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2019年08月21日 19:17:35    日报  参与评论()人

四川省肿瘤医院人流价格表绵阳市第四人民医院周末上班吗Spains economy西班牙经济Iberian dawn伊比利亚的黎明The labour market is recovering at last. But it needs further reform劳动市场最终还是复苏了,但是其需要进一步的改革。THIS was the news the government had been waiting for. “Spains labour market has made a 180-degree turn,” crowed the prime minister, Mariano Rajoy, as the country announced the first annual rise in employment in six years. The numbers show that unpopular reforms to the malfunctioning labour market are starting to work. But there is plenty left to do.这是政府翘首以待的消息。“西班牙的劳动力市场已经发生了180度的大转弯”,当西班牙政府宣布这是六年来西班牙首次就业增长时,西班牙总理马里亚诺·拉霍伊对此洋洋自得。这些数字表明那些不受失灵劳动力市场待见的改革也已经初见成效,但仍有许多东西亟待解决。In the past year Spain has created 190,000 jobs. The unemployment rate, still one of the highest in the euro zone, fell from 26% to 24.5% (see chart), and the labour force stopped shrinking after six straight quarters of decline.在过去的一年中西班牙国内增加了19万个就业岗位。在欧元区位列前茅的失业率从之前的26%下降到24.5%,在连续六个季度的下降之后,劳动力也停止了萎缩。The labour reform in 2012 gave companies more flexibility to set wages and working conditions themselves rather than through sector-wide bargaining, and cut severance payments for unfair dismissals. Those changes, buttressed by a deal between unions and employers, tempered wage growth that had far outstripped gains in productivity. How much credit do they deserve for the upturn in employment?2012年的劳动改革给企业带来了更多的灵活性以确保工资和工作条件自身的稳定而不是通过全部门的谈判并削减对不公平解雇所分发的遣散费。这些变化是基于工会与雇主之间的交易,这种收入增长的调节大大领先于生产率的加强。但是就业情况的好转会为他们带来多少信用呢?The answer may determine the political fate of Mr Rajoy, who defied street protests to push reform through and faces a general election by the end of next year. The opposition Socialist Party claims that the number of unemployed has risen by more than 600,000 since Mr Rajoy took office in 2011, despite the reforms. Pedro Sanchez, the partys new secretary-general, promises to repeal them if it regains power.这个或许会决定拉霍伊的政治命运。拉霍伊抵制街头抗议,强行推进改革,而明年年底西班牙大选在即。在野的社会党声称,尽管有改革,但是自从2011年拉霍伊先生上任以来,失业人数增加了至少60万。该党派的新任秘书长佩德罗·桑切斯承诺,如果该党重新上台,则会废除一切不利的改革政策。That would be a mistake. Other factors contributed to the jobs recovery, especially the “whatever it takes” pledge by the European Central Bank two years ago to save the euro. But reform played an important role, says Rafael Domenech, an economist at BBVA, a bank. One piece of evidence is that Spain is creating jobs at lower rates of GDP growth than before. In previous cycles, employment rose when growth hit 2%. This time the gain came during a year when GDP expanded by just 1.2%.而这看起来会是一个错误。其他的因素促成了就业复苏,尤其是两年前欧洲央行为了拯救欧元所作出的那个“不惜一切代价”的誓言发挥了极大的作用。然而在BBVA的经济学家拉斐尔·多梅内克看来,拉霍伊的改革却起到了至关重要的作用。持这一说法的据之一是,西班牙国内新增的就业机会所占国内生产总值的最低比重。在以前的经济周期中,当经济增长达到两个百分点的时候就业才会增长。而这一次在GDP仅仅增长一个百分点的时候就业就已经增长了。To make a serious dent in unemployment, however, Spain will need to be more ambitious. Without further changes, the jobless rate will not dip below 20% until 2019, according to the IMF. The structural unemployment rate—the level reached when the economy is working at capacity—is 18%, triple that of America.然而,为了大力降低失业率,西班牙需要再加一把劲。据国际货币基金组织称,如果没有其他变革,直至2019年失业率也不会降低至百分之二十之下。而西班牙的结构性失业-即劳动力对经济变动的适应水平-已经达到百分之十八,是美国的三倍。One problem is that many small companies (with ten workers or fewer) have not benefited from greater flexibility. That is because the process of opting out of sector-wide agreements can be cumbersome. Such opt-outs could be made easier.一个问题是,有许多小企业(只有十个员工甚至更少)并没有从更大的灵活性中收益。这是因为选择退出的全部门协议的过程会十分复杂。而事实上这一过程能变得更容易。Another is that nearly a quarter of workers are still on temporary contracts. This is damaging, because they are much less productive than those with permanent jobs and employers do not invest in them. One way to encourage firms to hire permanent workers would be to cut severance payments to the levels of other European countries.另外一个问题是,近四分之一的工人仍然签着临时合同。这对就业稳定是毁灭性的的打击。因为比起那些有固定工作的人来说,这些临时工的效率更低,并且雇主也不愿意为这些临时工投资。相对于其它欧洲国家而言,而某种鼓励企业雇佣长工的做法会降低遣散费的水平。Nor has much been done for the 3.5m people who have been jobless for more than a year, says Marcel Jansen of Madrids Autónoma University. Many are poorly educated: Spain has one of the highest school drop-out rates in the OECD. Those with qualifications often find that they are not the ones employers want.据马德里自治大学的马塞尔·杨森成,至少350万人失业超过一年,并且其中的很多人都没受过多少教育:西班牙是OECD中辍学率最高的国家之一。而那些有学历的人常常发现他们并不是雇主想要雇佣的人。The answers, says Mr Jansen, include spending more on retraining and overhauling state-run employment offices, which do a poor job of matching workers skills with local employers needs. The government has tightened rules for people receiving unemployment benefit to encourage them to look for work or to take training courses. But they need to be effectively enforced.詹森先生说,解决这些问题的办法要包括花费更多进行业务培训,并且还要整顿国营就业办公室,因为国营办公室在引导工人习得雇主所需技能方面做得并不好。政府已经用法规对那些领取失业津贴的人们进行束缚,并鼓励他们找工作或者参加培训课程。但是这些政策得有效执行才行。The government could lower the cost of hiring workers by cutting social-security contributions, which are high by European standards. A rise in value-added tax could pay for that. Others advocate lowering the minimum wage for unskilled workers.政府可以通过削弱社会保障金来降低雇佣工人的费用,因为这个社保金水平的标准是根据欧盟标准所制定的。增值税的上涨会为此买单。而也有一些人主张用降低非技术工人的最低工资的方式来降低成本。Mr Rajoy says he will not let up on reform until Spains unemployment plague becomes merely a “sad” episode in history. He has started talks with unions and employers on a package of job-friendly measures, to be hammered out after the summer break. But with elections looming, few expect it to be bold.拉霍伊表示,除非西班牙的大规模失业造就历史上绝无仅有的一个“绝望”时代,否则他不会减缓改革的脚步与力度。拉霍伊已经开始与工会和雇主就就业友好型措施的一揽子计划进行谈判,其结果将在夏休后一锤定音。但是随着西班牙大选的临近,几乎没有人希望这个改革可以莽撞继续下去。翻译 周晓婷 校对 曾擎禹 译文属译生译世 /201508/389926成都包皮手术去哪家医院最好 四川省成都妇幼保健医院上下班时间

四川省成都市三院门诊专家预约达州中医院妇科预约 They wont stay here forever.它们也不会一直在这里逗留。When they are bigger, they wont be able to hide amongst the slender stems, and theyll look for a better hiding place, maybe one even closer to land.等它们长大一些,无法在海草丛中躲藏了,就会去寻找更合适的藏身之地,也许更靠近陆地。Where the sea meets the coast, salt water meets fresh water from rivers and streams.在海陆交接的地方,河流淡水汇入咸水。But one doesnt suddenly become the other.但淡咸水不会马上溶合。The water mixes slowly, greeting a world unlike either but connecting to both.淡水和咸水极缓慢地溶合着,形成了一个两者独立而又互通着的世界。Its here that you will find a special group of plants.在这里,你将发现一类特殊的植物。Fringing the coast of the mainland is a habitat that has profound impact on the ecosystem of the reef.它们生长在大陆架边缘的海岸边上,这片栖息地对珊瑚礁生态系统有着深远影响。Theyre plants that have cracked a neat evolutionary trick.这是一类有着特殊进化策略的植物。They can live in brackish environments,which is the combinations of salts and fresh water.它们可以生活在淡咸水交汇的半咸水环境中。They are the mangroves.它们就是红树林。They grow where no other trees are able to.它们生长在其他树木无法生长的地方。Twice a day, the tide floods their roots with salt water.每天两次,潮汐带来的海水淹没它们的树根。At the same time, water from the rivers flows through the mangroves and their lattice of root acts like a giant tea strainer,slowing it down, so that any sediments washed off the land can settle out.同时江河淡水也缓慢地穿过红树林流向海洋。红树林的根系就像一个巨大的滤茶器,减缓了河水流速,使从陆地冲刷来的沉积物有机会沉积下来。201504/370132凉山彝族妇幼保健院是什么等级

四川第二医院有无痛人流术吗Robert Owen, a British mill-owner and reformer, treated private property, along with organised religion and marriage, as a social scourge. In 1825 he bought land for a farm-and-factory commune in Indiana. It attracted farmers, artisans and intellectuals. Tools, food and housing were free. The commune had mixed-sex schools and a library. It sponsored scientific research. Without a shared faith or purpose, however, the members split into competing groups. By 1827, Owens secular community had disbanded. The difficulty of pursuing micro-communism in a capitalist society also dogged Cabets American followers. His New World Icarians split into several rival groupings. Shakers, Owenites and Icarians focused, each in their own way, on duties. They sought to tame human selfishness. Gloomy as he looked in portraits, the Frenchman Charles Fourier concentrated on fun. His writings inspired the Brook Farm commune near Boston and, less directly, Oneida. Fourier wanted to free peoples instincts so that everyone, especially women, might lead a life of varied enjoyments and sensual delight. Stripped of emphasis on sex, Fouriers message that a good life was a cultivated life, not one of striving and work, appealed to New England intellectuals who formed Brook Farms core.罗伯特欧文是英国一个工厂的厂长,同时他也是一位改革家,他把私有财产同有组织的宗教与婚姻归为社会灾祸。1825年,他在印第安纳州购买了农场,建造了将农场与工厂集一身的公社,吸引农民、艺术家与学者前往。工具,食物与住房都是免费提供,还有男女混合制的学校与图书馆。此外,公社还赞助科学研究。然而因没有共同的信仰或目的,公社内部发生分裂,成员间相互争斗。到了1827年,欧文的这个非宗教团体也解散了。在美国这样一个追求内阁政策的资本主义国家中,想要追求微型公社,困难重重。欧文的新世界Icarians分裂成几个敌对群体。无论是震教徒,欧文的组织还是Lcarians,都以他们各自的方式关注职责,都寻求驯化人类自私的心理。法国人查尔斯傅里叶关注于这其中的乐趣,尽管他在肖像画里看起来很忧伤。但他的著作鼓舞了波斯顿附近的“小溪农场”公社,还间接影响了奥奈达一带。傅里叶想要解放人们的本能以便每个人,尤其是女性,都尽可能的过上享受多种与感官愉悦的生活。他传递的信息不再只具有强调性,而是指好的生活,即耕种生活,并不是奋斗与工作的生活之一,这一观点对于“小溪农场”核心力量,一些来自新英格兰的学者颇有吸引力。“Paradise Now” is more than a record of failed hopes. Some ideas sp to the mainstream. Fouriers feminism is a good example. Fourierist communes foundered across the New World and Old; his ideas about gender equality lived on. No society could improve, Fourier believed, until womens lot improved. “The best countries”, he wrote, “have always been those which allowed women the most freedom.” That is a common thought today. It was radical when Fourier wrote it in 1808.《现世天堂》不止记录了一系列破败的幻想,其中的一些想法也成为了主流。傅里叶的女权主义就是极佳的例子。虽然傅里叶公社在新旧世界都破产了,但有关于性别平等的想法仍在产生影响。傅里叶认为,除非女性的命运得以改善,否则整个社会难以得以发展。他写道,“最好的国家总是那些给予女性最大的自由。”而今这一想法已再寻常不过。但1808年,傅里叶写下的这句话却显得尤为激进。Women more generally are at the centre of the Utopian story. Some communes he writes about were democratic, some authoritarian. None was patriarchal. Mr Jenningss book is rich in fond hopes and improbable ventures. Rather than nudging ers to mock, which is easy, the author reminds them instead to remember that the maddest-sounding ideas sometimes become motherhood.女性更多的被置于乌托邦故事的中心。Jennings所描述的公社一些是民主的,一些是自治的,但没有一个是家长制的。他的书中记录了希望与不可思议的冒险。但作者却并不是去怂恿读者去模仿——尽管很容易,而是提醒读者要记得听起来最疯狂的想法有时候会变成为现实。翻译:邓小雪 amp; 颜琪琳 校对:杨霭琳 译文属译生译世 /201603/429255 四川省肿瘤医院治疗前列腺疾病多少钱简阳市妇幼保健医院网上预约挂号

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