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2019年11月21日 13:20:10来源:京东活动

  • An Iranian mathematician is the first woman ever to receive a Fields Medal, often considered to be mathematics#39; equivalent of the Nobel Prize.一名伊朗数学家成了首位荣获菲尔茨奖(Fields Medal)的女性;该奖项被认为是数学界的诺贝尔奖(Nobel Prize)。The recipient, Maryam Mirzakhani, a professor at Stanford, was one of four scheduled to be honored on Wednesday at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Seoul, South Korea.这位获奖者是斯坦福大学(Stanford)教授玛丽亚姆·米尔札哈尼(Maryam Mirzakhani),本周三在韩国首尔举行的国际数学家大会(International Congress of Mathematicians)会为她和另外三位数学家颁奖。The Fields Medal is given every four years, and several can be awarded at once. The other recipients this year are Artur Avila of the National Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics in Brazil and the National Center for Scientific Research in France; Manjul Bhargava of Princeton University; and Martin Hairer of the University of Warwick in England.菲尔兹奖每四年颁发一次,每次可以同时授予数人。今年的另外三位获奖者是巴西国立纯数学和应用数学研究所(National Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics)和法国国家科学院(National Center for Scientific Research)的阿图尔·阿维拉(Artur Avila)、普林斯顿大学(Princeton University)的曼朱·巴尔加瓦(Manjul Bhargava),以及英国华威大学(University of Warwick)的马丁·海瑞尔(Martin Hairer)。The 52 medalists from previous years were all men.以前的52名菲尔兹奖得主都是男性。;This is a great honor. I will be happy if it encourages young female scientists and mathematicians,; Dr. Mirzakhani was ed as saying in a Stanford news release on Tuesday. ;I am sure there will be many more women winning this kind of award in coming years.;“这是极大的殊荣。如果这对年轻的女性科学家和数学家有所鼓励,我会感到荣幸,”米尔札哈尼士在本周二斯坦福大学的一份新闻稿里说。“我相信未来会有更多女性获得这类奖项。”Ingrid Daubechies, a professor of mathematics at Duke and president of the International Mathematical Union, called the news ;a great joy; in an email.杜克大学(Duke)数学教授英格丽·多贝西(Ingrid Daubechies)是国际数学联盟(International Mathematical Union)主席,她在电子邮件中称这个消息是“一大喜讯”。;All researchers in mathematics will tell you that there is no difference between the math done by a woman or a man, and of course the decision of the Fields Medal committee is based only on the results of each candidate,; she wrote. ;That said, I bet the vast majority of the mathematicians in the world will be happy that it will no longer be possible to say that ‘the Fields Medal has always been awarded only to men.#39; ;“数学界的所有研究人员都会告诉你,女性和男性所做的数学研究没有差别,而且菲尔兹奖委员会当然只会根据每个候选人的成就来甄选获奖者,”她写道。“话虽如此,我敢打赌,世界上的绝大多数数学家都会感到高兴,因为以后不可能再有人说‘菲尔兹奖一向只授予男性#39;了。”Much of the research by Dr. Mirzakhani, who was born in Tehran in 1977, has involved the behavior of dynamical systems. There are no exact mathematical solutions for many dynamical systems, even simple ones.米尔札哈尼士1977年出生于德黑兰,她的许多研究都涉及到动力系统的行为。很多动力系统都没有精确的数学解决方案,就连一些很简单的系统也是如此。;What Maryam discovered is that in another regime, the dynamical orbits are tightly constrained to follow algebraic laws,; said Curtis T. McMullen, a professor at Harvard who was Dr. Mirzakhani#39;s doctoral adviser. ;These dynamical systems describe surfaces with many handles, like pretzels, whose shape is evolving over time by twisting and stretching in a precise way. They are related to billiards on tables that are not rectangular but still polygonal, like the regular octagon.;“玛丽亚姆的发现是:在另一个层面,动力学轨道严格遵循代数法则,”哈佛大学(Harvard)教授柯蒂斯·T·麦克马伦(Curtis T. McMullen),他是米尔札哈尼读时的导师。“这些动力系统通过很多元素来描述表面,就像麻花一样,其形状通过扭曲和拉伸,以一种精确的方式随着时间推移而不断变化。它们有些像桌子上的撞球,桌子不是长方形的,但仍然是多边形,比如说正八边形。“Dr. Avila, 35, investigated a different area of dynamical systems, including an understanding of fractals. Dr. Bhargava, 40, was recognized for new methods in the geometry of numbers, especially prime numbers, and Dr. Hairer, 38, made advances in the study of the effect of random noise on partial differential equations, capturing the effect of turbulence on ocean currents or the flow of air around airplane wings.35岁的阿维拉士研究的是动力系统的另一个领域,包括对分形的一种理解。40岁的巴尔加瓦士在几何数论、尤其是质数上找到了一些新方法,而38岁的海瑞尔士在研究随机噪声对偏微分方程的影响时取得了进展,捕捉到了湍流对洋流或飞机机翼周围空气流动的影响。While women have reached parity in many academic fields, mathematics is still dominated by men, who earn about 70 percent of the doctoral degrees. The disparity is even more striking at the highest echelons. Since 2003, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters has awarded the Abel Prize, recognizing outstanding mathematicians with a monetary award of about million; all 14 recipients so far are men. No woman has won the Wolf Prize in Mathematics, another prestigious award.虽然女性已经在很多学科领域赶上了男性,但数学界仍然以男性为主,70%的数学士都是男性。在最顶尖的层次,这种差距更是惊人。挪威科学与文学院自2003年开始颁发阿贝尔奖(Abel Prize),用100万美元(约合人民币600万元)表彰优秀的数学家,到目前为止,该奖项的14个得主全都是男性。另一个著名的奖项沃尔夫数学奖(Wolf Prize in Mathematics),至今也没有女性得主。The Fields Medal was conceived by John Charles Fields, a Canadian mathematician, ;in recognition of work aly done; and as ;an encouragement for further achievement.; Judges have interpreted the terms of the Fields trust to mean that the award should usually be limited to mathematicians age 40 or younger.菲尔兹奖是由加拿大数学家约翰·查尔斯·菲尔兹(John Charles Fields)设立的,“用以表彰已经完成的工作”,并“鼓励得主获取进一步的成就”。根据评委对菲尔兹信托条款的解释,该奖项通常只应该颁发给年龄在40岁或以下的数学家。Dr. McMullen, himself a Fields medalist, did not speculate on why it had taken so long for a woman to be recognized. ;I would prefer to look forward and celebrate this occasion,; he said, ;and see it as a sign of positive trends in society and in science.;麦克马伦士自己也是菲尔兹奖得主,对于为什么迟至今日才有女性获奖这个问题,他没有加以揣测,而是说:“我更愿意向前看,更愿意庆贺这件事,把它看成是社会以及科学界中的一个积极趋势。” /201409/330087。
  • Blame the Food Network. The television channel and its many tentacles has transformed the idea of being foodie, once the province of boring recipe shows, into full-on adventure entertainment. If not that, then blame the Whole Foods-fueled movement toward healthy and local eating. Whatever the cause, culinary tourism is on the rise. Ten years ago, it was barely discussed. Today, it’s an estimated 0 billion industry, according to the World Food Travel Association.都是美食频道惹的祸。电视里的美食频道以及它们的触手已经把当个美食家的概念从无聊的烹饪节目中拓展出来,转变成了丰富的探险活动。要不是这样的话,那就怪以全食超市(Whole Foods)为代表的提倡健康和本土化饮食的养生食品运动吧。总之无论是什么缘故,“美食旅游”(culinary tourism)正在蓬勃发展。十年前,人们几乎不会讨论这个,而如今,根据世界旅游美食协会(World Food Travel Association)的估计,这已经是一个价值高达1,500亿美元的产业。Not everyone can afford to live like Anthony Bourdain, though. The startup Try the World, Kat Vorotova and David Foult, has emerged to bring exotic foods from far-flung destinations to doorsteps around the U.S. The New York-based company has been shipping boxes of various packaged foods to subscribers since the beginning of this year. (The boxes can be purchased individually or via monthly subscription.) The goal with the company’s first box, a Valentine’s Day package from Paris, was to make . The boxes sold out within two days, and Try the World has shipped thousands of boxes since.然而,不是每个人都能负担得起美食节目主持人安东尼o波登那样的生活的。由凯特o沃洛托瓦和大卫o福尔特建立的初创公司Try the World,现在可以将外国食品从遥远的地区送到美国境内的顾客家门口。这家位于纽约的公司从今年开始营业,不断把价值45美元的各种食盒送到用户手中。(用户可以单独购买某一食盒,也可以包月订购。)公司的第一个食盒是来自巴黎的情人节食盒,每个能挣1美元。食盒在两天之内售罄,从那时起至今,Try the World已经运送了成千上万个食盒了。The company tapped into a trend that grocery stores are only beginning to recognize: Americans are hungry, literally, for variety. “Customers are becoming more sophisticated,” Vorotova says. “If they want coffee, they want it to be from Brazil, or if they want pesto, they want it to be from Italy.”这家公司利用了一个食品商店才刚刚开始意识到的趋势:美国人对品种的多样化如饥似渴。沃洛托瓦表示:“顾客开始要求越来越精致的生活。如果他们想喝咖啡,他们希望那是巴西出产的;如果他们想要香蒜沙司,他们会希望那是意大利进口的。”Thus a box that allows curious eaters to sample snacks and flavors of other cuisines without actually traveling there. Try the World’s boxes are curated by local “culture guides,” which tend to be chefs or people in the food industry looking for exposure in the U.S. The goal is to offer an authentic mix of local favorites, packaged with background information to put the food into context. The Paris box, for example, features a chestnut sp from a region protected by a government standard called appellation d’origine controlée, a package of hand-harvested salt from the Camargue region, and teas from Palais des Thés.如此一来,通过食盒,好奇的美食家们就能尝试其他烹饪风格炮制的食品,而不必亲自去到那里。Try the World的食盒都由当地的“文化指导”准备,他们是希望让自己的产品走向美国的大厨或食品业的专家,通过将当地的流行食品与相关背景信息糅杂在一起,让顾客知道食物的来龙去脉。比方说,巴黎的食盒中包含一颗来自政府法定控制产区的栗子,一袋来源于卡玛格(Camargue)地区的手工盐,还有法国连锁商“茶宫”(Palais des Thés)的茶叶。“We really want it to feel like the experience of someone who is traveling and sending you the best goodies,” Vorotova says. The company works with foreign brands to get deep discounts on the items included in the boxes, since many foreign food brands are seeking to grow in the U.S.沃洛托瓦表示:“我们想要营造出一种氛围,就像有人正在旅行,并给你带来了当地最棒的产品。”公司与国外品牌合作,在食盒中囊括的食品上获得了相当的折扣,因为有许多国外品牌也想开发美国市场。Try the World has shipped boxes from France, Japan, Brazil, Italy, Turkey, and India. The next box will be focused on foods from Great Britain. The boxes are marketed as city boxes, focused on one location, but feature items from around the country that would appear in a store in a particular city.Try the World已经开始提供来自法国、日本、巴西、意大利、土耳其和印度的食盒。下一个食盒中将包含来自英国的食物。食盒被定位为城市型,主要包括一个地区的产品,不过也含有某个城市的一家商店中售卖的全国特产。Try the World has raised 0,000 in seed funding from angel investors to expand its offerings and invest in marketing. The investors include Georges-Henri Levy, a French entrepreneur; Brian Kleinberg and Beth Lacey, former American Express executives; Ketty Maisonrouge, a professor at Columbia Business School and luxury strategist; Kevin Quinn, a financial advisor at Genki Advisory; Dominique Faye, a food industry executive; and The Eugene Lang Entrepreneurship Fund at Columbia Business School.Try the World已经通过天使投资募集了70万美元,用于营销投资以及拓展食物的范围。投资者中包括法国企业家乔治斯-亨利o列维,前美国运通(American Express)高管布莱恩o克莱因伯格和贝斯o莱西,哥伦比亚大学商学院(Columbia Business School)教授兼奢侈品分析师凯蒂o梅森卢兹,Genki Advisory咨询公司的财务顾问凯文o奎恩,食品业高管多米尼克o法耶,以及哥伦比亚大学商学院的尤金郎创业基金(The Eugene Lang Entrepreneurship Fund)。 /201409/326313。
  • Stop for a second and notice the way you are sitting. Back curved, shoulders slumped, maybe legs crossed? For people who spend the day staring at a computer screen, this position is fairly typical. But what is it doing to your spine, if anything? Do we need to sit up straight to focus, like that mean math teacher once insisted? Here’s some straight talk from one expert, Mladen Golubic, medical director for the Center for Lifestyle Medicine at Cleveland Clinic’s Wellness Institute.停下手里的事情,注意一下你的坐姿吧!驼背、缩肩,说不定还翘着二郎腿?对于整天盯着电脑屏幕的人来说,这个姿势相当典型。然而,如果这种坐姿会伤害你的脊柱呢?另外,我们真的必须坐直了才能集中精力吗,就像小时候严厉的数学老师要求的那样?克里夫兰诊所健康协会(Cleveland Clinic’s Wellness Institute)生活方式医疗中心(Center for Lifestyle Medicine)的医学主任穆雷登#8226;戈卢比奇(Mladen Golubic)就坐姿问题畅谈了自己的看法。Degrees of Comfort舒适的坐姿角度Little research has been done on the best way to sit upright. One American meta study in 1999 concluded that sitting at an angle of 110 to 130 degrees was optimal for spine comfort. A Scottish study published in 2007 found that leaning back at 135 degrees is ideal to prevent back strain. While interesting, this sort of precision may be impractical for most people, Dr. Golubic says.至今,围绕最佳坐姿的研究仍寥寥可数。美国的一项于1999年进行的整合分析研究指出,身体躯干和大腿呈100度至130度角的坐姿最能令脊柱放松。苏格兰的一项于2007年发表了论文的研究发现,角度为135度的后仰坐姿对防止背部酸痛最为有利。戈卢比奇士表示,虽然这些研究令人颇感兴趣,但对于大多数人来讲,如此精确地拿捏坐姿角度或许并不可行。Sitting to Death?久坐伤身His clinic sees patients with multiple chronic illnesses. Nearly all of them sit for long periods each day. The term Sedentary Death Syndrome was coined by the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 2002 to address the growing consequences of a seated lifestyle. ‘There are studies on Sedentary Death Syndrome that show that sitting for hours can cause anything from lower back pain to high cholesterol, diabetes and obesity,’ he says. In other words, no matter what position you’re sitting in all day, it is pretty bad for you.克里夫兰诊所治疗过患有多种慢性疾病的病人。几乎所有这类患者都是每天久坐不动。2002年,美国总统健康及运动委员会(President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports)为应对久坐的生活方式所带来的日益严峻的问题创造了一个新词──体力活动缺乏综合症(Sedentary Death Syndrome)。戈卢比奇士称:“有关体力活动缺乏综合症的研究表明,久坐数个小时可能引发腰痛、高胆固醇、糖尿病及肥胖症等多种疾病。”换句话说,不管用哪种坐姿整天坐着,对你的身体都颇为有害。The Perfect Pose最佳坐姿Body posture determines the efficiency of your breathing. ‘Relaxed, straight sitting’ — with the core strong, shoulder blades active but not tight and spine erect — ‘expands your chest, allowing you to take in a larger breath . . . and you’ll have more energy and focus,’ Dr. Golubic says. To achieve this, sit away from the back of your chair so you don’t slump, with your feet placed firmly on the ground. He sometimes sends patients home with a blue dot to put on their computer screens as a reminder to sit up straight and stretch and take a deep breath when they feel pain. There is also an app called PostureTrack that alerts users when they’re slumping.身体姿势是对呼吸效果起决定性作用的因素。戈卢比奇士说,“放松,坐直”──保持身体核心稳定、打开但别绷紧肩胛骨并挺直脊柱──“挺胸,深呼吸……你会感觉到更有活力,更能集中精力”。为保持这样的坐姿,你需要和椅背保持一定距离,以防止自己瘫靠在椅子上,同时你的双脚应该稳稳地踩在地上。有些时候,他会让患者把一个蓝色的圆点贴纸带回家贴到电脑上,以此提醒患者在感觉到酸痛时,应该坐直、舒展身体并深呼吸。另外,有一款名为PostureTrack的应用程序可以在用户弯腰驼背时发出警报。Slump to a Hump弯腰驼背的害处It’s not as though slouching will give you a hunchback in a day, but ‘if you do this day after day, and your muscles are not strong, the whole skeleton changes,’ Dr. Golubic says. ‘I’m not aware of any studies that look at the changes in the volume of organs like the liver and spleen when you sit straight or slump forward. But we do know that when you slouch, you project an attitude of depression and low motivation.’ When you sit up straight, he adds, ‘psychologically, your attitude is better.’并不是说坐没坐相会让你在一天之内变成驼背,但戈卢比奇士称:“如果长此以往,你的肌肉又不够强壮,你全身的骨骼就会变形。据我所知,还没有哪项课题就人坐直时和驼背时内脏(如肝脏和脾脏)的体积变化进行过研究。但是我们知道的是,当你驼背时,你会传递出令人感觉你萎靡不振和情绪低落的信号。”他补充道,当你坐直时,“给人感觉你的心理状态比较好”。Core Message腰痛发出的信号If you’re not used to sitting up straight, you may feel lower back pain — an indicator that you need to strengthen your core and work on general fitness. Dr. Golubic almost always advises his patients to start yoga: ‘The first thing we learn in yoga is how to sit properly.’如果你还不习惯于直坐,你可能会感觉到腰痛──这说明你需要进行核心力量训练并提高身体的综合素质。基本上,戈卢比奇会建议所有的患者开始练习瑜伽:“在瑜伽课上,我们最先学习的就是正确的坐姿。”Walk, Don’t Sit多走并避免久坐The bottom line: How you sit is less important than how long you sit, Dr. Golubic says. He tries to get up from his desk often, doing ‘walking meetings’ with colleagues and taking phone calls outdoors. ‘If you cannot walk,’ he says, ‘At least stand.’底线:戈卢比奇士称,坐姿如何远不及坐的时间长短对身体的影响大。他本人会尽可能频繁地离开书桌,和同事们“边走路边开会”,并到室外接打电话。他说:“如果你没有条件走动,至少该多站站。” /201311/262934。
  • 2. Taslima Akhter. Savar Dhaka, Bangladesh. April 24, 2013.2013年4月24日,孟加拉国首都达卡郊区,摄影:塔斯利马·阿赫特尔April 24, 2013, still remains fresh in my memory. At 9 AM when I got the news, I rushed to Rana Plaza. That morning I did not understand what a brutal thing had happened, but within hours I grasped the enormity and horror of it. The day passed with many people helping survivors and taking photos. At midnight there were still many people. I saw the frightened eyes of the relatives. Some were crying. Some were looking for their loved ones.2013年4月24日这一天在我记忆里鲜活依旧。上午九点钟, 我得到消息,便冲到里那广场(Rana Plaza)。那天早上我并不知道这一事故的严重性,但后来一个小时里我才了解到其恐怖之极。那天是在和众人帮助幸存者和拍照中度过的。直至半夜,现场仍有很多人。我看到受害者亲人眼中的恐惧。有的在哭泣,有的在寻找亲人。 Around 2 AM among the many dead bodies inside the collapse, I found a couple at the back of the building, embracing each other in the rubble. The lower parts of their bodies were stuck under the concrete. A drop of blood from the man’s eye ran like a tear. Since then, this couple remains firmly in my heart. So many questions rose in my mind. What were they thinking at the last moment of their lives? Did they remember their family members? Did they to try to save themselves?约凌晨两点钟,大楼后边被废墟掩埋的尸体中,我看到一对拥抱的夫妇。他们的下半身被压在石块下。男子眼中落下的一滴血如泪般落下。从那以后,这对夫妇的形象便刻在我心上。我脑海里涌出很多问题:他们在生命最后一刻想的是什么?他们还记得家人吗?他们想要挽救自己吗?I keep asking myself whether the dreams of these people do not matter at all. Are they not worthy of our attention because they are the cheapest labor in the world? I have received many letters from different corners of the world, expressing solidarity with the workers. Those letters inspired me so much, while this incident raised questions about my responsibility as a photographer. My photography is my protest.我一直思考这些人的梦想是否重要。因为他们从事世上最廉价的劳动便不值得引起我们的关注吗?我收到世界各地的来信,信中表达对工人的鼓励持。我被深深地震撼了,这次事故也向我提出了有关摄影师责任感的问题。我的摄影作品就是我的抗议。 /201312/269449。
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