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  • After three years of seizing market share from Chinese rivals, foreign auto makers are starting to take it from each other. 继三年来不断从中国竞争对手那里抢占市场份额之后,海外汽车制造商开始了彼此之间的激烈竞争。Ford Motor Co., Volkswagen and Hyundai Motor Corp. are all poised to end the year with significant market share gains in the world#39;s No. 1 auto market, as they were quick to meet demand for sport-utility vehicles and China-tailored new models. 福特汽车公司(Ford Motor Co.)、大众汽车(Volkswagen )和现代汽车公司(Hyundai Motor Co.)都准备在今年结束时使自己在中国这个全球最大汽车市场的占有率得到显著提升。这些公司迅速迎合了市场对运动型多用途车(SUV)和为中国消费者量身定制的新车型的需求。At least some of those gains are at the expense of other foreign players. General Motors Co., Toyota Motor Corp. and Nissan Motor Co. have all seen their China market share shrink so far this year. 然而,这其中至少有部分市场份额的增加是以其他海外汽车制造商的损失为代价的。今年截至目前,通用汽车公司(General Motors Co.)、丰田汽车公司(Toyota Motor Co.)和日产汽车(Nissan Motor Co.)在中国市场的占有率均有所下滑。Foreign players are chasing drivers like Qian Jin. After months wavering between Ford#39;s Kuga, Volkswagen#39;s Tiguan and Nissan#39;s X-Trail compact SUVs, the Beijing-based freelance photographer decided on a deluxe-edition Kuga to replace his eight-year-old Volkswagen Golf sedan. 目前,海外汽车制造商都在争夺像钱进(音译)这样的中国消费者。继数月来一直在福特翼虎(Kuga)、大众途观(Tiguan)和日产奇骏(X-Trail)这些紧凑型SUV中犹豫不决之后,这位居住在北京的自由摄影师终于决定购买一辆豪华型的翼虎,来替换他已经开了八年的大众高尔夫(Golf)轿车。Mr. Qian cited the Kuga#39;s interior features, such as motion sensers that let him open the back hatch by stretching his legs. 钱进称,作出这一决定的原因是被翼虎的内饰所吸引,比如,运动传感器使他伸伸腿就能打开后备箱。#39;You don#39;t need to push a button,#39; he said. #39;It#39;s a very considerate design.#39; 他说,你无需按下按钮,这是非常周到的设计。Data released Tuesday showed China#39;s overall passenger vehicle sales rose 15% in the period from January to November, with the total market share of foreign auto makers rising to 60% from 58.7% in the year-earlier period. Most major foreign auto makers - even those with flat or declining market share - posted total sales gains as Chinese drivers continue to favor foreign brands. 周二发布的数据显示,今年1-11月份,中国乘用车销售总量增加了15%,海外汽车制造商的市场占有率从上年同期的58.7%升至60%。由于中国消费者仍青睐海外品牌,多数主要海外汽车制造商(即便是那些市场占有率持平或下降的制造商)在中国市场的汽车销量都实现了增长。But the companies say competitive pressure is increasing. #39;It#39;s critically important for car makers to launch the right products at the right time,#39; said John Zeng, an analyst at LMC Automotive. 但这些公司表示,竞争压力正在加大。LMC Automotive分析师John Zeng认为,对于汽车制造商来说,在正确的时间推出正确的产品至关重要。In an October interview, GM China President Bob Socia called this year #39;a little bit of an off year#39; in China for the Detroit auto maker as a result of fewer new launches. GM plans to introduce another nine new or refreshed SUVs in China within the next five years, and introduce a new Cadillac model every year through 2016. 通用汽车中国公司总裁苏瑞(Bob Socia)在今年10月份接受采访时称,对通用汽车来说,由于推出的新车型减少,今年在中国市场的境况较差。通用汽车计划未来五年内在中国推出九款新型或升级款SUV,并从目前到2016年的每年都推出一款新的卡迪拉克(Cadillac)车型。#39;It#39;s totally about having the right product,#39; Mr. Socia said. Last month, GM said Mr. Socia would retire in January and that his successor, GM China executive Matthew Tsien, would report directly to GM Chief Executive Dan Akerson. 苏瑞称,这完全取决于推出正确的产品。通用汽车曾在上个月表示,苏瑞将在明年1月退休,而他的继任者钱惠康(Matthew Tsien)将由通用汽车首席执行长艾克森(Dan Akerson)直接领导。According to J.D. Power amp; Associates, there are 524 car models offered by 96 brands in China, compared with 294 models sold by 45 brands in the U.S. In 2014, car makers are going to launch at least 238 new and upgraded models in China, according to market research firm Ways Consulting Co. J.D. Power amp; Associates的信息显示,目前在中国市场上的96个汽车品牌提供了524款车型,而美国市场上的45个汽车品牌提供了294款车型。市场调研公司Ways Consulting Co.称,2014年中国汽车市场将至少推出238款新车和升级版汽车。Most foreign auto makers are so far maintaining and even increasing profitability in China, say analysts, in part by pressuring parts makers and dealers. The companies themselves don#39;t disclose bottom-line data from China. 分析师们认为,到目前为止,多数海外汽车制造商都维持、甚至增加了在中国的盈利,一定程度上是通过向零部件制造商和汽车经销商施加压力。这些汽车制造商都未披露在中国市场的利润数据。At the same time, they are increasing spending on marketing to reach Chinese consumers. Nielsen-CCData, a joint venture between Nielsen and a Chinese data firm, said the five biggest foreign-Chinese auto joint ventures - which include arms of VW, GM, Nissan and BMW -- spent a total of 9.5 billion yuan (.6 billion) on advertising in the first 10 months of this year, up 8% from a year earlier. This year, GM and Ford sponsored popular TV singing competitions, with the former sponsoring #39;The Voice of China#39; while the latter advertised on #39;Chinese Idol.#39; 与此同时,为了吸引中国消费者,海外汽车制造商正在加大市场营销方面的投入。尼尔森公司(Nielsen)与一家中资数据公司成立的合资公司尼尔森网联(Nielsen-CCData)称,今年前10个月,包括大众汽车、通用汽车、日产汽车和宝马汽车(BMW )子公司在内的五家最大的中外合资汽车公司总共投入了人民币95亿元(约合16亿美元)的广告费,同比增加8%。今年,通用汽车和福特汽车都赞助了电视台的歌唱比赛。通用汽车赞助了“中国好声音”,而福特汽车成为了“中国梦之声”的赞助商。Ford has seen sales surge by more than 50% to about 840,000 vehicles as of the first 11 months of this year compared with the year-earlier period on the back of an effort to double production capacity there by 2015. The U.S. car maker has said it would bring 15 new models in China between 2011 and 2015 including the luxury brand Lincoln and classic Mustang. 今年1至11月,福特汽车销量较上年同期飙升50%多,达到约84万辆,这主要是受该公司有关到2015年将产量提高一倍的努力所撑。这家美国汽车制造商已经表示,2011年至2015年间将在中国推出15款新车型,包括奢侈品牌林肯(Lincoln)和经典的野马(Mustang)汽车。#39;The Chinese like a little bit more room in the backseat, they like a little bit more chrome on the front,#39; said David Schoch, president of Ford#39;s Asia-Pacific region, last week in an interview. #39;So we are taking into consideration the Chinese wants.#39; 福特汽车亚太地区总裁萧达伟(David Schoch)上周接受采访时说:中国人喜欢后排空间更宽敞,喜欢车头有更多铬合金装饰;所以我们考虑了中国人的需求。South Korea#39;s Hyundai has focused on mid- and compact-sized vehicles, focusing on China-exclusive models such as the Yuedong, Langdong and Mistra sedans. Analysts said Hyundai#39;s adoption of European-style designs has catered to Chinese consumers#39; aesthetic. It had a 7.4% share of China#39;s auto market in the first eleven months of this year, up from 7.1% in 2012. 韩国现代汽车一直专注于中型车和紧凑型车,特别是仅针对中国的车型,比如悦动、朗动和名图(Mistra)轿车。分析师们说,现代汽车采用的欧式设计迎合了中国消费者的审美观。今年前11个月,现代汽车在中国汽车市场上的占有率为7.4%,高于2012年的7.1%。Toyota and Nissan are still grappling with the fallout of a territorial dispute between Beijing and Tokyo that led to Chinese consumers last year scorning Japanese brands. Nissan said at a recent auto show in the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou that it aims to raise its share of China#39;s auto market to 10% over the medium to long run from less than 6% currently. 丰田汽车和日产汽车仍在努力应对中日领土争端带来的影响,争端去年导致中国消费者对日本品牌避之不及。日产汽车最近在广州的一个汽车展上说,该公司计划在中长期内把其在中国汽车市场上的占有率从目前的不足6%提高至10%。Niu Yu, a spokesman for Toyota China, said it is on track to meet its goal of selling 900,000 vehicles in China this year and plans to raise the annual sales to more than one million in 2014. #39;In the future we will focus on low-cost cars and hybrid vehicles,#39; he said. 丰田中国发言人牛熠说,该公司有望实现今年在中国销售90万辆车的目标,并计划将2014年年销量提高至100万辆以上。他说,未来我们将侧重于低成本汽车和混合动力车。By contrast, Honda has increased its market share to 3.3% in the first 11 months of the year from 3.1% last year as it revved up efforts to incorporate Chinese preference into its models. In September, it launched the Jade, a multi-purpose vehicle with a three-row-seat version for China to cater local preference to roomy space. Honda says it has sold more than 20,000 vehicles as of November. 相比之下,本田汽车今年前11个月在中国市场上的占有率从去年的3.1%提高至3.3%,这主要是因为该公司加大努力在旗下车型中融入中国人喜好的元素。今年9月,本田汽车推出了多用途车杰德(Jade),该款车型特意为中国市场设计了一个三排座椅版,以迎合中国消费者对车内空间的要求。本田汽车说,截至11月,已经卖出了超过2万辆杰德汽车。Not all Chinese auto makers have seen market share declines. Great Wall Motor Co. has seen its market share rise to 3.5% from 3.2% last year on the strength of its dependence on SUVs. 并非所有中国本土汽车制造商的市场占有率都有所下降。长城汽车(Great Wall Motor Co.)市场占有率从去年的3.2%提高至3.5%,这主要得益于该公司主打SUV。While market leaders such as GM and VW have won brand recognition in China after more than a decade of operations, Chinese consumers remain less loyal to auto brands than in the West. 虽然通用汽车和大众汽车等市场领导者在经过十多年的经营后在中国获得了品牌认知度,但中国消费者对汽车品牌的忠诚度仍没有西方国家消费者那么高。#39;In China, auto culture is far from being established. Buying cars is somewhat like taking friends to restaurants. Most of people are unlikely to go to the same restaurant in the first two or three times,#39; said Mei Songlin, vice president and managing director with J.D. Power China. J.D. Power中国的副总裁兼董事总经理梅松林说,在中国,汽车文化还远没有建立起来;买车就像是带朋友去餐厅吃饭,头两三次,大多数人不太可能去同一家餐厅。Mr. Mei#39;s survey of second-time car buyers showed that 85 of every 100 people said they prefer a different brand. 梅松林对二次买车人的调查显示,85%的人说他们会倾向于选择其他品牌。 /201312/268309。
  • SEATTLE — Few golden geese in technology have survived as long as Office has for Microsoft.西雅图——在科技领域,像微软Office那样长盛不衰的摇钱树寥寥无几。The suite of applications that includes Word, Excel and PowerPoint, first released in 1990, generated nearly a third of Microsoft’s revenue during its last fiscal year — about billion of billion in total. By some estimates, the software accounted for an even higher portion of the company’s gross profits.这套包括Word、PowerPoint和Excel的应用程序于1990年首次发布,在上一财年里,Office带来260亿美元的营收,几乎占了微软总营收870亿美元的三分之一。据估计,该软件在微软总利润中的占比更高。But in a sign of the seismic changes underway in the tech industry, Microsoft, the world’s largest software company, said on Thursday that it would give away a comprehensive mobile edition of Office. The free software for iPads, iPhones and Android tablets will do most of the most essential things people normally do with the computer versions of the product.但本周四,全球最大的软件公司微软表示,它将免费提供Office的完整移动版;此举是高科技产业正在发生翻天覆地变化的一个标志。Office的免费iPad、iPhone和Android平板电脑版本,将会持人们通常用Office计算机版本进行的大部分最基本工作。Just a few years ago, giving away a full free version of Office would have earned a Microsoft chief executive a visit from a witch doctor. Now, the move is following through on the rallying cry coming from Satya Nadella, Microsoft’s new chief executive, who has pushed cloud and mobile computing as lodestars for the company’s future.就在几年前,如果微软首席执行官做出免费提供Office完整版的决定,人们会以为他发了疯。现在,这一举措是在响应新任首席执行官萨蒂亚·纳德拉(Satya Nadella)的号召。纳德拉已经把云计算和移动计算列为该公司未来的发展方向。The old Microsoft hemmed and hawed about creating Office apps for mobile platforms from Google and Apple, pushing its Windows platform instead. But the center of gravity in the tech industry has quickly shifted to mobile and cloud computing. And the company’s about-face comes after rivals like Apple and Google and many of the most successful new start-ups offered free software, often with premium perks for sale.之前,对于为谷歌和苹果的移动平台创建Office应用,微软有些犹豫不决,它把精力放在了推动自己的Windows平台上。但高科技业的重心已经迅速转移到了移动和云计算上。像苹果和谷歌这样的竞争对手,以及一些大获成功的新兴创业公司,都已经提供了很多免费的、但常常带有付费高级功能的软件,微软这次改弦更张,就是在这样的背景下进行的。“Lots of consumers don’t need a PC,” said Rick Sherlund, an analyst at Nomura Securities. “They just need an Internet connection. They don’t need Office as much.”“很多消费者并不需要一台PC,”野村券(Nomura Securities)分析师里克·谢伦德(Rick Sherlund)说。“他们只需要设备连接上互联网。他们不是非常需要Office。”That reality has started to weigh on Office. While sales of the software to businesses grew about 8 percent last year, consumer revenue rose only 2 percent. Sales declined by double-digit percentage points during the first two quarters of the year.这一现象已开始影响到Office。虽然该软件面向企业的销售额去年增长了8%左右,但从消费者那里获得的营收仅增长了2%。今年前两个季度,Office销量下滑的百分率达到了两位数。The Office business suffered in recent years from a global slump in sales of PCs, which were hurt as people began to do more and more basic computing chores on tablets and smartphones. For years, Office was not available on mobile devices, and many consumers began to wonder whether they needed the software at all. Those who needed productivity apps turned to free or cheap alternatives from Apple, Google and start-ups like Evernote.近年来,人们日益用平板电脑和智能手机开展比较基本的计算任务,导致全球PC销售下滑,也给Office业务带来损失。多年来,Office一直没有推出移动设备版本,许多消费者已经开始思考,自己是否真的还需要它。那些需要工作软件的人,转而开始使用苹果、谷歌和Evernote等初创公司的免费或廉价替代品。The outlook for Microsoft’s apps has improved in recent quarters with the growth of Office 365, a cloud version of the product that includes constantly updated apps, unlimited online file storage and free Skype calling to traditional phones. Consumers pay to a month for the service, rather than buying a copy of Office for about 0.最近几个季度,随着Office365业绩的增长,微软应用的前景也获得了改善。Office365是这个套件的云版本,提供持续更新、不限量的在线文件存储空间、免费的Skype电话拨打务等等。消费者每月只需付7至10美元的务费,无需购买售价约150美元的Office。“We’d like to dramatically increase the number of people trying Office,” John Case, corporate vice president of Office marketing at Microsoft, said about the new offering. “This is about widening the funnel.”“我们希望能大幅增加尝试Office的用户人数,”微软Office企业营销副总裁约翰·凯斯(John Case)在谈到免费版时表示。“关键是拓宽渠道。”Microsoft started to suggest a more open posture earlier this year, when it released an iPad version of Office that could be used to documents, spsheets and presentations.微软表现出更加开放的姿态,是从今年早些时候开始的,当时它发布了iPad版的Office,可以用来读取文档、电子表格和演示文稿。If users wanted to edit or print those documents, though, they needed to pay a subscription fee to Microsoft. Now Microsoft is doing away with those hindrances. It is starting to test similarly full-featured and free Office apps for tablets running Android, Google’s mobile operating system. And it is updating Office apps for iPhone to allow editing, at a time when Apple’s new big-screen smartphones are making it easier to get work done on the devices.不过,如果用户想编辑或打印这些文档,就需要付订阅费给微软。现在,微软正在清除这些障碍。它正在开始测试同样功能齐备而且免费的Android平板电脑版Office应用;Android是谷歌移动操作系统。它也正在更新iPhone版Office应用,以便提供编辑功能。苹果新推出的大屏幕智能手机,让一些工作任务变得更易完成了。Microsoft says it has more than 7 million consumers subscribing to Office 365. It says there have been more than 40 million downloads of its Office apps for the iPad. In its most recent quarter, which ended Sept. 30, Microsoft said its consumer Office revenue grew 7 percent.微软表示,已经有逾700万用户订阅了Office365,iPad版Office应用的下载量超过了4000万次。微软表示,在9月30日截至的最近一个季度里,Office从消费者那里获得的营收增长了7%。By making an unabridged version of Office available for free on mobile, Microsoft is betting it can get even more people to start using the software, without stealing sales from the PC and Mac versions of the product, where it still makes truckloads of money.微软认为,通过免费提供完整的Office移动版本,会有更多的人开始使用Office软件,而且也不会分流PC和Mac版Office的销售额,计算机版Office仍然非常赚钱。The calculation is similar to the one made by software makers in the mobile industry. Instead of the one-time fees long associated with software sales, most app makers give away basic versions of their products — from games to productivity software to online storage services — while charging for premium features.这和移动领域软件开发商的思路很相似。在软件销售业务中,长期以来费用都是一次性收取的,而大多数应用开发商都会免费提供产品——从游戏到工作软件,再到在线存储务,但只限基本功能,高级功能则会收取费用。“We’re seeing the consumer valuation for those things start to approach zero,” said Wes Miller, an analyst at Directions on Microsoft, a research firm that tracks the company.“我们看到,消费者对软件的估值开始趋近于零,”分析微软状况的研究公司Directions on Microsoft的分析师韦斯·米勒(Wes Miller)说。Apple, for example, made its iWork suite of productivity applications free a year ago for new buyers of Macs and Apple mobile devices. Google has won converts to a free suite of Web apps that competes with Office.以苹果公司为例,一年前,它开始为Mac电脑和Apple移动设备的新顾客免费提供工作应用iWork套件。谷歌推出Web应用免费套件与Office竞争,也赢得了一些用户。Microsoft announced this spring that it would give away some versions of Windows, its other big cash cow, to hardware companies that want to put it on devices with screens smaller than nine inches.Windows是微软的另一棵大型摇钱树,今年春天,微软宣布会把某些版本的Windows免费提供给那些希望将其搭载在9英寸以下设备上的硬件公司。It was an attempt by Microsoft to claw its way out of a severe deficit in mobile by encouraging more companies to make Windows smartphones and tablets. Notably, the change in its terms did not include versions of Windows for personal computers, which have larger screens.微软企图通过此举来鼓励更多的企业制造Windows智能手机和平板电脑,以弥补它在移动领域的严重不足。值得注意的是,该变化并不涉及屏幕更大的个人电脑所使用的Windows版本。 /201411/341760。
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