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襄州区妇幼保健院中医院不孕不育预约襄阳市东风医院治疗好不好If you are a mature, well-educated, sophisticated adult, should you be embarrassed about ing books like Harry Potter, The Hunger Games, or Twilight — books intended for children and teenagers?如果你是一个受过良好教育、心智成熟、阅历丰富的成年人,你会为读《哈利#8226;波特》、《饥饿游戏》以及《暮光之城》这样的小说而尴尬么?因为这些书原本是写给小孩子与少男少女的。A movie based on the bestselling young adult novel The Fault in Our Stars hit cinemas on June 6, earning million (404.27 million yuan) worldwide on its opening weekend and trumping Tom Cruise’s latest sci-fi action movie Edge of Tomorrow, reported Bloomberg.6月6日,根据畅销青少年小说改编的同名电影《无比美妙的痛苦》上映,根据彭的报道,初登大银幕第一周,这部电影就在全球获得了6500万美元(4亿427万人民币)的票房,一举超越汤姆#8226;克鲁斯最新出演的科幻动作片《明日边缘》。Since its publication in 2012, The Fault in Our Stars, by US writer John Green, has won critical acclaim and appeared on several best-selling lists. It is a tragic love story between two teenage cancer patients. The New York Times’ review of the book called it “a blend of melancholy, sweet, philosophical and funny”.《无比美妙的痛苦》由美国作家约翰#8226;格林撰写,这部小说自2012年出版以来一直颇受好评,荣登多项畅销书榜单。该书讲述了两个十几岁身患癌症的病友之间凄美的爱情故事。《纽约时报》的书评更是称这本书是集“忧郁、甜蜜、哲思与有趣”为一体。But Ruth Graham, from Slate magazine, isn’t convinced by the novel. Citing statistics in the US, she points out that 55 percent of young adult (YA) books are purchased by those over 18. But grown-ups should grow out of their love for books intended for a younger ership, she says.但是,来自美国《石板》杂志的路德#8226;格林汉姆却并不买账。她援引来自美国的数据指出,55%的青少年读物都被成年人收入囊中。在她看来,成年人的爱情观应该成熟起来,而不是沉溺于那些为少男少女而写的感情故事里。For many adults, Graham says, the enjoyment of ing YA books has to do with “escapism, instant gratification, and nostalgia”.格林汉姆认为,许多成年人对这些青少年读物的喜爱,跟他们逃避现实、满足当下和怀旧心理有关。Great writers like Shakespeare and the Bronte sisters wrote about teenagers, and there is nothing wrong with that. But according to Graham, modern YA novels “present the teenage perspective in a fundamentally uncritical way”. The ers are not only asked to immerse themselves in a character’s emotional life, they are asked to abandon the mature insights they have acquired as grown-ups.莎士比亚和布朗特等大作家也写过关于青少年的主题,但是他们的作品却无可非议。如格林汉姆所言,与他们相比,现代青少年小说“却是用完全不加批判的态度,站在青少年的视角上书写故事。”这些小说不仅要求读者沉浸在人物的情感生活中,而且要求他们放弃作为成年人应有的成熟思维。Unrealistic taste不切实际的品味Graham gave Eleanor amp; Park, another popular YA novel, as an example. When chapter after chapter ends with some version of “he loves her”, ers are expected to be moved. “But how can a grown-up, even one happy to be reminded of the shivers of first love, not also roll her eyes?” asks Graham.格林汉姆以另一部畅销青少年小说《埃莉诺与帕克》为例:在一章又一章的讲述之后,故事终于以某种形式的“他爱她”结尾,并期待以此打动读者。格林汉姆却质疑道“作为一个成年人,即使很乐意回忆初恋的悸动,也不会轻易因此掉泪吧?”Most importantly, YA books often have endings that cater to teenagers’ taste. These endings are uniformly satisfying, whether that satisfaction comes through weeping or cheering. These satisfying endings, says Graham, point to the fact that the emotional and moral ambiguity of the real world is nowhere to be found in YA fiction. For adults, enjoying endings like this is as shallow as ing only books with likable characters, says Graham.更重要的是,青少年读物的结局常常为了迎合少男少女的口味而设计,千篇一律不留遗憾,不论是落泪,还是欢笑,都力求圆满。在格林汉姆看来,青少年小说这种过于大团圆的结局,跟情感与道德模糊的现实相脱离。对于成年人而言,沉溺于这种结局和只读那些有讨喜角色的小说一样肤浅。Life is so short, says Graham, and if grown-ups are substituting tear-jerking teen dramas for the complexity of great adult literature, then they are missing something.在格林汉姆看来,人生短暂,如果成年人只愿读那些赚眼泪的青少年读物,而放弃艰深伟大的文学作品,那么他们一定会错过很多。 /201406/308331襄州医院男性专科 It#39;s crazy how quickly time is going by. Every year, I make goals for myself and can never seem to accomplish them all. It#39;s like I try to cram all of these tasks -- for instance, starting a company, winning the lottery, getting a book deal, creating a TV show, etc. -- into a year, but most are not actually all that realistic. Like, I#39;m probably not going to become famous overnight, right? However, beyond the many things I hope to accomplish some time in the near future, there are a couple of things I -- and you -- should do in the new year no matter what.时间如白驹过隙,每年我都给自己制定目标,却从没能够实现。好像我总试图把这些计划——比如,开公司、赢票、出本书、创办电视秀等等,全部塞到一年中去;可事实上大部分都不切实际。就像我不可能一夜暴富一样,是吧?不过,撇开许多我希望能在不久的将来实现的目标,下面这些——我认为大家无论如何都应该在新年里做好。Here are 9 things every 20-something should do in 2014:下面就是20多岁年轻人在2014年应该做的事情: 1. Be active.积极进取。Whether you#39;re going to the gym twice a day every day or you#39;re taking walks around your neighborhood three times a week, make sure you are doing some sort of physical activity on the regular. Don#39;t say you#39;re too busy for it... we#39;re all busy. You just need to make time for it (especially if you sit at a desk all week long). Whether that time is on the weekend, at 5:00 a.m. every day, or right before you go to bed, make it happen. Five minutes of crunches is better than nothing.无论你打算每天去两次健身房,还是每周在小区内散三次步,都应保自己有规律地进行体能运动。不要推说太忙没时间运动——大家都很忙。你只需挤点时间就行(尤其当你整个星期都久坐在桌前的时候)。不论是在周末还是每天早上5:00,或者睡觉之前,只要有时间,就去运动。做五分钟仰卧起坐总比一点都不运动的好。 /201401/272258Obesity may have harmful effects on the brain, and exercise may counteract many of those negative effects, according to sophisticated new neurological experiments with mice, even when the animals do not lose much weight. While it#39;s impossible to know if human brains respond in precisely the same way to fat and physical activity, the findings offer one more reason to get out and exercise.科学家们最近在小鼠身上进行了一项复杂的新型神经生物学实验,其结果显示,肥胖会对大脑造成有害影响,而运动可以抵消上述负面影响中的绝大部分,即使在动物的体重并未大幅减轻时也一样有效。虽然我们不可能知道人类大脑是否会以完全相同的方式来应答脂肪和体育活动,但起码这些研究结果为我们走出户外进行运动又提供了一条新的理由。It#39;s been known for some time that obesity can alter cognition in animals. Past experiments with lab rodents, for instance, have shown that obese animals display poor memory and learning skills compared to their normal-weight peers. They don#39;t recognize familiar objects or recall the location of the exit in mazes that they#39;ve negotiated multiple times.一段时间之前,人们已经发现肥胖可以改变动物的认知。例如,关于实验室啮齿类动物的既往实验表明,肥胖动物的和学习能力均低于体重正常的同类动物。它们无法辨认出熟悉的物体,而且哪怕已经多次从迷宫中走过,它们仍然记不住出口的位置。But scientists hadn#39;t understood how excess weight affects the brain. Fat cells, they knew, manufacture and release substances into the bloodstream that flow to other parts of the body, including the heart and muscles. There, these substances jump-start biochemical processes that produce severe inflammation and other conditions that can lead to poor health.但是,科学家们一直没有弄明白体重超重是如何影响大脑的。据他们所知,脂肪细胞可以制造出某些物质并将其释放入血液。这些物质随着血流来到身体的其他部位,包括心脏和肌肉等,然后在那里迅速启动一系列的生化过程,造成严重的炎症和其他疾病,导致健康状况恶化。Many thought the brain, though, should be insulated from those harmful effects. It contains no fat cells and sits behind the protective blood-brain barrier that usually blocks the entry of undesirable molecules.不过人们一直以为大脑应该可以从上述有害影响中幸免于难。因为大脑本身并不包含脂肪细胞,且它安居于血-脑屏障的保护之后,这道屏障通常足以将危险分子阻挡于大脑之外。However, recent disquieting studies in animals indicate that obesity weakens that barrier, leaving it leaky and permeable. In obese animals, substances released by fat cells can ooze past the barrier and into the brain.然而,近期的动物研究结果却十分令人不安。这些研究表明,肥胖可削弱血-脑屏障,使它变得具有泄漏性和渗透性。在肥胖动物中,脂肪细胞释放的物质可以突破血-脑屏障,进入大脑。The consequences of that seepage became the subject of new neurological experiments conducted by researchers at Georgia Regents University in Augusta and published last month in The Journal of Neuroscience. For the studies, the scientists gathered mice bred to overeat and grow obese, which, after a few weeks of sitting quietly in their cages and eating at will, the animals had obligingly accomplished. As they grew rotund and accumulated more fat cells, the researchers found, their blood showed increasingly hefty doses of a substance called interleukin 1 that is created by fat cells and known to cause inflammation.乔治亚瑞金斯大学(Georgia Regents University,位于美国奥古斯塔)的研究人员以这种渗漏造成的后果为对象进行了一系列新颖的神经生物学实验,并将其发表于上个月的《神经科学杂志》(The Journal of Neuroscience)上。出于研究需要,科学家们首先搜集了一些容易过食和肥胖的小鼠。这些小鼠可以好几周都安静地坐在笼子里,随心所欲地吃啊吃。等它们长得圆嘟嘟的,并积累了较多的脂肪细胞后,它们差不多就合格了。研究人员对它们进行了检查,并发现在它们的血液中有一种名为白细胞介素1(interleukin 1)的物质浓度日益增加,这种物质由脂肪细胞产生,且目前已知它会引起炎症。In these mice, as interleukin 1 migrated to the head, it passed the blood-brain barrier and entered areas such as the hippocampus, a part of the brain critical for learning and memory. There, it essentially gummed up the works, the researchers found when they examined tissue from the animals#39; brains, which had high levels of interleukin 1 together with widesp markers of inflammation. While inflammation can represent a healthy response to invading molecules, it hurts cells if it persists.当白细胞介素1随着血液来到这些小鼠的头部后,就穿过血脑屏障进入了海马(与学习和记忆有关的关键部位)等脑区,并把这些组织的正常工作搞得一团糟。在检查过这些动物的大脑组织后,研究人员发现其中存在着高水平的白细胞介素1,炎症标志物也有广泛分布。虽说炎症是身体对入侵分子的一种健康反应,但它如果持续不断,就会对细胞造成伤害。The researchers also noted extremely low levels in these mice brains of a biochemical associated with healthy synapse function. Synapses are the structures that connect one neuron to another and shunt messages between them. Healthy synapses respond to demands on the brain by slowing or speeding messages, keeping the brain#39;s nervous-system traffic manageable. But low levels of the marker of synapse health suggested to the researchers that in these obese animals#39; inflamed brains, synapses were no longer functioning properly and messages between neurons likely jerked, hiccuped or stalled.研究人员还指出,在这些小鼠的大脑中,与健康的突触功能相关的生化标志物水平非常低。突触是指连接一个神经元与另一个神经元,并在它们之间传递信息的结构。健康的突触可应大脑的要求做出相应的反应,减慢或加快信息的传递,从而保持大脑的神经系统交通始终处于井然有序的管理之下。肥胖动物发炎的大脑中突触健康的标志物水平偏低,这提示研究人员它们脑中突触的运作已经失常,神经元间的信息传递也不再顺畅,甚至有可能出现停滞。That possibility was borne out by subsequent tests on the memory and thinking of some of the remaining obese mice. They performed miserably.这种可能性很快就在后续的实验中得到了实:研究人员对其余的肥胖小鼠进行了记忆和思维测试,它们的表现惨不忍睹。But whether excessive fat cells alone were the underlying cause of the changes in the animals#39; brains was not clear. Other physiological factors ;could have been contributing,; said Alexis Stranahan, a professor at the Medical College of Georgia at Georgia Regents, who oversaw the study. So, to isolate the impact of the fat, the researchers simply removed most of it, surgically excising the large bands of fat that each mouse bore around its middle.只是,人们一时还无法确定促使这些动物的大脑发生改变的根本原因是否仅限于脂肪细胞过剩。其他的生理因素“也可能发挥了一定作用,”该研究的负责人、乔治亚瑞金斯大学乔治亚医学院(Medical College of Georgia)的教授亚历克西斯·斯特拉纳汉(Alexis Stranahan)说。因此,为了将脂肪的影响单独分离出来,研究人员在每只小鼠的身体中段打了个孔,通过手术切除了大块大块的脂肪——可以说是它们体内的绝大部分脂肪。After recovery, these slenderized mice showed almost no interleukin 1 in their bloodstreams and, Algernon-like, soon were acing cognitive tests that had stumped them before surgery.等这些接受了抽脂瘦身的小鼠痊愈后,它们血液中的白细胞介素1全都几乎不见了,就像科幻小说里面的阿尔杰农(Algernon,是科幻小说《献给阿尔杰农的花》中一只接受脑部改造手术实验的仓鼠——译注)一样,它们不费吹灰之力就搞定了手术前一直把它们难倒的认知测试。Conversely, when the scientists implanted the preserved fat pads into previously lean mice — and haven#39;t we all had nightmares about something like that happening to us in our sleep? — the animals almost immediately grew dimmer, performing far worse than previously on cognitive tests, although nothing else in their lives had changed.反之,当科学家们将之前保存下来的脂肪垫植入到以前纤瘦的小鼠体内(我们谁不曾做过这样的噩梦,梦见就在我们呼呼大睡时类似的厄运降临到我们自己身上?)时,它们几乎是立即就变得呆呆傻傻的,在认知测试中的表现也比过去糟糕许多,尽管它们生活中其他的各个方面都一如往常。The results convincingly implicated fat cells as the primary cause of the mice#39;s cognitive decline.这些研究结果令人信地明了脂肪细胞即是造成小鼠认知能力下降的元凶。But while provocative, the findings had little practical value for people, the scientists realized, since even the most extensive liposuction procedure in humans would remove far less fat than had been excised from the obese mice.只是虽然这些发现弄得人心痒难耐,科学家们却认识到它对人类而言几乎没有什么实用价值,因为即便是人体所能承受的最广泛的吸脂手术,它所清除的脂肪量也要远远少于实验中从肥胖小鼠体内清除的脂肪量。So the scientists turned, as a less-invasive alternative, to exercise. Gathering more of the obesity-prone mice, they allowed all of them to grow heavy, but then started half on a daily 45-minute program of tmill running, with encouragement provided by small puffs of air if they began to flag. The other mice remained sedentary.因此,科学家们将目光转向了无创性的替代方案:运动。他们收集了更多具有肥胖倾向的小鼠,并让它们都长到肥胖超重的程度。然后,他们将这些小鼠分作两半,让其中一半每天在小鼠跑步机上跑步45分钟,并在它们显出疲态时为它们吹送小小的“顺风”来鼓励它们。其余的小鼠则仍保持其久坐不动的生活方式。After 12 weeks, the running mice still weighed about the same as the unexercised animals. But they had lost significant amounts of fat from around their middles, while adding lean muscle. More telling, they did much better on cognitive tests than the sedentary mice and, when the researchers examined tissue from their hippocampi, showed little evidence of inflammation and robust levels of the chemical marker of synaptic health. The results suggested that, as the scientists write in the study, ;tmill training normalized hippocampal function,; even in animals born to be fat and that remained heavy.12周后,每天跑步的小鼠体重依旧与从未运动的小鼠差不多。但他们身体中段的脂肪量已经显著减少,肌肉量却不断增加。更有说力的是,它们在认知测试中的成绩远远优于久坐不动的小鼠。此外,在研究人员检查它们的海马组织时,也几乎没有看到任何可表明炎症存在的据,反之,表征突触健康的化学标志物则十分充足。正如科学家们在研究论文中所写的,这些研究结果表明,“跑步机训练使海马的功能变得正常”,即使在那些天生容易发胖且仍然体重超重的动物中依然如此。Of course, these studies were conducted in mice, not people, whose brains may respond very differently. But the possibility that humans, too, may respond in similar ways is tantalizing, Dr. Stranahan said, and the takeaway from her study worth repeating. ;Get out and move,; she said, even — and especially — if you carry extra weight. Talk with your doctor about a safe and tolerable exercise program, and then try to stick with that routine so that extra pounds won#39;t weigh too heavily on your mind.当然,这些研究都是在小鼠中进行的,人类的大脑很可能以迥异的方式来作应答。但我们也无法排除这一诱人的可能性:说不定人类大脑会与之类似呢?斯特拉纳汉士指出,她这项研究的结论非常值得借鉴。“走出门去做运动吧,”她说,如果你腰上已经带了个“救生圈”就尤其需要赶快行动。跟你的医生谈谈,制定一个安全、可以承受的锻炼计划,然后尝试照着它坚持下去,让超重的体重不再那么让你伤脑筋。 /201410/335709老河口妇幼保健院中医院早孕检查多少钱

东风汽车公司襄樊医院引产多少钱襄阳第一人民医院痛经多少钱 When Lady Gaga releases a catchy new single, it quickly goes around the world. Now scientists have discovered the same thing happens with the songs of another exotic creature – the humpback whale. The mammals become fixated on new tunes just like people do, and the most popular original whale songs sp globally like hit singles. Number one artist? Humpback whales become fixated on new tunes. The most popular original whale songs sp around the world like hit singles当“闻名遐迩”的音乐奇才嘎嘎发行自己的又一张新专辑,再一次“轻而易举”地将自己的音乐享誉全球的时候,科学家惊喜地发现同样的音乐天才不仅仅局限于人类这个物种,在海底的鲸鱼也同样有“发行音乐专辑”并“唱歌”的权利。科学家还实,这一类哺乳动物(座头鲸)可以像人类一样“有音调” “带感情”地唱歌,据悉,座头鲸是鲸类中最大者,成体平均体长雄性为12.9米,雌性为13.7米,体重25~35吨。其前缘具不规则的瘤状突如锯齿状,口大,进食时上下颌间特殊韧带结构可使口张开90度的角度。The discovery has stunned marine experts who say it is the first time such a large, ‘population wide cultural exchange’ has been seen in the animal kingdom. Male humpback whales are famed for the loud, long and complex songs they make during the mating season. Scientists are unsure why the males sing. Some believe it is a way of advertising themselves to females, others that it allows migrating whales to stay in contact。这一发现彻底震惊了很多海洋专家,让他们“大开眼界”,对于鲸鱼发行音乐专辑事宜,他们认为这是在生物物种,不同生物之间最大的一次 “文化交流”活动。雄性座头鲸以“嗓门大”“身型长”“擅长复杂歌曲”闻名于世界。专家称,特别在交配季节的雄性座头鲸们可以更能展现、展示他们的“歌唱才华”。然而,对于鲸鱼为什么会唱歌的原因,科学家至今还未能总结出个什么结论,有一些人是认为这是雄性座头鲸为了吸引雌性座头鲸做出的“雄性荷尔蒙举动”,也有一些人认为这是为了与“迁徙”举家搬迁的“移民鲸鱼”联系感情的一种方式。Each song lasts for ten to 20 minutes and the males can sing continuously for 24 hours. At any one time, all the males in a population sing the same song. But a study, published in the journal Current Biology, shows that this song changes over time and sps around the oceans. Dr Ellen Garland, of Queensland University, said: ‘Our findings reveal cultural change on a vast scale. Songs move like cultural ripples from one population to another, causing all males to change their song to a new version.’据悉,鲸鱼们唱歌课不轻松,一首曲子至少能维持20分钟,而且雄性座头鲸常常能唱歌长达24小时。科学家发现,在任何时间,雄性座头鲸都会“演唱”同一首曲子。在一本期刊《当代生物学》发表的研究上指出,这首座头鲸唱的曲子在全世界通用,在任何海域都能听得到。可谓在鲸鱼界“不分地域”“享誉全球”的曲子。有专家Dr Ellen 说:“我们的研究目的是表明一个道理,那就是文化交流是在任何一个物种之间都存在的。” /201403/282954襄阳妇幼保健医院做割包皮手术好吗

樊城区人民医院妇科怎么样Stephanie Falk and her husband like smoothies from Jamba Juice. But the San Diego-based couple boycotted the chain for several months last year because it served its drinks in plastic foam cups.斯蒂芬妮#12539;福尔克(Stephanie Falk)和她的丈夫都喜欢Jamba Juice的奶昔。但是这对来自 地亚哥的夫妇去年连续数月拒绝购买这家连锁店的饮料,因为店里用泡沫塑料杯盛装饮料。#39;It#39;s the biodegradable factor. There#39;s no excuse. Everybody knows better,#39; said Ms. Falk, who like her husband is a wedding photographer.“我们考虑的是生物降解。店家不该找借口。所有人都明白这一点,”福尔克说,她和丈夫都是婚礼摄影师。Now, though, Jamba Juice Co. and several other food chains are starting to serve the same drinks in paper cups. Ms. Falk is a fan; her drink stays just as cold in Jamba Juice#39;s new doubled-walled paper cup, she said.而现在Jamba Juice和其他几家连锁餐厅都开始改用纸杯装饮料。福尔克表示持,她说她的饮料在Jamba Juice的新双层纸杯里同样清凉。The paper industry likes it a lot too. Production of white copy paper and other forms of #39;uncoated#39; paper has fallen about 38% since 1999, while demand for paper cups is growing as much as 5% a year, according to industry analysts. Environmental concerns from consumers and new bans on plastic foam in more U.S. cities are prompting food chains to make a switch.造纸行业对此也非常持。行业分析师表示,1999年以来,白色复印纸以及其他“裸”纸的产量下降了约38%,而纸杯的需求量则以每年5%的幅度递增。消费者对于环保的考量以及美国越来越多城市对于泡沫塑料的禁令促使连锁餐厅做出改变。Jamba Juice said last year it would adopt paper cups for its smoothies and other cold drinks #39;to improve our environmental footprint.#39; McDonald#39;s Corp. is replacing plastic foam cups with McCafe paper cups at all 14,000 McCafes across the country. The company says it is trying to be more environmentally conscious and cut costs on trash. Dunkin#39; Brands Group Inc. has said it is testing paper cups.Jamba Juice去年表示,他们将采用纸杯来装奶昔和其他冷饮,“以改善我们的环境记录”。麦当劳公司(McDonald#39;s Corp.)正在将全美14,000家麦咖啡 (McCafe)的泡沫塑料杯替换成纸杯。该公司表示,他们现在更加注重环保并缩减垃圾处理开。Dunkin#39; Brands Group Inc.说他们正在试用纸杯。These companies join Starbucks Corp. and some other chains that have been using paper cups for years. Production of paper used to make cups has risen about 16% over the past five years in the U.S., according to industry group American Forest and Paper Association.这些公司加入了星巴克等多年来都在使用纸杯的连锁店的行列。行业组织美国林业与纸业协会(American Forest and Paper Association)的数据显示,过去五年美国用于制造纸杯的纸类产量上升了约16%。Hoping to take advantage of the growth in demand, International Paper Inc. plans to double the size of a paper-cup manufacturing facility it runs in Kenton, Ohio. The company is coming up with new cup designs--like one aly in production that is fully biodegradable with a plant-based lining--and aggressively marketing the benefits of paper to potential customers.为了迎合这种增长的需求,International Paper Inc.计划将位于俄亥俄州肯顿(Kenton)的纸杯生产设备规模扩大一倍。该公司将推出新的纸杯设计,例如已投产的一款可完全降解的纸杯,内层采用植物原料;他们还努力向潜在客户营销,强调纸杯的优势。Paper cup and plate production volume is equivalent to about a quarter of the volume of the U.S. copy-paper market, according to consulting firm Fisher International Inc., which specializes in data on the pulp and paper industry.咨询公司Fisher International Inc.专长于纸类和纸浆行业的数据分析,其数据显示,美国纸杯和纸碟的产量相当于复印纸产量的四分之一。Still, #39;It seems like a moment in time where the big brands are choosing to take a public position for sustainability,#39; said Michael Lenihan, director of sales and customer relations at International Paper. Food businesses #39;are now recognizing it as a brand opportunity on a much broader scope.#39;不过,“似乎现在大品牌都选择站在公众立场来关注可持续发展”,International Paper 销售与客户关系总监迈克尔#12539;勒尼汉(Michael Lenihan)说。食品行业“如今在更广的层面上将其视为品牌的发展机遇”。Environmental advocates say paper is easier on the environment than plastic foam because the latter tends to break up in landfills and then is mistaken by animals for food. Plastic foam is difficult to recycle unless it is kept clean and separated from other types of plastics--so many plants in the U.S. don#39;t take it. It isn#39;t biodegradable.环保者表示纸杯比泡沫塑料杯更有利于环境,因为后者会在填埋时碎裂而被动物误以为食物。泡沫塑料很难回收,除非它仍然干 并且和其他类型的塑料分离,所以美国的许多回收站并不接受它。它也无法进行生物降解。Such worries led San Francisco in 2007 and Seattle in 2009 to ban plastic foam, instead requiring food vendors to provide compostable or recyclable to-go containers. Other West Coast cities have followed suit, and New York#39;s City Council voted to ban plastic-foam containers in December unless the industry can prove it is recyclable.出于这样的担忧,旧金山在2007年、西雅图在2009年禁止使用泡沫塑料,而要求食品销售者提供可分解或者可循环使用的外带容器。其他西海岸的城市紧随其后,纽约市议会2013年12月投票禁止使用泡沫塑料容器,除非业者能够明泡沫塑料可以回收。#39;Customers are still trying to figure out how prevalent this is going to become,#39; says Alec Frisch, vice president and general manager of Georgia-Pacific LLC#39;s beverage category, which produces a range of paper cups, including double-walled and plastic-coated paper cups.“消费者仍在关注此类措施的普及情况”,乔治亚#12539;太平洋公司(Georgia-Pacific LLC)负责饮品类的副总裁兼总经理亚力克#12539;弗里施(Alec Frisch)说。该公司生产各种纸杯,包括双层纸杯以及外层覆有塑料的纸杯。The plastic-foam industry disputes the notion that foam is less environmentally friendly, chalking it up to misinformation. #39;I think there are a lot of misconceptions around polystyrene foam versus paper,#39; said Keith Christman, managing director for plastics markets at American Chemistry Council, which represents the industry. Foam is #39;composed 95% out of air, so you use less material in the first place making it.#39; That also results in less energy use and less bulk waste, he added.泡沫塑料行业对于产品不环保的观点并不认同,认为这是误传。“我认为人们在将泡沫塑料和纸比较时存在许多误解,”行业协会美国化学理事会(American Chemistry Council)塑料市场运营总监基思#12539;克里斯特曼(Keith Christman)说。泡沫塑料“95%由空气组成,所以在最初的生产环节可节省用料”。这也减少了能耗以及废料体积,他补充道。A survey commissioned by the ACC shows that in the 50 biggest U.S. cities, about 16% of the population is able to recycle food-service items made out of foam, compared with about 10% for paper.美国化学理事会开展的一项调查显示,在美国前50大城市中,16%的人会回收泡沫塑料制成的食品容器,相比之下纸制的回收率为10%。Indeed, paper cups aren#39;t as environmentally friendly as they seem. Only about 11% of recycling plants in the U.S. currently can recycle them, according to the American Forest and Paper Association, because they are typically coated in plastic or have beverage residue. The lack of an #39;easily recyclable cup designed for hot beverages#39; is one reason Dunkin#39; Brands is still weighing whether to switch to paper, Karen Raskopf, chief communications officer, said.事实上,纸杯并不像看起来那样环保。美国林业及纸业协会的数据显示,目前美国只有约11%的回收站能够回收纸杯,因为它们通常有塑料覆膜或者有饮料残留。缺少“适合热饮的易回收的纸杯”是Dunkin#39; Brands仍旧在权衡是否换为纸杯的原因之一,首席公关卡伦#12539;拉斯科普夫(Karen Raskopf)说。#39;At this point, we don#39;t know if our end solution will be paper or another material,#39; she added.“现在我们还不知道最终解决方案会是纸还是其他材料,”她补充道。Paper cups are slightly more expensive than foam, usually by a couple cents. Extras like double walls for insulation or plant-based lining to make it compostable add to the price.纸杯比泡沫塑料一般贵几分钱。像双层隔热的或者内层为可分解植物材料的纸杯价格更高。McDonald#39;s has been using double-walled paper cups--which have a small pocket of air between them to increase insulation--at about 2,000 restaurants along the West Coast since 2012. Now it is expanding into the Midwest and parts of the East Coast, says Ian Olson, director of sustainability.麦当劳从2012年起在美国西海岸的约2,000家餐厅使用双层纸杯,两层之间有空隙可容纳空气从而增强隔热效果。如今使用范围扩展到了中西部以及东海岸部分地区,可持续发展总监伊恩#12539;奥尔森(Ian Olson)说。While the paper cup is more expensive, McDonald#39;s says it will make up the difference in the trash. Most of the chain#39;s waste is paper-based--think wraps, fry cartons and Big Mac boxes--so paper cups can go into the same trash bin, and eventually into recycling bins.麦当劳表示,尽管纸杯更贵,但它在垃圾处理方面的优势可以补偿其高价格。这家连锁餐厅的大部分垃圾都是纸制的――比如包装纸、薯条盒和汉堡盒――所以纸杯可以放入相同的垃圾桶,最终进入回收桶。The main challenge for food companies is to find a cup that functions as well as plastic foam and doesn#39;t cost the consumer more, said Bonnie Riggs, a restaurant industry analyst with consumer market research firm NPD Group. #39;I think it really doesn#39;t matter if it keeps everything hot and keeps everything cold and consumers don#39;t have to pay extra for it,#39; she said.食品公司面临的最大挑战是找到一款和泡沫塑料功能相同又不增加成本的杯子,消费者市场研究公司NPD集团的餐饮业分析师邦尼#12539;里格斯(Bonnie Riggs)说。“我认为只要能保冷保热,而且消费者不用额外付钱,什么样的杯子都没关系,”她说。 /201405/295041 A pair of American B52 bombers flew across the disputed islands in the East China Sea on Monday, just days after China claimed the area as its own “air defence identification zone.”两架美国B-52轰炸机周一飞过东海争议岛屿上空。就在几天前,中国刚刚宣布该区域为“防空识别区”。In what appeared to be a direct challenge to the Chinese claim, the Pentagon said that the flights were a long-planned training mission and insisted that the US would continue to operate in what it considers to be international air space.这次行动明显是对中国的直接挑战,五角大楼(Pentagon)表示,此次飞行属于早就列入训练计划的任务,同时坚称美国将继续在其认为的国际空域执行任务。The Chinese were not informed of the flights.此次飞行并未告知中方。The Chinese defence ministry said on Saturday that it would establish the air zone over the group of uninhabited islands in the East China Sea in order to protect its territorial rights. Beijing also insisted that it would take “defensive emergency measures” against aircraft which entered the zone without identifying themselves.上周六,中国国防部表示将在东海这个无人居住的群岛上空建立防空识别区,以保护中国的领土主权。中国政府还坚称,对于进入该区域而未确认自己身份的飞机将采取“防御性紧急处置措施”。The Chinese claim is part of a broader push by Beijing to assert greater control over the seas that surround it and to push back against American influence in the western Pacific where the US Navy has been dominant since the end of the second world war.从更大范围上说,中国此举是其整体努力的一部分,目的是对本国海岸线外的海洋施加更大控制,逼退美国在西太平洋的影响力。自二战结束以来,美国海军一直在西太平洋地区占据霸主地位。China has also taken a more aggressive stance in recent years in defence of its claims over a series of disputed islands in the South China Sea, which are also claimed by Vietnam and the Philippines, among others.近年来,中国在宣示其对南海一系列有争议岛屿的主权主张方面也采取了更为咄咄逼人的姿态。越南、菲律宾等其他国家也宣称拥有这些岛屿的主权。The announcement of the new air zone could aggravate the aly tense dispute with Japan over the islands in the East China Sea, known as the Senkaku in Japan and the Diaoyu in China.划设防空识别区可能加剧中日之间围绕东海这个群岛本已十分紧张的争端。该群岛在日本被称为尖阁诸岛(Senkaku),在中国被称为钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿。The US, which has a longstanding defence treaty with Japan, has sharply criticised the Chinese decision. White House spokesman Josh Earnest said on Tuesday that Beijing’s announcement was “unnecessarily inflammatory” and that it could have a “destabilising impact on the region”.对于中国这一决定,与日本签有长期安保协议的美国发表了尖锐批评。白宫发言人乔希?欧内斯特(Josh Earnest)周二表示,中国方面的宣布“毫无必要地具有煽动性”,并可能“造成破坏整个地区稳定的影响”。Chuck Hagel, the US defence secretary, issued a strongly-worded statement within hours of the Chinese announcement at the weekend, accusing China of launching “a destabilising attempt to alter the status quo in the region”.上周末,在中国发表声明几小时之后,美国国防部长查克?哈格尔(Chuck Hagel)发表一份措辞强硬的声明,谴责中国做出“一种不利于稳定的企图,目的是改变地区现状”。He said China’s “unilateral” announcement would increase “the risk of misunderstanding and miscalculations” and insisted that the Pentagon would not “in any way change how the ed States conducts military operations in the region.”他表示中方的“单边”声明会加大“误解和误判的风险”,并坚称五角大楼不会“以任何方式改变美国在该地区执行军事任务的方式”。Although the US officially does not have a position on the sovereignty dispute over the islands, Mr Hagel added that the US mutual defence treaty with Japan did include the Senkaku Islands – an indication that the US would intervene on the Japanese side if there were ever a conflict over the islands.尽管美国对东海争议岛屿主权之争没有正式立场,但哈格尔专门指出,《美日安保条约》确实覆盖尖阁诸岛。这表明,一旦发生围绕该群岛的冲突,美国将站在日本一方出手干预。Japan has also sharply criticised the Chinese announcement. Speaking on Monday, prime minister Shinzo Abe said that the Chinese attempt to restrict air traffic in the region was “unenforceable” and that it was “of no validity whatsoever to Japan”.日本也对中方声明发表了尖锐批评。日本首相安倍晋三(Shinzo Abe)周一在讲话中表示,中国试图限制该区域空中交通的企图是“无法执行的”,“对我国完全无效”。However, the Japanese government’s position was somewhat undermined after the country’s biggest commercial airlines, All Nippon Airways and Japan Airlines, said that they were aly complying with Beijing’s new rules by notifying the Chinese authorities of flights through the disputed area.然而,全日空(All Nippon Airways)和日本航空(Japan Airlines)表示他们已遵循中国政府新规定,向中国官方通报了飞越争议区域的航班信息。这在一定程度上削弱了日本政府的立场。 /201311/266344襄阳保康妇幼保健院中医院治疗月经不调多少钱襄阳第四医院看男科好吗

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