinese people, even though it is a Shandong specialty. #39;曾被中国烹饪协会授予“中华金厨奖”荣誉称号的屈浩推荐大葱烧海参,理由是这道菜历史悠久。他说,许多中国名厨为这道菜的发展做出了贡献,虽然这是一道山东名菜,但在国内家喻户晓。Tim Sedo, a history professor at Concordia University in Montreal who makes a YouTube cooking series with his wife, has a different idea: Hangzhou food.康卡迪亚大学(Concordia University)历史学教授塞多(Tim Sedo)给出了不同的:杭州菜。塞多和他的妻子制作烹饪系列视频,并在YouTube上发布。To make a long story short, a famous Song dynasty hero named Yue Fei defended the country from northern invaders and became a folk hero and a symbol of loyalty. The story goes that he died in a Hangzhou prison - betrayed by his captors.一些杭州菜具有历史渊源,宋代名将岳飞英勇抵抗大金国的侵略,成为名族英雄以及忠诚的象征。但他遭人背叛,据说是在杭州的一个牢中被毒死的。Hangzhou, in turn, #39;has a lot of food that represents the people#39;s hatred for these people,#39; he says, such as the fried b, youtiao, which stands for #39;the frying of the two characters#39; who betrayed Yue Fei, says Mr. Sedo.塞多说,正因为如此,在杭州有很多食物代表了对陷害岳飞的那些人的憎恨。例如油条,代表对陷害岳飞的两个人物施以下油锅的酷刑。Mindi Schneider, a professor at the International Institute of Social Studies at the Hague in the Netherlands, goes one step further in her idea, recommending indigenous Chinese pig breeding - and the fatty pork that you get from it.在位于海牙的国际社会科学研究所(ISS)担任教授的谢敏仪(Mindi Schneider)提出了更进一步的想法,推荐中国本土生猪养殖技术以及所得到的高脂肪的猪肉。#39;China is the actual home of the pig, which was domesticated there between 6,000 and 10,000 years ago. And each place has a local adapted pig breed. It#39;s really diverse. You really need to preserve that indigenous livestock breed,#39; she says. Ms. Schneider published a four-page proposal for her idea.她说,中国是饲养家猪的鼻祖,早在6,000至10,000年前就实现了家猪饲养。每个地方都有当地培育的生猪品种,各有不同。这些本土牲畜品种很有必要被保留下来。谢敏仪发表了一份四页纸的报告来阐述其想法。No surprise that Shi Xiusong, chef and general manager of Da Dong Roast Duck restaurant, recommends his restaurant#39;s specialty dish as a combination of inheritance and innovation with a storied history. Meanwhile, Shu Qiao, editor of the Chinese Epicure magazine and an author of several books about food, recommends fermented tofu and Shaoxing wine.大董烤鸭店的厨师兼总经理石秀松推荐自己餐厅的特色菜肴,称其兼具传奇历史的继承和创新。与此同时,中国杂志《悦食Epicure》主编兼几本美食书籍的作者 俏推荐了臭豆腐和绍兴黄酒。Unesco, for its part, has nothing to say about this stage of the process. #39;We cannot speak about any specific possible nomination,#39; writes Frank Proschan, the Paris-based chief of the Programme Implementation of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Section at Unesco.Unesco未透露评选的进程。该机构非物质文化遗产名录规划实施部门主管Frank Proschan称,他们不能谈论任何特定的提名。After the Chinese Cuisine Association picks its top choice, it goes to the Ministry of Culture in March. In June or July, the Ministry will make its application to Unesco, but the results won#39;t appear until the following November, Mr. Bian says.边疆说,中国烹饪协会确定其首选提名后,将在明年3月申报至文化部。明年6月或7月,中国文化部将向Unesco申报,要到11月份才会有结果。China has had luck with other intangibles on the Unesco list: using the abacus for mathematical calculations (2013), shadow puppetry (2011), acupuncture and moxibustion (2010) and block printing (2009). Maybe someday dumplings or fatty pork will join the canon.在Unesco非物质文化遗产名录上,中国已取得的收获包括:使用算盘进行数学教学(2013年),皮影戏(2011年),针灸艾灸疗法(2010年)以及雕版印刷(2009年)。或许有一天饺子或高脂肪的猪肉也将上榜。 /201409/325355Add sleeping air traffic controllers to China#39;s endless list of air travel woes.中国航空旅行问题本来就不少,现在又发生了空管人员睡着的事情。News recently surfaced that two air traffic controllers nodded off last month while a China Eastern Airlines flight was trying to land in the central Chinese city of Wuhan around midnight. The pilot tried to make contact with the airport#39;s air traffic control tower, but was unable to do so for a period of 12 minutes.最近有消息称,上个月中国东方航空(China Eastern Airlines)的一架飞机午夜试图在武汉降落时,两名空管人员却睡着了。飞行员试图联系机场航空管制塔台,但12分钟内无人回应。The reason? According to a spokeswoman at China#39;s aviation regulator, two air traffic controllers on duty had fallen asleep.原因何在?据中国航空监管部门一名发言人称,两名值班的空中交通管制员睡着了。While the plane eventually landed safety, news of the incident sparked furious reaction among observers.虽然飞机最终安全降落,但这则消息引发了观察人士的激烈反应。#39;This is such irresponsible behavior,#39; Ren Zhiqiang, a well-known property developer, wrote on his microblog.知名地产商任志强在他的微上写道:“这太不负责任了。”#39;It put hundreds of peoples#39; lives at risk,#39; wrote Wang Wei, a financier, on his verified microblog.金融家王巍在新浪微认账账户发帖说:“涉及几百人生命啊”。#39;It is so irresponsible. Heavy pressure and fatigue alone can#39;t account for such behavior,#39; wrote another microblogger. Others called for the napping staff to be fired.另一位用户写道,太不负责任了。沉重的压力和疲劳感不足以解释这种行为。其他人则呼吁解雇打盹的员工。Still, others leapt to the defense of the fatigued workers. #39;No one cares about the life of air traffic controllers. Recent years saw a 20% increase of flights in the air, but it takes two to three years to train a professional air traffic controller. Such changes have resulted in a dire shortage of controllers. They are working overtime but their pay is declining. It is wrong to sleep while on duty. But the media never care about our lives,#39; another microblogger user identifying himself as an air traffic controller wrote on his verified account.不过,也有一些人跳出来为疲惫的工作人员辩护。另一位微认为“航空管制员”的用户在其账户上写道:“只愿你们报道的时候全面一些。近年来飞行流量每年增20%,管制负荷就是指数级增长,培养一个管制员现在已经需要两年半到三年。管制员人数严重不足?那怎么办?加班!这些人辛辛苦苦的加班、超出负荷的运转,工资还在下降,睡岗是不对,可是大媒体谁关注过空管的辛苦。”China#39;s hardly the only country that#39;s seen some air traffic controllers fall prey to slumber, with numerous cities across the U.S. ranging from Boston to Washington, D.C. reporting similar problems.中国不是世界上唯一一个存在航空管制员在工作中打盹现象的国家。从波士顿到华盛顿,美国全国多个城市都曾报道过类似问题。The spokeswoman for China#39;s aviation regulator said an investigation into the matter had been launched and that the two air traffic controllers had been transferred from their duties for the moment, without providing more details.中国航空监管部门发言人称,已经针对这一事件展开调查,这两名管制员已暂时被调离岗位。该发言人没有提供更多细节。While the flight#39;s landing was delayed, she said an approach controller -- whose job is to direct pilots before they make contact with an airport#39;s air traffic control -- was still closely monitoring the flight. #39;We won#39;t be careless with air safety. It#39;s always our top priority,#39; she said.这名发言人称,虽然航班降落的时间被延迟,但机场调度员仍在密切监控着这架飞机。机场调度员的责任是在飞行员和航空交通管制取得联系前对飞行员进行引导。发言人称,监管部门不会在空中安全问题上疏忽大意,安全永远是头等大事。 /201408/322976In the last several months, at least three brokerage firms have made announcements touting their international reach — so, it must be a trend.过去几个月里,至少已经有三家房地产经纪公司高调宣布了它们的国际化经营路线——因此,这肯定是个潮流。First, the German brokerage Engel amp; V#246;lkers announced it was opening an office in New York City; then the New York stalwart Douglas Elliman Real Estate codified a longstanding relationship with the brokerage firm Knight Frank of London, creating Douglas Elliman Fine Homes/Knight Frank Residential. And finally, a few weeks ago, Town Residential said it was opening an outpost in London and expanding relationships in places as far-flung as Brazil, Nigeria and Hong Kong.一开始,德国经纪公司Engel amp; V#246;lkers宣布,它将在纽约市开设办事处;接着,纽约大鳄道格拉斯·艾丽曼房地产公司(Douglas Elliman Real Estate)和伦敦的经纪公司莱坊国际(Knight Frank)就其长期合作关系达成协议,创立了道格拉斯·艾丽曼美居/莱坊住宅(Douglas Elliman Fine Homes/Knight Frank Residential)。最后,几星期前,Town Residential也宣布将在伦敦设立办事处,同时在巴、尼日利亚、香港等遥远地区拓展合作关系。Why so much emphasis in New York on the global market? Real estate is, after all, very local. And New Yorkers have always prided themselves on uniqueness, with quirky co-op buildings, lengthy board applications and deep neighborhood identities.为什么纽约在全球市场当中如此受重视呢?毕竟,房地产业的地域性是很强的;况且纽约人素来以自己的独特而自豪,他们的共管公寓楼外形古怪,管委会审批申请的流程冗长,社区身份的观念也根深蒂固。But over the last decade, and especially in the years since the recession, New York City real estate has undergone a significant shift. Hundreds of high-end condominiums have been built, and many of the builders no longer have, as the local cable channel NY1 News might put it, “real New Yorkers” in mind. Instead, it is the overseas buyer they are considering when they tout their tower’s expansive views of Central Park or hotel-style concierge services.不过近几十年来,尤其是在经济衰退后的这些年里,纽约市的房地产业经历了重大变迁。成百上千的高端共管公寓拔地而起,很多建筑商已不再考虑当地买家,也就是当地有线电视频道NY1新闻所说的那些“真正的纽约人”了;相反,当他们标榜其楼盘的住户能够坐拥中央公园的广阔景观,和酒店式的门房务时,他们考虑的是海外买家。And it seems to have worked. With our ever-expanding number of foreigner-friendly buildings, New York is taking its place as a hot spot for global wealth. “All my friends aly bought old townhouses in London,” said Emir Bahadir, a founder of RLTY NYC in Manhattan and a fifth-generation member of a Turkish real estate family. “They want to come to New York, where you can get developments with pools inside the apartments and beautiful design — things London can’t offer,” said Mr. Bahadir, who ought to know, having grown up in London and at a Swiss boarding school.而这招似乎已经奏效了。随着“亲外”楼盘的数量达到前所未有的水平,纽约正日益成为吸引全球财富的一大热点。“我所有朋友都在伦敦买过年代久远的联排别墅,”埃米尔·巴哈迪(Emir Bahadir)说,他是曼哈顿房企RLTY NYC的创始人,也是土耳其一个地产世家的第五代成员,“他们想来纽约,因为在纽约的开发项目,你可以买到设计美观且带游泳池的公寓——这些东西都是伦敦给不了的。”巴哈迪说。他从小在伦敦长大,在瑞士读过寄宿学校,因此了解情况。“For the first time, you have a full class of luxury condominiums in New York, and that product type caters to the non-New York buyer,” said Stuart N. Siegel, the president of Engel amp; V#246;lkers New York Real Estate. “In the past, you might have had the Olympic Tower, or Trump Tower, but those were first-generation buildings and they were seen as a class below the classic townhouse or co-op in New York. That is no longer the case.”“纽约的奢华共管公寓首度形成了气候,而这种产品类型面向的是外地的买家,”Engel amp; V#246;lkers地产公司纽约办事处的总裁斯图尔特·N·西格尔(Stuart N. Siegel)说,“过去,你可能会有奥林匹克大厦(Olympic Tower)或者川普大楼(Trump Tower),但那些是第一代楼盘,在人们眼里它们不如经典的联排别墅或合作公寓。而现在,情况不一样了。”James C. Cox Jr., a broker at Urban Compass who lived for three years in Kazakhstan, has many buyer clients from that country, once part of the Soviet bloc. “We had an early look at the Woolworth building, because I have clients interested in buying there,” he said. “There is a lot of dark, heavy wood and big panels of marble. It might not be appealing to local buyers since it is not as fresh and modern-looking, but for sure it is the style of my clients from the former Soviet Union.”Urban Compass的经纪人小詹姆斯·C·考克斯(James C. Cox Jr.)曾在哈萨克斯坦生活了三年,有很多买家客户来自这个原为苏联集团成员国之一的国度。“我们很早就关注了伍尔沃斯大厦(Woolworth),因为我有几个客户有兴趣在那里买房,”他说,“那个楼盘采用了很多深色、厚重的木材,和大块的大理石板。当地买家可能会不喜欢,因为它看起来并不新鲜,也没有现代感;但是可以肯定,我的前苏联客户很钟意这种风格。”Kenneth S. Horn, the president of Alchemy Properties, the developer that is reinventing the Woolworth tower into condominiums, said the interiors were not created to cater to any specific clientele. “We have designed the Woolworth Tower Residences to appeal to a classical sense of design,” he said. “We wanted to create units that had great architectural significance and were true to the heritage of the building.”炼金地产(Alchemy Properties)是负责将伍尔沃斯大厦改建成共管公寓楼的开发商。其总裁肯尼思·S·霍恩(Horn)说,其室内设计风格并没有刻意讨好某个特定的客户群体。“我们将伍尔沃斯大厦住宅(Woolworth Tower Residences)设计得比较吸引那些喜欢经典设计的人群,”他说,“我们想建造既有建筑重要性,又忠于原物风格的单元。”It is no secret, though, that New York developers are increasingly building with a foreign clientele in mind. And these buyers have a multitude of choices. There are the tall Midtown spires offering enormous cityscape views like One57 and 432 Park Avenue, or buildings with known brands and hotel services like the 30 Park Place Four Seasons Residences in Lower Manhattan, or highly stylized projects like the Zaha Hadid-designed condominium adjacent to the High Line park.不过,纽约开发商的项目正日益迎合外国客户的需求,已经不是什么秘密了。这些买家的选择范围很广,既有能够观赏辽阔城市景观的高耸中城区尖塔,比如One57、公园大道(Park Avenue)432号;也有附带酒店务的知名品牌,比如曼哈顿下城的公园广场(Park Place)30号四季公寓(Four Seasons Residences);还有风格独特的项目,比如由扎哈·哈迪德(Zaha Hadid)设计、毗邻高线公园(High Line park)的那些共管公寓。“A Brazilian who has a health insurance business recently bought a million apartment at One57, and we have sold a few units at the Trump SoHo just over the phone,” said Cristiano Piquet, the founder of Piquet Realty, who represents many Brazilian buyers. “Demand from Brazil is increasing, and we are going to see a big wave of buyers coming right after the elections in a few weeks,” he said. “They are uncertain of the future there, and want to park their money in a more stable economy like the U.S.”“有个开健康保险公司的巴西人,最近在One57买了一套价值6000万美元(约合人民币3.7亿元)的公寓。而且我们通过电话就卖出了苏豪川普大厦(Trump SoHo)的一些单元,”皮奎特地产(Piquet Realty)的创始人克里斯蒂亚诺·皮奎特(Cristiano Piquet)说,他有很多巴西客户,“巴西市场的需求越来越旺盛,几星期后,选举一结束,我们紧接着就会迎来一买家,”他说,“他们对那边的未来感到不确定,所以想把钱投到美国这类更加稳定的经济体中来。”Global instability is a key driver of demand here, and while there has been an increase in supply to satisfy demand, “we are still at an absorption rate of almost half of what is considered normal in New York City,” said Wendy Maitland, the president of sales at Town Residential. “Yes, we have more inventory, and yes, there will be certain segments of the product that won’t move as quickly as sellers hope, but we are still at historic lows in terms of existing inventory and inventory coming on line.”当地的房产需求,主要是由全球不稳定因素拉动的。房源的供给量已有所增涨,以满足需求,而“吸纳率依然只接近纽约市正常水平的一半。”Town Residential的销售负责人温蒂·梅特兰(Wendy Maitland)说,“诚然,我们的存量房更多了,而且,某些类别的产品不会像卖家所希望的那样很快转手;但是我们现有的存量房和即将上市的存量房,依然处在历史较低水平。”Armed with this view, Town is making an effort to push its presence overseas. “We have consciously and deliberately set about forging direct and vetted relationships with brokers in the luxury market in cities all over the globe,” Ms. Maitland said.出于这样的考虑,Town Residential正致力于海外扩张。“我们已经开始有意识地与全球各地奢华住宅市场的经纪人建立直接而长远的联系。”梅特兰说。While brokerages are expanding their footprint overseas to lure foreign buyers to Manhattan and vice versa, there are, of course, some stumbling blocks. One is New York taxes. “Taxes are a major problem,” Mr. Cox of Urban Compass said. “We help buyers structure limited liability companies to avoid, or minimize, some taxes, but it is often a challenge to explain all the different taxes they are charged.”虽然经纪公司正在纷纷进军海外,吸引外国买家前往曼哈顿(反之亦然),但是他们也不可避免地会遇到一些绊脚石。其中之一,便是纽约的房产税费。“税费是一大问题,”Urban Compass的考克斯说,“我们帮助买家组建有限责任公司来避税、或者尽量减少某些税费。但是,要想把他们负担的所有税费一一解释清楚,往往是个很大的挑战。”These charges include transfer taxes, the mortgage recording tax and the mansion tax. “When I have buyers from outside New York — not just overseas buyers but Americans who live in other states — they are overwhelmed by the taxes they see crossing the table at a closing,” said Jeffrey S. Reich, a partner at the law firm Wolf Haldenstein Adler Freeman amp; Herz.这些税费包括转让税、房贷登记税(mortgage recording tax)和豪宅税。“每次接待外地买家——还不仅仅是海外买家,也包括居住在其他州的美国人——他们在成交的时候都会被即将面临的税费吓到。”律师事务所Wolf Haldenstein Adler Freeman amp; Herz的合伙人杰弗里·S·莱希(Jeffrey S. Reich)说。Buyers who are borrowing more than 0,000 must pay a mortgage recording tax of 2.175 percent of the total; for properties of more than million, there is an additional 1 percent mansion tax. Then there are the transfer taxes, which can total close to 2 percent of the purchase price, and are supposedly the responsibility of the seller, but in a market like the current one, are often paid by the buyer. “It ends up that you can pay over 5 percent in taxes just for the benefit of being able to invest your money in New York City,” Mr. Reich said.贷款超过50万美元(约合人民币306万元)的买家,必须付总额的2.175%,作为房贷登记税;如购买价值超过100万美元(约合人民币612万元)的房产,还需额外缴纳1%的豪宅税。此外还有转让税,其总额可达售价的2%,本该由卖家付,但在一个当前这样的市场里,转让税往往是由买家付的。“这样算下来,你可能需要付超过5%的税费,就是为了能够享受在纽约投资的好处。”莱希说。In recent weeks, an idea has been floated of also charging a so-called pied-à-terre tax for part-time residents who buy expensive properties. Under one proposal, the owner of a unit valued at between million and million would pay 0.5 percent of the amount over the million threshold. This would gradually increase, capping off at properties of more than million, where the owner would pay a 0,000 fee plus 4 percent of the amount over million.最近几周,出现了一个新观点,就是要额外征收所谓的“临时住所税”(pied-à-terre tax),其征收对象是购买昂贵房产作为临时住所的住户。在一项提议下,如果房主的单元价值在500到600万美元(约合人民币3058到3670万),那么房主需要对超过500万美元的部分付0.5%的临时住所税。而且,税负是呈梯级上升的,最高梯级是超过2500万美元(约合人民币1.5亿元)的房产,其房主需要付37万美元(约合人民币226万元)的费用。同时,对于售价超过2500万美元的部分,还需交纳4%的税。This could have a chilling effect on the market. “My clients compare New York with Florida,” Mr. Piquet said of his Brazilian clientele, “and if Florida has much lower taxes, that could be a deciding factor for them to buy there instead.”这对于市场有着寒蝉效应(Chilling effect)。“我的客户会把纽约和佛罗里达做比较,”皮奎特提到他的巴西客户时说,“如果佛罗里达的税费要低很多,那么这会成为一个决定性的因素,促使他们转而在佛罗里达买房。”New York, of course, is not the only city popular with global buyers that charges high taxes. In London, for instance, a buyer of a new million property would pay nearly 8 percent of the value in taxes and fees, while in Hong Kong, that number can rise to as much as 25 percent, according to Liam Bailey, the global head of research at Knight Frank. London, like New York, is also bracing for the possibility of an additional tax next year, with a proposal to charge a mansion tax on properties valued at more than 2 million pounds, Mr. Bailey said.当然,纽约不是唯一一个受到全球买家热捧的高税费城市。比如说在伦敦,如果购置价值300万美元(约合人民币1835万元)的新房,买家需付将近8%的税费;而在香港,这一比例可能高达25%。这些数据来源于莱坊国际全球住宅研究部的主管利亚姆·巴莱(Liam Bailey)。伦敦和纽约一样,也在考虑明年额外设立一个税种的可能性。有提议说,要对价值超过200万英镑(约合人民币1969万元)的房产征收豪宅税,巴莱如是说。In London, and increasingly in New York, there is a feeling that wealthy foreign buyers are driving up the price of real estate for locals. There is also a fear that so many part-time residents will create ghostly avenues of tall towers that stand mostly dark and vacant in the night sky.在伦敦(在纽约也日益如此),人们感觉,富裕的外国买家正在抬高当地的房价,让本地人不胜其扰。还有人担忧,如此众多的临时住户,会催生出一条又一条“鬼街”,街边的高楼大厦在夜空下大多黑压压的一片,里面空无一人。The jury is still out, and the luxury market fueled by foreign wealth could wane. Still, half the buyers of properties priced above 2 million pounds in Central London are foreign nationals, Mr. Bailey said; they show no sign of leaving anytime soon. If the trend continues apace, New York might soon be able to make a similar claim.前景仍不明朗,而被外国富豪炒起来的奢华住宅市场也可能会衰落。不过,在伦敦市中心购买超过200万英镑房产的买家当中,依然有半数是外国人,巴莱如是说;这些人还没有任何在短期内离开的迹象。如果这个趋势继续快速发展下去,纽约或许很快也能与伦敦并驾齐驱了。 /201410/339276

Life#39;s pretty good these days for French economist Thomas Piketty, who spent Wednesday evening having his book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, lavishly praised by two of the world#39;s most famous economists -- Paul Krugman and Joseph Stiglitz -- who just happen to own three Nobel Prizes between them.法国经济学家托马斯·皮凯蒂这些天来过得相当舒。上周三晚上,经济学家保罗·克鲁格曼和约瑟夫·斯蒂格利茨都高度评价了皮凯蒂撰写的《21世纪的资本》(Capital in the Twenty-First Century)——两人都属于全球经济学界最知名的群体,一共获得过三次诺贝尔经济学奖。Piketty would probably prefer that the book that is garnering him such attention were the bearer of better news. But economists don#39;t tend to gain renown by assuring the public that everything is A-Okay. That is certainly not the message of Capital, a 600-plus page work that convincingly warns ers that rising global wealth and income inequality over the past generation is actually the norm for capitalist economies, and that we should expect that trend to continue in the years to come.也许,皮凯蒂更愿意看到这本让他这么受关注的书给人们带来好一点儿的消息。但经济学家成名的原因往往不是告诉公众一切安好。这本600多页的书当然也不会传递出这样的信息——它以令人信的方式告诫读者,过去几十年中,全球财富和收入差距扩大的局面实际上就是资本主义经济的常态,而且今后这种趋势还会继续下去。The title of the book is an allusion to Karl Marx#39;s famous critique of capitalism, and Piketty#39;s analysis shows that Marx was right to believe that wealth concentration would inexorably increase in capitalist societies. Piketty draws upon work he and colleagues like Anthony Atkinson of Oxford and Emmanuel Saez of Berkeley have done in recent years to show that income and wealth inequality are increasing in the rich world, and to argue that the more egalitarian economic distribution seen after World War II was an anomaly that we can#39;t expect to return to unless we implement government policies to bring it about.这本书的题目效仿了卡尔o马克思著名的资本主义批判理论。马克思认为,资本主义社会的财富集中无可避免,皮凯蒂的分析明了这条思路的正确性。皮凯蒂采用了最近几年自己和同行们的研究成果,这些同行包括牛津(Oxford)大学教授安东尼o阿特金森和加州大学伯克利(Berkeley)分校教授艾曼努尔o赛斯。皮凯蒂用这些研究成果表明,富裕国家的收入和贫富差距正在拉大。他还指出,二战后经济领域的分配情况较为平均是一种反常现象,除非政府出台相关政策,否则这种局面就不会再次出现。A debate on Wednesday evening at CUNY#39;s The Graduate Center featuring Piketty, Krugman, Stiglitz, and University of Wisconsin economist Steven Durlauf helped distill some of the ideas presented in Capital, and to critique its weaker points.上周三晚上,纽约市立大学(CUNY)毕业生中心举行了一场辩论会,出席者包括皮凯蒂、克鲁格曼、斯蒂格利茨以及威斯康星大学(University of Wisconsin)经济学家史蒂文o杜尔拉夫。他们对《21世纪的资本》(Capital)中的部分观点进行了提炼,同时指出了它的不足之处。Piketty#39;s colleagues were quick to praise the book. Krugman lauded it as a ;unified field theory; of economics which joins together the study of economic growth, the distribution of income between capital and labor, and income inequality. Stiglitz was equally taken by the work, arguing that Americans would not be bothered by increased inequality if it were based on merit within a society that enables class mobility. But the U.S. is near the bottom when it comes to social mobility.皮凯蒂的同事们都积极评价这本书。克鲁格曼把它誉为经济学领域的“统一场理论”,并称其中的研究融合了经济增长、资本和劳动力之间的收入分配以及收入差距。斯蒂格利茨对这本书也持同样的观点。他说,美国实现了人们在各个阶层之间的流动,如果这本书以美国社会的这个优点为基础,就无法让美国人注意到贫富差距正在扩大。但美国的社会流动性接近全球最低水平。Durlauf played the role of the critic in the debate, poking holes in some of the more technical aspects of Piketty#39;s argument, like his dismissal of the ;marginal product theory; of wages (which basically asserts that a worker is paid based on his marginal contribution to a commercial enterprise) without suggesting some theory to replace it. He also suggested that Piketty should spend more time thinking about whether technology could be the reason, rather than capitalism itself, for growing disparities in wealth and income.杜尔拉夫充当了辩论会上的批评者,他从更为技术性的层面指出了皮凯蒂论述中的漏洞,比如皮凯蒂不同意工资的“边际产品理论”(这项理论的基本内容是,工人得到的报酬取决于他们对商业企业的边际贡献),但他没有提出其他理论来予以替代。杜尔拉夫还说,皮凯蒂应该花更多的时间来探讨造成贫富和收入差距拉大的原因是否应该是技术,而不是资本主义本身。This critique, like those that have been offered by conservative economists Greg Mankiw and Kevin Hassett, doesn#39;t do anything to challenge the evidence that pre-tax income and wealth inequality is growing very quickly in the rich world. Mankiw, for instance, has argued that things like government subsidies, social security, and welfare have increased people#39;s after-tax income, so Piketty#39;s evidence of rising inequality shouldn#39;t be taken seriously. But such programs just show that the government is aly responding to increased inequality by redistributing wealth.和保守派经济学家格雷格·曼昆以及凯文·哈西特提出的观点一样,杜尔拉夫的意见丝毫不能改变这样一个事实,那就是,富裕国家的税前收入和贫富差距正在迅速扩大。举例来说,曼昆认为政府补贴、社会保障和福利等因素提高了人们的税后收入,因此,皮凯蒂列举的贫富差距拉大据不应该受到重视。但这些因素恰恰表明,政府已经开始通过重新分配财富来解决贫富差距扩大的问题。The most interesting argument against Piketty#39;s idea that a global wealth tax is needed to combat inequality comes from Kevin Hassett of the American Enterprise Institute. He points out that the rise in inequality in the wealthy world over the past generation has been matched by similarly striking reductions in global inequality, and if we are studying this issue on a global scale, this reduction in inequality makes the need for a global wealth tax seem unnecessary. Hassett also believes it#39;s important for those of us in the developed world to not take a self-centered view of global capitalism, and that we should be hesitant to mess with a system that has brought so many people out of poverty over the past 30 years.皮凯蒂认为,需要通过在全球范围内征收财富税来缩小贫富差距。对此,来自美国企业研究所(American Enterprise Institute)的凯文o哈西特提出了最有意思的反驳意见。哈西特指出,过去二、三十年来,全球贫富差距缩小的幅度和富裕国家贫富差距拉大的幅度相仿,如果在全球范围内研究这个问题,那么在贫富差距缩小的情况下似乎没有必要征收财富税。哈西特还认为,要点在于,发达国家的人们不要以自身为中心来观察整个资本主义世界,他们不应该忽视这样一个事实,那就是30年来资本主义体制让如此之多的人摆脱了贫困。But none of Piketty#39;s critics have been able to disprove the rise in pre-tax wealth and income inequality on a national level. Capital, in other words, has shifted the debate from the question of whether inequality is a problem to what exactly we should do about it.但对皮凯蒂的所有批评都没能明各个国家的税前收入和贫富差距没有扩大。换句话说,这本书已经让争论的焦点从贫富差距是否带来了问题发生了转变,变成了我们究竟应该怎么应对贫富差距。 /201405/301278

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