明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月26日 17:05:05
TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201608/461835【新闻精讲】Gender budgeting is not new. Feminist economists have argued for it since the 1980s. A few countries, such as Australia and South Africa, took it up, though efforts waxed and waned with shifts in political leadership—it is seen as left-wing and anti-austerity. The Nordic countries were pioneers in the West; Sweden, with its self-declared “feminist government”, may be the gold standard. Now, egged on by the World Bank, the UN and the IMF, more governments are taking an interest. They should sign on as the results are worth having.Partly because South Korea invested little in social care, women had to choose between having children, which lowers labour-force participation, or remaining childless, which reduces the country’s fertility rate. Gender budgeting showed how, with an ageing population, the country gained from spending on care. Rwanda found that investment in clean water not only curbed disease but also freed up girls, who used to fetch the stuff, to go to school. Ample research confirms that leaving half a country’s people behind is bad for growth. Violence against women; failing to educate girls properly; unequal pay and access to jobs: all take an economic toll. Inevitably there are difficulties. Dividing a policy’s costs and benefits between men and women can be hard. Sometimes, as with lost hours of school, the costs have to be estimated. Redesigning the budgeting process upends decades of practice. If every group pressing for change took the same approach, it would become unmanageable. In a way, though, that is the point. Governments find it easy to pay lip-service to women’s rights. Doing something demands tough choices.【精讲文本】Gender budgeting is not new. Feminist economists have argued for it since the 1980s. A few countries, such as Australia and South Africa, took it up, though efforts waxed and waned with shifts in political leadership—it is seen as left-wing and anti-austerity. The Nordic countries were pioneers in the West; Sweden, with its self-declared “feminist government”, may be the gold standard. Now, egged on by the World Bank, the UN and the IMF, more governments are taking an interest. They should sign on as the results are worth having.性别预算并不是新鲜事物。女权主义经济学家自上世纪80年代以来就在为之呼号。一些国家例如澳大利亚和南非等已采纳这种方法,不过为之付出的努力因权力更迭而遭遇起伏——性别预算被视为一种左派和反紧缩的行为。在西方,北欧国家是这方面的先行者,其中自诩“女权主义政府”的瑞典也许堪称典范。在世界、联合国以及国际货币基金组织的鼓动下,如今已有更多的政府对性别预算产生了兴趣。它们确实应该参与到这一实践中,因为它带来的成果会非常值得。argue v.主张take up 继续- I took up where I had left off.wax and wane v.兴衰shift n.改变anti-austerity 反紧缩- austerity n.节约- austere adj.节制的,简单的Nordic adj.北欧的pioneer n.先锋egg v.煽动,怂恿 (incite to action)Partly because South Korea invested little in social care, women had to choose between having children, which lowers labour-force participation, or remaining childless, which reduces the country’s fertility rate. Gender budgeting showed how, with an ageing population, the country gained from spending on care. Rwanda found that investment in clean water not only curbed disease but also freed up girls, who used to fetch the stuff, to go to school. Ample research confirms that leaving half a country’s people behind is bad for growth. Violence against women; failing to educate girls properly; unequal pay and access to jobs: all take an economic toll.从前,某种程度上因韩国在社会照护方面投入甚少,该国女性不得不在生与不生孩子之间做选择;前者会降低劳动力参与度,后者则会降低国家的生育率。性别预算表明,这个人口日趋老龄化的国家因对社会关怀的投入而获益。卢旺达政府发现,投资于洁净水不仅可以遏制疾病,还可将女孩们从取水的劳动中解放出来,让她们去上学。有充足的研究实,不顾任何一国的一半人口、将她们抛诸脑后,都会对经济增长产生负面影响。女性遭受暴力对待、女孩未能获得像样的教育、薪酬与工作机会不均等——这些问题都会造成经济损失。childless adj.无子女的fertility n.生育,繁殖ageing adj.老化的curb v.限制free up 释放fetch v.取ample adj.充足的properly adv.合适地,像样地toll n.损失,代价 (a grievous price)- Inflation has taken its toll.Inevitably there are difficulties. Dividing a policy’s costs and benefits between men and women can be hard. Sometimes, as with lost hours of school, the costs have to be estimated. Redesigning the budgeting process upends decades of practice. If every group pressing for change took the same approach, it would become unmanageable. In a way, though, that is the point. Governments find it easy to pay lip-service to women’s rights. Doing something demands tough choices.困难在所难免。将一项政策的成本与收益依据性别分别计算会是一道难题。有时,类似耽误上学这样的情况要付出多大的代价,只能估算出个大概。重新设计预算流程也会颠覆已执行数十年的实践。如果每一个积极寻求改变的团体都采用了这样的手段,情形就会变得难以驾驭。不过,在某种程度上,这也是意义所在。因为对政府来说,面对女性权益问题时开开空头票太容易了。要成就某些事,就必须要做出艰难的抉择。Inevitably adv.无可避免地- inevitable adj.无可避免的- evitable adj.可避免的estimate v.估算upend v.颠倒,颠覆 (overturn)press for 督促approach n.方法unmanageable adj.难以驾驭的pay lip-service to 口惠而实不至- He paid lip service to blue-collar workers, but he did nothing to help them.demand v.需求 Article/201704/504135

As the stones of Canterbury came into sight,he got off his horse, took off his boots当坎特伯雷大教堂进入视线 他下了马 脱掉靴子and walked barefoot the rest of the way through anthem-singing crowds of devotees.光脚穿过唱着圣歌的狂热信徒When he arrived home, Becket did what he said he would do他一到家 贝克特就立刻言出必行to all those who had opposed him during his six years of exile.对那些在他六年流亡期间的反对者们Shouting the ded curse, May they be damned by Jesus Christ,he excommunicated them.他高声恶咒他们 ;愿他们遭到主的唾弃; 他把他们逐出了教会But the bishops were not in hell.但主教们并没有下地狱They were at Henry#39;s court near Bayeux,pouring venomous reports in the king#39;s ear而是在巴约附近的亨利宫廷 向国王散布一些恶毒的谗言about Becket#39;s impossible, virtually treasonous arrogance.声称贝克特无可救药 叛逆嚣张Henry, who typically seemed to have forgotten about the promises at Fréteval,亨利果然忘了他在弗烈特瓦尔的承诺raised his head from his pillow and let out a roar of plantagenet anathema.他从床榻上抬起头 爆发了亨利二世的怒吼It was not,Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?But a much more alarming outcry.并不是那句 就没有谁能帮我摆脱这个胡闹的教士吗 而是一句更令人惊恐的谴责What miserable drones and traitors have I nourished and brought up in my household,who let their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born cleric?我的家园里究竟育和造就了 怎样可悲的寄生虫和叛国者 竟然纵容一个如此低贱的教士 这么可耻地羞辱他们的国王 /201609/466758

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201608/460638

  A few years ago, I broke into my own house.几年前,我闯入了自己的家。I had just driven home, it was around midnight in the dead of Montreal winter,我开车回到家,在蒙特利尔的寒冬,大约午夜时分,I had been visiting my friend, Jeff, across town, and the thermometer on the front porch minus 40 degrees我开车从城镇一边到另一边,去看望我的朋友Jeff,门廊上的温度计显示零下40度and don#39;t bother asking if that#39;s Celsius or Fahrenheit, minus 40 is where the two scales meet -- it was very cold.不需要知道是摄氏度还是华氏度, 到了零下40度,两个温度显示都一样--天气非常冷。And as I stood on the front porch fumbling in my pockets, I found I didn#39;t have my keys.当我站在门廊,摸索着我的口袋时,我发现找不到钥匙了。In fact, I could see them through the window, lying on the dining room table where I had left them.实际上,我透过窗户能看到我的钥匙,我把它们留在了餐桌上。So I quickly ran around and tried all the other doors and windows, and they were locked tight.我赶紧围着房子转,找能进去的门和窗户,而它们都被锁紧了。I thought about calling a locksmith -- at least I had my cellphone,我想到打电话给锁匠,至少我还有手机,but at midnight, it could take a while for a locksmith to show up, and it was cold.但在午夜,锁匠要过来可能需要一段时间,并且天气真的很冷。I couldn#39;t go back to my friend Jeff#39;s house for the night because I had an early flight to Europe the next morning,当晚我又不能回朋友Jeff的家,因为第二天我要坐早班机到欧洲,and I needed to get my passport and my suitcase.我必须要进屋里拿护照和行李。So, desperate and freezing cold, I found a large rock and I broke through the basement window,因此,在绝望和寒冷中,我找到一块大石头,打破了地下室的窗户,cleared out the shards of glass, I crawled through, I found a piece of cardboard and taped it up over the opening,清理了玻璃碎片后,我爬进屋里,找到了一块硬纸板,用胶带把它封贴在打破的窗户上,figuring that in the morning, on the way to the airport, I could call my contractor and ask him to fix it.我想着早晨去机场的路上可以打电话给承包商,请他来修理窗户。This was going to be expensive, but probably no more expensive than a middle-of-the-night locksmith,修理费会很昂贵,但不会比在午夜时找锁匠来开锁更贵,so I figured, under the circumstances, I was coming out even.所以我觉得,在这种情况下,即使打破了窗户也还划得来。Now, I#39;m a neuroscientist by training and I know a little bit about how the brain performs under stress.我是一个职业的神经科学家,我大概知道在压力下大脑是如何工作的。It releases cortisol that raises your heart rate, it modulates adrenaline levels and it clouds your thinking.大脑会释放皮质醇引起你的心率加速,它调节你的肾上腺素水平,并阻碍你的思维能力。So the next morning, when I woke up on too little sleep, worrying about the hole in the window,第二天早晨,我醒来的时候严重睡眠不足,还在担心窗户上打破的洞,and a mental note that I had to call my contractor, and the freezing temperatures, and the meetings I had upcoming in Europe,心里想着必须打电话给承包商,还有,天气非常寒冷,在欧洲有个会要开,and, you know, with all the cortisol in my brain, my thinking was cloudy,还有,因为我大脑释放的皮质醇,我的思维变得混沌,but I didn#39;t know it was cloudy because my thinking was cloudy.但我没觉察到它很混沌,因为我的思维很混沌。And it wasn#39;t until I got to the airport check-in counter, that I realized I didn#39;t have my passport.直到我在登机手续办理柜台时,才意识到我忘了带护照。So I raced home in the snow and ice, 40 minutes, got my passport, raced back to the airport, I made it just in time,于是,我在冰天雪地中用了40分钟赶回家,拿了护照后,又赶回机场,刚好赶上了飞机,but they had given away my seat to someone else, so I got stuck in the back of the plane,但他们已把我的座位给了别人,我不得不坐在飞机最后一排,next to the bathrooms, in a seat that wouldn#39;t recline, on an eight-hour flight.紧挨着洗手间,在八个小时的飞行中,我的座椅都不能往后倾。Well, I had a lot of time to think during those eight hours and no sleep.于是我就有了很多时间去思考,因为我在八小时中无法睡觉。And I started wondering, are there things that I can do, systems that I can put into place, that will prevent bad things from happening?我开始想,我能做些什么,有什么切实可行的方法可以防止不好的事发生呢?Or at least if bad things happen, will minimize the likelihood of it being a total catastrophe.或者至少,就算不好的事情真的会发生,也能把损失降到最小。So I started thinking about that, but my thoughts didn#39;t crystallize until about a month later.所以,我开始思考这个问题,但我没有想出来,直到一个月后。I was having dinner with my colleague, Danny Kahneman, the Nobel Prize winner,我和同事,也是诺贝尔奖的获得者Danny Kahneman,去吃晚餐,and I somewhat embarrassedly told him about having broken my window, and, you know, forgotten my passport,我有点尴尬地告诉他,我打破窗户爬进屋里,还有忘记拿护照的事,and Danny shared with me that he#39;d been practicing something called prospective hindsight.而Danny和我分享了他一直在练习的称为“预测后见之明”的东西。It#39;s something that he had gotten from the psychologist Gary Klein,这是他从心理学家Gary Klein那里学到的。who had written about it a few years before, also called the pre-mortem.Gary前几年已经写了这个理论,也称为“事前剖析”。Now, you all know what the postmortem is.你们都知道事后剖析是什么意思。Whenever there#39;s a disaster, a team of experts come in and they try to figure out what went wrong, right?每当有灾难,一个专家小组就会前去调查,尝试找出导致灾难的原因,对吧?Well, in the pre-mortem, Danny explained, you look ahead and you try to figure out all the things that could go wrong,而Danny解释,在事前剖析中,你要预测、尝试想出可能出错的所有事情,and then you try to figure out what you can do to prevent those things from happening, or to minimize the damage.然后你要尝试可能的方法来防止这些错误发生,或将损失降到最小。So what I want to talk to you about today are some of the things we can do in the form of a pre-mortem.所以,今天我想和你们谈谈关于在事前剖析中我们能做的一些事情。Some of them are obvious, some of them are not so obvious. I#39;ll start with the obvious ones.有些方式是显而易见的,而有些则不那么明显。我先谈显而易见的方式。Around the home, designate a place for things that are easily lost.在家里,指定一个地方,放容易丢失的东西。Now, this sounds like common sense, and it is,这听起来就像是常识,也的确是,but there#39;s a lot of science to back this up, based on the way our spatial memory works.但这符合我们空间记忆的工作原理,有很多科学依据持这一点。There#39;s a structure in the brain called the hippocampus, that evolved over tens of thousands of years,在我们大脑里,有一个叫海马体的结构,已经进化超过数万年了,to keep track of the locations of important things -- where the well is, where fish can be found,它可以追踪重要东西的位置--例如,水井的位置,能够发现鱼的地方,that stand of fruit trees, where the friendly and enemy tribes live.果树的位置,以及友好物种和敌对物种分别居住在哪里。The hippocampus is the part of the brain that in London taxicab drivers becomes enlarged.海马体是大脑的一部分,伦敦出租车司机的海马体结构通常比常人要大。It#39;s the part of the brain that allows squirrels to find their nuts.松鼠能找到坚果,也要归功于它们大脑的海马体。And if you#39;re wondering, somebody actually did the experiment你们可能对这点感到疑惑,但有人的确做了一个实验。where they cut off the olfactory sense of the squirrels, and they could still find their nuts.他们切掉了松鼠的嗅觉器官,松鼠仍然能找到它们的坚果。They weren#39;t using smell, they were using the hippocampus, this exquisitely evolved mechanism in the brain for finding things.它们不是用嗅觉,而是用大脑的海马体,这个进化完美的大脑机制是用来找东西的。But it#39;s really good for things that don#39;t move around much, not so good for things that move around.但只是对找固定的东西比较有效,找会移动的东西却不是很管用。So this is why we lose car keys and ing glasses and passports.这就是为什么我们会常常找不到车钥匙、老花镜和护照。So in the home, designate a spot for your keys -- a hook by the door, maybe a decorative bowl.所以,在家里指定一个地点存放你的钥匙--门上的挂钩,或是一个装饰碗。For your passport, a particular drawer. For your ing glasses, a particular table.在一个特定的抽屉存放你的护照。你的老花镜要放在特定的桌子上。If you designate a spot and you#39;re scrupulous about it, your things will always be there when you look for them.如果你指定了特定的地方,并且一丝不苟地做这些事,当你寻找它们时,这些东西总是会在那里。What about travel? Take a cell phone picture of your credit cards, your driver#39;s license, your passport,关于旅行呢?用手机拍下你信用卡的照片,还有你的驾照和护照,mail it to yourself so it#39;s in the cloud.把这些照片发到你的电子邮箱,储存在数据云端。If these things are lost or stolen, you can facilitate replacement.如果一旦丢失或被盗了,你可以很方便地用电子件代替它们。Now these are some rather obvious things. Remember, when you#39;re under stress, the brain releases cortisol.这些是一些显而易见的事前剖析方法。记住,当你有压力时,大脑会释放皮质醇。Cortisol is toxic, and it causes cloudy thinking.皮质醇是有毒的,它会导致思维不清晰。So part of the practice of the pre-mortem is to recognize that under stress you#39;re not going to be at your best,所以,做事前剖析的练习,是要认识到在压力下,你不是在最佳状态,and you should put systems in place.你还应该把事情做到井然有序。And there#39;s perhaps no more stressful a situation than when you#39;re confronted with a medical decision to make.不过也许没有什么比你要做医疗决策更紧张的情况了。And at some point, all of us are going to be in that position,有时,我们都会经历这种事情,where we have to make a very important decision about the future of our medical care or that of a loved one, to help them with a decision.我们必须要做出一个很重要的决策,为我们自己或自己爱的人做医疗决策。And so I want to talk about that. And I#39;m going to talk about a very particular medical condition.所以,我想谈谈这个话题。我要说一个非常特殊的医疗情况。But this stands as a proxy for all kinds of medical decision-making,但它代表了各种决策:医疗决策,and indeed for financial decision-making, and social decision-making当然还有财政决策和社交决策any kind of decision you have to make that would benefit from a rational assessment of the facts.任何你必须做的决策,可以让你从理性的事实评估中受益。So suppose you go to your doctor and the doctor says, ;I just got your lab work back, your cholesterol#39;s a little high.;假设你去看医生,而医生说,“我刚拿到你验血结果,你的胆固醇有点高。”Now, you all know that high cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, heart attack, stroke.你们都知道,胆固醇高会增加患心血管疾病、心脏病和中风的风险。And so you#39;re thinking having high cholesterol isn#39;t the best thing, and so the doctor says,所以,你会想高胆固醇不是一件好事,那么医生会说:;You know, I#39;d like to give you a drug that will help you lower your cholesterol, a statin.;“我给你开点药,帮助你降低胆固醇,他汀类药就可以。”And you#39;ve probably heard of statins, you know that they#39;re among the most widely prescribed drugs in the world today,你可能已经听说过他汀类药物,现如今是医生开的最多的处方药之一。you probably even know people who take them.你甚至可能认识用这药的人。And so you#39;re thinking, ;Yeah! Give me the statin.;于是你想,“好吧,给我他汀类药。”But there#39;s a question you should ask at this point,但这个时候,你必须问一个问题,a statistic you should ask for that most doctors don#39;t like talking about, and pharmaceutical companies like talking about even less.一个许多医生不愿谈论,制药公司更不喜欢谈论到的一个统计数字。It#39;s for the number needed to treat. Now, what is this, the NNT?这个统计数字就是治疗所需人数。NNT是什么意思呢?It#39;s the number of people that need to take a drug or undergo a surgery or any medical procedure before one person is helped.它是指多少人用了某种药,或接收了手术或其他任何治疗方式,才会有1人收益。And you#39;re thinking, what kind of crazy statistic is that? The number should be one.你心说,这是哪门子统计数字?这数字应该是1啊。My doctor wouldn#39;t prescribe something to me if it#39;s not going to help.如果这药对我没有帮助,那医生就不会开给我。But actually, medical practice doesn#39;t work that way.但实际上,医疗实践不是这样运行的。And it#39;s not the doctor#39;s fault, if it#39;s anybody#39;s fault, it#39;s the fault of scientists like me.这不是医生的错,如果是某些人的错,那就是像我一样的科学家的错。We haven#39;t figured out the underlying mechanisms well enough.我们还没有想出足够好的运作机制。But GlaxoSmithKline estimates that 90 percent of the drugs work in only 30 to 50 percent of the people.但据葛兰素史克制药公司估计,90%的药品只对30%到50%的人有用。So the number needed to treat for the most widely prescribed statin, what do you suppose it is?所以,这种最广泛的处方药的治疗所需人数,你们猜是多少?How many people have to take it before one person is helped? 300.多少人要用它才会出现一个受益的人?300。This is according to research by research practitioners Jerome Groopman and Pamela Hartzband, independently confirmed by Bloomberg.com.这是根据研究工作者Jerome Groopman和Pamela Hartzband做的、由Bloomberg.com权威网站独立实过的研究得出的数据。I ran through the numbers myself.我自己想了一下这个数字。300 people have to take the drug for a year before one heart attack, stroke or other adverse event is prevented.必须有300人用此药一年,才能预防一起心脏病、中风或其他疾病。Now you#39;re probably thinking, ;Well, OK, one in 300 chance of lowering my cholesterol. Why not, doc? Give me the prescription anyway.;现在你可能在想,“好吧,还有300分之1的机会可以降低我的胆固醇。为什么不用呢?医生,给我开这个药。”But you should ask at this point for another statistic, and that is, ;Tell me about the side effects.; Right?但是你应该问医生,有关这药的另一个统计数字,那就是,“告诉我这药的副作用。”对吧?So for this particular drug, the side effects occur in five percent of the patients.那么针对这种药,副作用会发生在5%的患者身上。And they include terrible things -- debilitating muscle and joint pain, gastrointestinal distress这些副作用包括一些可怕的情况--肌无力、关节疼痛和肠胃不适but now you#39;re thinking, ;Five percent, not very likely it#39;s going to happen to me, I#39;ll still take the drug.;但你可能觉得:“才5%的比例,不太可能发生在我身上,我还是会用它。”But wait a minute. Remember under stress you#39;re not thinking clearly.但是,请等等。记住在压力下,你可能思维混乱,不能考虑清楚。So think about how you#39;re going to work through this ahead of time,所以,要提前思考一下你该如何做,so you don#39;t have to manufacture the chain of reasoning on the spot.这样你就不用事到临头时再去进行一连串的推理了。300 people take the drug, right? One person#39;s helped, five percent of those 300 have side effects, that#39;s 15 people.300人要用这药,才会有一个人受益,对吧?300人中5%的人会受药物副作用的影响,也就是15人。You#39;re 15 times more likely to be harmed by the drug than you are to be helped by the drug.你受药物副作用伤害的可能性是你受益于药物的15倍。Now, I#39;m not saying whether you should take the statin or not.我并不是想表明 你该不该用他汀类药物。I#39;m just saying you should have this conversation with your doctor.我只是说,你应该咨询你的医生。Medical ethics requires it, it#39;s part of the principle of informed consent.医德要求我们这样做,这是知情同意原则的一部分。You have the right to have access to this kind of information to begin the conversation about whether you want to take the risks or not.你有权力要求知道这类信息,有权和医生谈你是否愿意承担这样的风险。Now you might be thinking I#39;ve pulled this number out of the air for shock value,现在你可能会想,我为了制造震撼的效果凭空捏造了这个数字,but in fact it#39;s rather typical, this number needed to treat.但实际上,这个治疗所需人数是相当具有代表性的。For the most widely performed surgery on men over the age of 50, removal of the prostate for cancer, the number needed to treat is 49.对于50岁以上的男性,做的最多的手术是为治疗前列腺癌而切除前列腺,治疗所需人数是49。That#39;s right, 49 surgeries are done for every one person who#39;s helped.是的,49个患者做了手术才会出现一个受益的人。And the side effects in that case occur in 50 percent of the patients.而这种情况手术的副作用会发生在50%的患者身上。They include impotence, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, rectal tearing, fecal incontinence.这些副作用包括阳痿、勃起功能障碍、尿失禁、直肠撕裂、大便失禁。And if you#39;re lucky, and you#39;re one of the 50 percent who has these, they#39;ll only last for a year or two.如果你“有幸”成为了50%受副作用影响的人中的一个,这些副作用通常只会持续1-2年。So the idea of the pre-mortem is to think ahead of time to the questions that you might be able to ask that will push the conversation forward.所以,事前剖析是要提前想好你想问医生的问题,这样会深入推进你和医生的对话。You don#39;t want to have to manufacture all of this on the spot.毕竟你不想事到临头再来思考所有事情。And you also want to think about things like quality of life.而且你也需要考虑一下生活质量。Because you have a choice oftentimes, do you I want a shorter life that#39;s pain-free,因为通常你是有选择的,你是想要较短的没有痛苦的人生,or a longer life that might have a great deal of pain towards the end?还是想要较长的最终要承受巨大痛苦的人生呢?These are things to talk about and think about now, with your family and your loved ones.这些都是现在需要谈论和思考的问题,和你的家人、爱人一起。You might change your mind in the heat of the moment, but at least you#39;re practiced with this kind of thinking.你可能会在事发时改变你的想法,但至少你练习了这种思维方法。Remember, our brain under stress releases cortisol,请记住,我们的大脑在压力下会释放皮质醇,and one of the things that happens at that moment is a whole bunch on systems shut down.在那一刻发生的一件事是你整个思维系统似乎停工了。There#39;s an evolutionary reason for this.这里有一个进化方面的原因。Face-to-face with a predator, you don#39;t need your digestive system, or your libido, or your immune system,和一个捕食者面对面时,你不需要你的消化系统、性欲或者免疫系统的帮助。because if you#39;re body is expending metabolism on those things and you don#39;t react quickly,因为如果你的身体忙着在这些事情上进行新陈代谢,你就不能迅速作出反应,you might become the lion#39;s lunch, and then none of those things matter.那么你可能会成为狮子的午餐,然后那些事情也就不重要了。Unfortunately, one of the things that goes out the window during those times of stress is rational, logical thinking,不幸的是,在紧张时,其中一件会出错的事情是理性地、有逻辑地思考。as Danny Kahneman and his colleagues have shown.Danny Kahneman和他的同事已经明了这点。So we need to train ourselves to think ahead to these kinds of situations.所以,我们需要培养自己超前思考的习惯,去面对这类事情。I think the important point here is recognizing that all of us are flawed.这里很重要的一点是,要认识到我们所有人都不是完美的。We all are going to fail now and then.我们都会不时地经历失败。The idea is to think ahead to what those failures might be,事前剖析就要超前思考可能的失败会是什么,to put systems in place that will help minimize the damage, or to prevent the bad things from happening in the first place.井然有序地做事有助于把伤害减到最小,或者在第一时间防止糟糕的事情发生。Getting back to that snowy night in Montreal, when I got back from my trip,说回到我在蒙特利尔那个冰天雪地的晚上,当我从欧洲返程回到家时,I had my contractor install a combination lock next to the door, with a key to the front door in it, an easy to remember combination.我的承包商在门旁边安装了密码锁,还有一把钥匙以及一个简单易记的密码。And I have to admit, I still have piles of mail that haven#39;t been sorted, and piles of emails that I haven#39;t gone through.我不得不承认,我还是有一堆没有分类的信件,以及一堆没有处理的邮件。So I#39;m not completely organized, but I see organization as a gradual process, and I#39;m getting there. Thank you very much.所以,我还没能完全做到井然有序,但我把井然有序做事看成是一个渐进的过程,也正在慢慢实现这个目标。谢谢。 Article/201706/514856

  TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201608/461837。

  Edward asked the guardians of the realm to come up with documentary evidence爱德华要求那些苏格兰的守护者 给出书面据说明as to why he was not, in fact, their feudal overlord,to which he got a wonderfully canny contradiction,not at all what he wanted to hear.他为何不能成为他们的最高统治者 结果却使他陷入一个十分尴尬的境地 与他幻想中的完全背道而驰Sire, they said,the ;bona gentes;, the responsible man who sent us here.陛下 他们说道 上帝让我们在这片土地上繁衍生息Know full well you couldn#39;t possibly make so great a claim unless you actually believed you had a right to it.您应该十分清楚 自己无权擅作主张 除非您确信自己有权这么做But of this right, we know nothing.但我们对您的这一权力毫无所知Which is as much to say, look,you can#39;t be completely off your head to come up with this sovereignty stuff,这就相当于是在说 给我听好了 你别痴心妄想了 想统治我们是不可能的but actually it#39;s all news to us, chum,since the Scottish realm on this side of the river is held tribute to no one but god.不过朋友 这倒真是稀奇事 因为在河这一侧的苏格兰领土 只归圣主耶稣We don#39;t have to prove a thing.It#39;s for you to come up with a supermonk with the perfect charter.这一点无需我们明 而你则需要得到神灵的特许Why don#39;t you let us know when you have it?何不在你获准时通知我们一声In the end, all those who thought they were still of the chance of winning the Scots crown,did pay homage to Edward.最终 所有那些 觊觎苏格兰王座的人 都宣誓效忠爱德华But the rest of the Scots community of the realm held their noses and stood aloof.而剩下的那些苏格兰人 则对此嗤之以鼻 不屑一顾Was this, as some Scottish historians have always insisted, an Edwardian trap?这会是一些苏格兰历史学家 一直持的爱德华圈套说吗Was he aly thinking of turning scotland into Wales North,他已经计划好将苏格兰变成北威尔士the next territory to be gobbled up by his impeiral appetite?以满足自己对领土的饕餮之欲吗 /201610/473066

  Imagine if you could understand and communicate with people across 100 languages.想象一下如果你可以听懂100多种语言并能和人们正常交流该有多好。With the Google Translate app, now you can.用谷歌翻译,你就可以把它变成现实。Translate lets you connect with the world around you. No matter where in the world you are.用谷歌翻译,无论你在世界的那个角落,都可以和周边的人沟通交流。It#39;s free and it#39;s always with you right on your phone.它是免费的,而且可以在手机上使用。Let#39;s try it out. Tap the microphone to use your very own voice.我们来试一下吧。点击麦克风开始说话。Is there a pharmacy nearby?附近有药店吗?You can even have a complete conversation with someone who speaks a completely different language.即使对方讲完全不同的语言,你们也可以进行完整的对话,。Just select your language and their language and start talking.只需要选择你的语言和对方的语言,就可以开始对话了。Your speech will be translated loud and clear. And you#39;ll be able to see it, too.这款应用会把你的话大声清晰的翻译出来。你也可以看到翻译结果。Now, let#39;s say you#39;re looking at a in a language you can#39;t .比如你正在看一个另一种语言的菜单。Using your camera, you can translate the words instantly.使用相机,就可以快速的翻译出来。It could save you from ordering something that sets your mouth on fire.这样就能避免点到辣的令嘴巴冒火的菜品。And it even works offline. Speaking of offline,它也可以离线运行。来说一说离线运行,so what if you don#39;t have data? Or you#39;re in a place with no Wi-Fi?所以如果没有信号怎么办?或者在一个没网的地方怎么办?Don#39;t worry. You#39;ve got this. You don#39;t need internet to use Translate.不要担心,有这个呢。不用互联网也可以使用谷歌翻译。Just download the offline translation file for the languages you need.只需要下载所需语言的离线翻译包就可以了。Translate works without data. In a jungle, on an airplane, or in deep space.谷歌翻译没有信号也可以工作。在丛林里,飞机上或者太空都可以。Google Translate. Have a conversation. Use your camera. Use it everywhere.谷歌翻译。进行对话。使用相机。随处可用。100 languages right in your hand. We speak Translate.100多种语言尽在手中。我们讲“谷歌翻译”语。Do you?你使用了吗? Article/201707/516281TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201606/447647TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201610/470017

  《洋话连篇》MP3下载及全套文本 /200704/11959

  吴大维洋腔洋调英语口语视频第二册第1集,今天大维带我们来到棒球场,解说打棒球时所用到的各种词汇,投手捕手,外野手,裁判等等,快来了解下吧。打棒球相关词汇和短语:1. baseball 棒球2. softball 垒球3. pitcher 投手4. catcher 捕手5. first baseman 一垒手6. second baseman 二垒手7. shortstop 游击手8. tird baseman 三垒手9. outfielder 外野手10. right fielder 右外野手11. center fielder 中外野手12. left fielder 左外野手13. bleachers 观众看台14. dugout 选手休息区15. baseline 边线16. umpire 裁判17. scoreboard 计分板,记分牌18. guest 客人,来宾19. home/ home field 主场20. inning 局数相关专题推荐:色拉英语乐园视频新英语900句视频从零开始学口语 /200809/50270

  We#39;ve heard a lot from a lot of people about this election so far.我们到现在为止已经听过很多人很多人对这次选举的看法了We heard from pundits, surrogates, experts, anchors.我们问过学者 代理人 专家 新闻主播But we haven#39;t yet heard from kids.但是我们没问过孩子们的意见So this afternoon we went on the street just outside our bureau.所以这个下午我们到办公室外的大街上Ask children to give us their thoughts on our next president, donald j. Trump.让孩子们告诉我们他们的意见 关于下一任总统 唐纳德 特朗普You know there was an election a couple of days ago, right? Yes.你知道前几天有一个选举 对吧 是的Do you know who won? Donald trump. Now how does donald trump make you feel? Kind of iffy.你知道谁赢了?唐纳德 川普 那川普给你感觉如何?挺可疑的Iffy? Why is that? I don#39;t know, he#39;s really rude.可疑?为什么呢?我不知道 他真的很粗鲁How does that make you feel that donald j. Trump is your president? Oh, god.你对于唐纳德 川普是下一任总统有什么感觉 哦 上帝啊Not really comfortable. But I mean -- it#39;s The world keeps moving on.不是很舒 但是我的意思是 这是 地球还是得继续转When he became president, what was the face that you made? I made an angry face.当他成了总统 你做了什么表情 生气脸Let me see. Do you like donald trump? Oh So how would you describe donald trump?让我看看 你喜欢唐纳德 川普么?噢 你怎么形容唐纳德 川普?Describe him as an idiot. An idiot? Yeah. How does that make you feel and why?形容成一个白痴 一个白痴?是的 你对此有什么感觉?为什么呢?I don#39;t really care because I#39;m canadian. But I don#39;t like him.我不在乎因为我是加拿大人 但是我不喜欢他Are you worrieder#39;s going to come to canada?你担心他会去加拿大么?Kind of but not snoop dogg, I want snoop dogg to come.有点担心 但是史努比 我想史努比来加拿大What do you think he should do, donald trump? he should clean up the whole earth.你觉得他应该做些什么 唐纳德 川普?他需要打扫整个地球Clean up the whole earth? Yeah, he should be a plumber. Be a plumber? Why do you think that?打扫整个地球?对的 他要当个水管工 水管工?为什么你这么想?Because then he gets dirty And he has to clean the toilet.因为他会变得很脏 然后他要自己打扫卫生间If you had to say one nice thing about him, what would you say? Oh. Well.如果你需要说一样他的优点 你会说什么?噢 这样啊He doesn#39;t -- he#39;s not the ugliest person in the world.他不是 他不是这世界上最丑的人What does he look like? He looks -- weird. He does look like a dope.他看上去怎么样?他看上去 很奇怪 他看上去有点像个笨蛋A dope? Yeah. Do an impression of donald trump.笨蛋?对 唐纳德 川普给你的印象如何I could stand in the middle of broadway and shoot somebody And I wouldn#39;t lose any votes.我可以站在百老汇中央然后冲别人射击 也并不会少任何投票I#39;m donald trump and I#39;m the best person in the world and Hillary Clinton sucks.我是唐纳德 川普 我是世界上最好的人 希拉里 克林顿逊毙了Can you do an impression of donald trump? Donald trump? She#39;s a nasty woman.唐纳德 川普给你印象如何 她是个下流的女人She#39;s a nasty woman. Is that donald trump? Is donald trump going to be good?她是个下流的女人 这是模仿唐纳德 川普?你觉得唐纳德川普会做好么Good? He#39;s going to be yuge! What do you think about donald trump? Good guy.他会做的很大 你觉得唐纳德川普怎么样?好人He#39;s a good guy? Yeah. Do you like him? Yeah.他是个好人?是的 你喜欢他么?喜欢Would you want him to be your babysitter? No. No? Why not?那你愿意让他做你保姆么?不愿意 不愿意?为什么?Why not? Because he#39;s -- I don#39;t know. You don#39;t trust him? No.因为他 我不知道 你不相信他?不相信So would you want donald trump to be your dad? Of course not. Why not? He might murder my mom.你愿意唐纳德川普当你爸爸么?当然不 为什么?他可能会杀了我妈的 Article/201706/514895。

  There is no time like the present.机不可失,时不再来。there is no time like后面加一个时间,表示没有比...更好的时候了,后面可加to do something,表示没有比...更好的时候去做某事。There is no time like the present to talk with him.没有比现在更好的时间去和他谈谈话了。There is no time like Christmas to show your love to people around you.没有比圣诞节更好的时候去向你身边的人表达你的爱。

  Too often young Somali-Americans in Minnesota have made headlines for all the wrong reasons:年轻一代的索马里裔美国人经常会成为新闻头条,而每次几乎都是因为下面这些错误的原因:a small number have fallen prey to the lure of drugs, gangs and extremist ideology.少数人沦为毒品、黑帮和极端主义意识形态的牺牲品。But youth organizations in the state are trying to challenge all that.但如今美国各青年组织正在设法挑战这一切。A group of 12 youth basketball organizations representing mosques around the Twin Cities held a tournament12个青年篮球组织代表双城的清真寺举办了一场锦标赛,where young people were given the chance to build athletic skills and gain self-esteem.从而使年轻人有机会培养运动技能,赢得自尊心。One of the players from the al-Rawda team, representing one of the mosques and won the tournament,同样代表清真寺出战的al-Rawda队在本次比赛中获得了胜利,explained why it was so important.一名队员向我们解释了获胜的重要性。Today we have succeeded in winning the cup after beating the finalist Umatul-Islam club.“今天在击败决赛选手Umatul-Islam俱乐部之后,我们获得了奖杯。We had worked very hard for this and we are so excited about it.;为了这个奖杯我们付出了很多努力,所以现在非常兴奋。”Minnesota is home to the largest Somali community in the U.S.,明尼苏达州是美国最大的索马里社区所在地,with more than 20,000 (people) living in the state out of a total of 80,000 across the country.全国总共有8万索马里人,其中有2万都生活在明尼苏达。According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), about a dozen people have joined militant groups in Syria in recent years根据联邦调查局的报道,近年来,大约有十几人加入了叙利亚武装组织,and about 22 men have been lured to join al-Shabab in Somalia dating back to 2007.从2007年开始,大约已经有22名男子被引诱加入索马里青年党。Most recently, nine Somali-American men were accused of plotting to join ISIS,最近又有9名索马里裔美国男子被控密谋加入ISIS,a Minnesota federal court handed them jail sentences.明尼苏达联邦法院已经对这些人处以监禁的惩罚。Programs like the basketball tournament are geared toward providing extracurricular activities to fend off negative influences.之所以举办像篮球锦标赛这一类的活动,是为了提供多样的课外活动,从而抵御负面影响。A local organization behind the tournament, ;For the Youth, by the Youth,;持举办本次比赛的一个当地组织“青年享,青年治”表示,says the impact of the competition is felt far beyond the basketball courts.比赛的影响远远超出了篮球场。;The reason we start this proram is when we saw what the youth are going through“我们之所以开展这个项目,是因为目睹了年轻人的遭遇,and how they were involved with gang fights among themselves, when we saw how they are suspected or labeled as extremists,亲眼看到了他们是怎么参与到帮派之间的斗争中,还眼睁睁地看着他们被怀疑,被贴上恐怖主义分子的标签,we started to bring them together in order to prevent them from getting involved with drugs.于是我们开始把他们召集到一起,防止他们参与到吸毒事件当中去。We found a place where they can stay fit and stay busy and avoid negative influences.;最终我们找到了一个地方,这里不仅可以让他们保持健康,还能保持忙碌的状态,避免产生那些负面的影响。”One of the players, Abdullahi Bare, agrees that sport can be a unifying force for good.阿卜杜拉·拜尔也是球员之一,他表示,运动永远都是一股凝聚人心的力量。This kind of tournament brings us together as brothers.“这种比赛让我们相聚在一起,我们就像是兄弟一样,We come together and when we finish the games we eat together and communicate as well.;来时一起来,比赛结束之后会一起吃饭,也会相互交流。”The basketball tournament is an annual event in Minnesota that has been going on for three years.作为明尼苏达州一年一度的活动,篮球锦标赛如今已经走过了三个年头。For Abdi H. Mahamud, Salem Solomon, VOA news.VOA新闻,阿布迪·H·马阿穆德,塞勒姆·所罗门为您播报。 Article/201706/515740

  TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201611/470044

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