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佛山哪里治阳痿早泄顺德区大良医院正规的吗Science and technology.科技。Neutrino communications中微子通信ET, phone home外星人,致电家中The worlds first neutrino-messaging service世界上首次中微子通信务PARTICLE physics is all very well for addressing trivial matters like ;why are we here?; (see article). But some people question its practical usefulness. To answer such naysayers a group of physicists at Fermilab have just submitted a paper to Modern Physics Letters A in which they describe how they have built themselves a neutrino-powered telephone.粒子物理学总是能很好地解决我们生活中遇到的像;为什么我们在这里?;这类的琐事。但是一些人会质疑它的实际可行性。为了消除类似的质疑,费米实验室的一群物理学家刚向物理学界权威杂志Modern Physics Letters A提交了一篇论文,论文中描述着他们怎样为自己成功定制了利用中微子载波的无线电通信电话。Naturally, their neutrinophone is digital. A pulse of neutrinos (small, elusive subatomic particles with no electric charge) corresponds to the digit ;1; while no pulse corresponds to ;0;. The neutrinos themselves are created by smashing bunches of protons into a target made of graphite. They are detected roughly 1km away by researchers who, in their day jobs, work on a neutrino collaboration called MINERvA. By modulating the pulses of protons the group was able to send a message in binary that, when translated, ;neutrino;. Whether this will go down in history alongside Alexander Graham Bells first message, ;Mr Watson, come here, I want to see you,; remains to be seen.显然,他们的中微子电话通信是数字化的。一个中微子(一种不带电荷形态诡异的亚原子粒子)脉冲对应着逻辑电平;1;,没有脉冲时就对应着逻辑电平;0;。中微子产生于一些质子束轰击一个石墨目标后产生脉冲介子,介子随后衰变而成。整天工作于一个「主注入器之中微子V-A交互作用实验(MINERvA)的研究员们在大概在一公里远处能检测到中微子。通过对质子束脉冲的调制编码后,以二进制码的形式进行中微子传输。是否这将延续亚历山大?格拉汉姆?贝尔(Alexander Graham Bell)的历史,以;Watson先生,请过来,我想见到你;进行首次中微子通信,我们拭目以待。The point, though, apart from sheer wackiness, is that neutrinos are not easily intercepted by collisions with other sorts of matter. If humanity wanted to broadcast its existence to intelligent life forms that might be out in the galaxy listening, a modulated beam of neutrinos would be a good way of doing so. Conversely, some people argue that listening for ET at radio frequencies is the wrong approach. The right one, they think, would be to build a neutrino-receiver. And that would mean plenty of work for neutrino physicists. Perhaps, then, from its makers point of view, the neutrinophone is not such a nutty idea, after all.然而,重要的不仅是其古怪性而且中微子在传输中当受到其他物质的撞击时不容易被破坏。如果人类想让远在系的地方听到充满智慧生命存在性的广播,那么经过调制的中微子光束则是使他实现的一种很好的方式。相反,一些人认为利用无线电广播频率收听外星人是一种错误的方式。他们认为正确的方式应该是搭建一个中微子载波的接收器。这就意味着中微子的物理学家将需要做大量的工作。那么,也许中微子电话的制造商会认为,毕竟中微子电话并非是一个疯狂的创意。201208/193991佛山新世纪门诊部地址 Roman Opalka罗曼·欧帕尔卡Roman Opalka, painter of infinity, died on August 6th, aged 79罗曼·欧帕尔卡,绘制无限的画家,于八月六日逝世,享年79岁SLOWLY, though his heart was pounding like a runner’s, Roman Opalka approached the canvas. He had painted it completely black. The date, though he set no store by dates, was 1965. Clenched in his left hand was a pot of white acrylic paint; held tightly in his right was a No. 0 brush, the smallest standard size. He dipped the fine tip into the paint and then, very gently, as if in slow motion, raised his arm. His hand was trembling. Carefully he painted the figure 1 at the top left-hand corner of the canvas. At the same time he whispered, in his native Polish, jeden, one. The moment was so charged with emotion that he thought he might collapse. Instead, he had begun.尽管心跳已如奔跑的人一样快,罗曼·欧帕尔卡还是慢慢地走到画布前。画布已经被他全部涂上了纯黑色。这一天,尽管他没有记录日期,是在1965年。他左手端着一碟白色丙烯酸颜料,右手握住0号笔刷(标准号码里面最小的笔刷),然后笔尖蘸上颜料,轻柔地,慢慢地,抬起手臂。手在轻轻颤抖,他小心地在画布左上角写上“1”,用波兰话轻轻说道,jeden,一。这一刻,充满无限的感情,他感到自己要塌下了,只是,事实上,这正是他的起点。 He had thought about this for years, wondering how he might visualise time. He did not mean the time of clocks or calendars or hour-glasses; those were merely instruments of convenience for fixing points at which to have coffee, or feed the cat. That was time you could even reverse, by winding back the clock or tipping the hourglass over. He meant the irreversible continuum of time that flowed through him, the pulse of his life approaching his death within the vastness of infinity. For some years early in the 1960s he had played around with dabs and zigzags of monochrome paint on canvases which he called “Chronomes”, but he concluded that time was more orderly than that. By painting numbers in careful succession from one to infinity, or as near to it as he was destined to get, he would make a work of art that tracked as well as anything the movement of time in a life, and life in time.关于怎样才能表达出时间的印象,他已经深思熟很多年。他想要的表达,不是时钟、日历、时漏这些仪器,这些仪器的用处是提醒人们什么时候去喝咖啡,什么时间去喂小猫咪,这样子的时间甚至都可以往回拨,钟表的指针可以回调,时漏可以颠倒。他想要表达出来的,是穿过他自己的时间,那是不可逆转的连续的时间,是在无限的广漠之中他生命的脉搏走向了死亡。在二十世纪六十年代早期几年里,他曾试着在用一种颜色在画布上点点,或是画之字,这种画他称之为“染色体”,但是最后他得出了这样的结论,即时间比它们都有序。所以他才想到用这样的方法来画画,在画布上写下数字,从一到无限,至少,到他有生之年能够到达的那个数字,这样,他能创作出的艺术品,才是对时间在生命之中的运动,或对生命在时间中的运动所做的纪录。The idea came easily enough, while he was waiting one winter day in a cold café in Warsaw for his wife and his friends to come, glancing impatiently at clock and watch, drumming the moments away on the table. But it demanded nothing less than the sacrifice of his life. From the moment of painting the figure 1 until the day he died, when he had reached well past 5500000 (no commas marred his work), his daily task was painting numbers and whispering their names, eventually into a tape recorder. Hence his extreme emotion when he began: his own “big bang”, signalling his own creation of space-time.他是在寒冬的一天在华沙一家咖啡厅里等他老婆和朋友的时候萌生了这样的想法,当时他不耐烦地看着钟表,一下下敲着桌子要把时间敲走。可是完成这样的想法也要他奉献一生的时间,从他写下1开始,直到他逝世的那天,他已经写到5500000了,他的作品没有一个分隔的逗号,他每天的任务就是写下数字,说那个数字,记录在录音带里。因此,开始的那一刻,他强烈的情绪,正是他的“宇宙大爆炸”,是他自己的创世纪。Each canvas was called a “detail”, and all had the same title, “Opalka 1965/ 1-∞”. Typically he would paint around 400 figures a day, standing almost motionless at the easel. He tried not to travel much, did not take holidays, and if the journey was unavoidable made what he called cartes de voyage, continuing his numbers in black ink on ordinary white paper. The work became so absorbing, so meditative, that he would try to paint at the deepest hours of night, when only the bark of a dog or distant cock-crow would disturb the southern French hillside where he lived.每一张画布都是一个“细节”,都有一样的标题“欧帕尔卡 1965/1-∞”。通常,他一天写大约400个数字,一动不动地站在画架前。他尽量少去旅行,也没有节假日,如果不得不出门旅行,他就写下“旅行卡片”,在普通的白纸上用黑墨水写下数字。他完全地沉浸在这份工作中,有时在深夜绘画,在他所住的位于法国南部的山边,只有能听到远处传来的叫或鸡鸣,Heart trouble bothered him, and he once found the little paint-pot almost too heavy to lift, but he never considered stopping. The number 7777777 floated in his mind as a sort of completion of his “programme”; but in fact the completion would be his death, as he often said. Some critics saw his project as a sort of suicide, and he did not altogether dispute that. No sort of afterlife tempted him, he had no belief in one; but he very much liked a story by Marguerite Yourcenar in which a man built a boat and set out into infinity.后来心脏有些问题让他有点吃力,有一阵感到那个小颜料碟都太重了拿不动,但是他还是不放弃。曾经他也想过7777777这个数字就是这项任务的终点了,但是他也经常说过,事实上终点只能是到他死的时候。有些家认为他这个任务就等于是自杀,他没有辩驳。他也没有想过身后名声之类的,也不相信谁。不过,他倒是很喜欢玛格丽特·尤瑟纳尔讲的一个故事,讲有一个男人,造了一艘船,就这样开到无边无际的地方去了。Over the 46 years of his enterprise, his technique and materials barely changed. His canvases, 233 in all, were always 196 x 135cm, a good size to work at standing and to carry in outstretched arms. Brush and paint never varied. His figures were roughly a centimetre tall,most made with two deliberate strokes of the brush, and allowed to fade away as his paint ran out, like the trailing tail of a comet. He often said he painted like a man out walking, unaware of his steps unless he stumbled. If that happened, he never went back.在他这项为期46年的事业里,他使用的材料,绘画的技巧一点都没变。总共233幅画布,都是196 x 135cm,大小刚好适合站着画,而且双手展开拿着看也合适。绘画的刷子和颜料还和最初用的一样,数字大约一厘米高,其笔法大多数都是笔刷小心地刷过两遍,再轻轻地淡出,像彗星的尾巴。他常说自己的画法,就像出去散步的人,除非遇到嗑嗑绊绊,否则没有意识到自己的脚步。也许他也遇到过嗑绊,但是他不曾回头。His biggest innovation was to change the background colour. In 1968 he made it grey; in 1972—when, barely able to breathe, he passed 1000000—he decided to add 1% more white to that grey every year. By 2008 the white of ground and figures was virtually the same, except that he thought of the ground as “well-earned white”, arduously brought out of the original black, and except that the newly painted figures would shine out against it until they dried. He approached this invisibility with a sort of exaltation.他最大的创新在于更改画布的背景颜色。1968年开始使用灰色的背景,1972年他的身体已经非常虚弱,他已经写下了1000000,决定每过一年,就在那种灰色颜料里加1%的白色颜料。到2008年,背景色就是白色的,和写数字的颜料几乎无差,他认为,背景的白色是时光沉淀下来的白,是从最初的黑色当中一点点绽放出来的白色,与最初的白色不一样。新画上去的数字,颜料在颜料干了之后可以看出来。他认为就是这点难以发现的特点让他感到欣喜。”Self-portrait with numbers与数字一起的自拍像From 1968, at the end of every working day, he took a black-and-white photograph of his impassive face against the canvas. This too was part of the project. It was not egoism or narcissism, he insisted. After all, his art told people nothing about his idian life. None of it—the birth in France, the childhood in Poland interrupted by war, the art studies in Warsaw, the year in Berlin—seemed important beside the immensity of the self-imposed task. He spoke about that, when asked, rather diffidently, softly rubbing the rims of his glasses in one hand, talking of Heidegger and Pascal and the notions of number held by the ancient Greeks, smiling often with what seemed to be repressed joy. And why not? Though people saw him as a prisoner, he felt more liberated with every stroke of the brush. Each of his self-portraits, with steadily silvering hair and whitening skin, showed him progressing as inevitably as his numbers into the infinity he longed for.从1968年起,每天工作结束,他都站在画布前照一张黑白照,都是些像寸照一样的照片,照他没有表情的脸。这也是这个项目的一部分。他说,这不是自我中心,更不是自恋。毕竟,他的作品里没有传达任何关于他平日生活的事情,一点都没有,没有关于他在法国出生的事情,没有他在波兰经历战争的童年生活,没有他在华沙学习艺术的事情,没在柏林那一年的事情,这些,与他自愿接受的这项巨大任务相对都不重要。人们问到他的作品时,他有点羞怯,轻轻扶了下眼镜框,谈起海格德尔,帕斯卡,谈成古代希腊人赋予数字的意义,他笑起来,带着点压抑的欢乐。怎能不欢乐?人们看他像住在监狱里,可是每刷动一次笔刷,他都感觉到更加自由。他每一幅自拍照片,银色的头发,白的肤色,展示着他的生命就像他所渴望的无穷的数字一样不可逆转地延续着。201205/184515南海区医院预约

佛山哪里的男科医院最好顺德区新世纪医院网上咨询 Mileva is the only woman in the class . He was a physicist he was smitten.米列娃是班上唯一的女人。而他是一位落败的物理学家。In the temporary detour from their shared scientific passions, Albert and Mileva are married 1903.在他们共享的科学的临时恋情中,艾伯特和米列娃在1903年结婚。A year later their first son Hans Albert is born.一年后,他们的第一个孩子阿尔伯特;汉斯出生。The Einsteins family lives in this small two-room-apartment in Swiss capital .爱因斯坦的家住在瑞士首都这个两间小屋子的公寓里。The rather limited circumstances in which they lived were not what he would have hoped for at this stage in his life.这个有限的情况并不是他们所希望这个阶段在他的生命中所呈现的。Mileva always wanted to be a great physicist but she flunks her exams at the end of her terms at Zurich polytechnic .米列娃一直想成为一个伟大的物理学家,但她在苏黎世技术学院考试的最后名落孙山。She becomes a sounding board on all the great miracle year papers in 1905 especially this special relativity paper, she helps type it up she helps check the math, but she ends up being a housewife.她成为了1905年奇迹年所有伟大的论文,尤其是狭义相对论时的宣传媒介,她帮助打字及检查数学,但她最终变成了一位家庭主妇。Einstein is trying to do his scientific work at the same time that hes working six days a week.爱因斯坦尝试去做他的科学工作,与此同时,他一星期工作六天。In 1907 Einstein agrees to write a new article explaining special relativity.在1907年爱因斯坦同意写一篇新文章解释狭义相对论。But when he reexamine his theory , he finds its seriously limited .但当他重新审视自己的理论时,他发现了严重的限制。Its called special relativity for reason that would because it only dealt with moving at constant speeds .它被称为狭义相对论的理由是因为它只关乎不变时的移动速度。In other words. Einsteins special relativity only applies to a special case, an object moving in one direction at a constant speed.换句话说。爱因斯坦的狭义相对论只适用于特殊情况下, 即一个物体在恒定的速度下朝一个方向移动。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/175543佛山市第一人民医院割包皮手术价格

佛山前列腺炎哪家医院最好What a light bulb and an egg have in common? The shell of an egg and the glass exterior of a light bulb have more than one thing in common. First, both protect something delicate inside: the exterior of the light bulb keeps the delicate internal wiring protected and an eggshell protects a developing chick.The need to protect chicks and wiring requires that eggshells and light bulbs be structurally strong.电灯泡和鸡蛋有什么共同点呢?鸡蛋的外壳和灯泡的玻璃外罩的相同点可不止一处。首先,两者都在保护内部脆弱的东西:灯泡的外罩保护精细的内部接线,而蛋壳保护还未孵化的小鸡。为了保护小鸡和灯丝,要求蛋壳和灯罩的结构性很强。Second, both are made of thin material. A chick, y to hatch, has to be able to peck its way through the shell. And because light bulbs are usually made of opaque rather than clear glass, the glass exterior must be thin so that light can shine through.其次,两者都由薄型材料构成。一只待孵化的小鸡必须能够破开蛋壳钻出来。且因为灯泡通常由不透明的玻璃做成,所以玻璃外罩要很薄,这样灯光才能透过灯罩射出去。So how can a structure be strong and yet made of thin material at the same time? By using a carefully-designed oval shape. Picture for a moment a square egg. If you took that imaginary object in your hand and squeezed it very hard between your thumb and finger, the pressure youd exert would be localized in the exact part of the flat surface your thumb and finger were pushing. Even a slight pressure would be great enough to break the thin shell into pieces.那么什么样的结构即坚固同时又能由薄层的材料制成呢?通过利用一种精心设计的椭圆形。暂且先描绘一个方形的蛋。假设你把这个虚构的对象拿在手里,用拇指和食指用力挤压,你施加的压力会落在拇指和食指接触到的平面上。即使是轻微的压力也足以将薄薄的蛋壳打得粉碎。But if you do the same thing to a real egg, the force you exert is not localized in one point, but is distributed into all directions around the surface of the egg. Though you can eventually break an egg by doing this, it takes a great deal more force to do so. Of course, its no coincidence that the shapes of light bulbs and eggs are similar. When the light bulb was invented and perfected, it was patterned after a shape that nature had come up with hundreds of thousands of years ago.但是如果你挤压一个真正的鸡蛋,那么你施加的压力并不着力在一个点上,而是分散在蛋壳表面的各个方向。尽管你最终还是可以将鸡蛋捏碎,但在那之前你要使更多的劲。当然,灯泡的形状跟鸡蛋相似并不是偶然现象。灯泡的发明和完善还是仿照了大自然几十万年前就有的形状。原文译文属!201301/220892 Spotting these rings from a backyard telescope is a treat.从后院的望远镜观察这些土星环是一种不错的选择。In an instant, they can all but disappear when Saturn tilts toward the sun.在一瞬间, 当土星朝太阳倾斜他们会全部消失。The overwhelming thing that a US space tourist would be struck by is how incredibly thin they are.令人震惊的是美国的太空游客们也将会因其极为稀薄而受困。They are no thicker than about one or two stories in a modern day building.他们和当代建筑的一层或者两层相比不是很厚。Interested in seeing for yourself? Strap in, space travelers, its quite a ride.为看到自己感兴趣吗?系好安全带,太空旅行者们,这是一次非常快的旅程。After seven years and a billion miles of space, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft faces its greatest challenge on June 30th, 2004.经过七年和十亿英里的太空旅程,在2004年6月30日,卡西尼·惠根斯航天器面临最大的挑战。注:听力文本来源于普特201206/185126顺德区新世纪男科正规吗顺德新世纪医院是正规的吗

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