成都附属生殖专科医院男科电话康泰养生

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月20日 01:05:17
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The murder of satire is no laughing matter. The horrifying carnage at Charlie Hebdo is a reminder, if ever we needed it, that irreverence is the lifeblood of freedom. I suppose it is some sort of backhanded compliment that the monsters behind the slaughter are so fearful of the lance of mirth that the only voice they have to muffle it is the sound of bullets. Magazines such as Charlie Hebdo are in the business of taking liberties, even outrageous ones, but they exist so that we never take the gift of disrespect for granted.对讽刺艺术的扼杀是件需要严肃对待的事。发生在《查理周刊》(Charlie Hebdo)的这场恐怖屠杀提醒我们(如果我们需要提醒的话):“不敬”是自由的命脉。执行这场杀戮的恶魔对欢笑的长矛是如此恐惧,以至于他们只能用声代替话语,以求封杀这种欢笑,我认为这是种间接的夸赞。《查理周刊》这样的杂志以无礼的(甚至是放肆的)嘲弄为主业,但他们存在的价值,就在于使我们永远不会想当然地对待“不敬”这份礼物。Liberty and laughter have been twinned in the European tradition for more than three centuries and have together proclaimed as precious the right to ridicule. Graphic satire first arose as a weapon in the atrocious and prolonged religious wars that divided Catholics and Protestants. For Protestants the printing press was the answer to the imagery of the Roman church by which, as they saw it, heretics and sceptics were brought to book. So they invented an anti-iconography in which popes were turned into fantastic monsters, and kings into ministers of slaughter. The Dutch, who invented the illustrated news gazette in the middle of the 17th century, saw themselves as the victims of religious fury. Their graphic counter-attack began with popular illustrated histories of their rebellion against the Spanish monarchy — with the Duke of Alva their favourite bogeyman. It broadened into a regular weapon of partisan polemics inside the Republic as well as against foreign threats to “Holland’s Freedom”.三个多世纪来,自由与欢笑在欧洲传统里一直成双成对,一起被宣称为嘲讽的珍贵权利。讽刺漫画首次作为武器出现,是在天主教徒与新教徒之间残酷而旷日持久的宗教战争时期。对新教徒来说,印刷机是对他们眼中罗马教会利用绘画来迫害异教徒和怀疑者的回答。于是他们发明了一种反肖像,将教皇画成虚构的恶魔,而国王成了杀戮执行者。自视为宗教愤怒受害者的荷兰人在17世纪中叶发明了新闻画报。他们的漫画反击战起从流行的历史漫画开始,主题是荷兰人抗击西班牙王室,而阿尔瓦公爵(Duke of Alva)是他们最喜欢描绘的反面人物。随后攻击对象拓宽,新闻画报既被用来抵御“荷兰的自由”所面临的外来威胁,也成了共和国各党派论战的常用武器。The first great modern graphic satirist was Romeyn de Hooghe, enlisted by William III at the end of the 17th century in his relentless war to the death with Louis XIV. De Hooghe obliged with sprawling cartoons representing the wars against the French monarch and his allies as a battle between liberty and religious despotism. The satirists again saw themselves leading the cavalry charge against the bigots. And it was in the interests of the Protestant states to let them off the leash.第一位伟大的现代讽刺漫画艺术家是罗曼#8226;德霍夫(Romeyn de Hooghe)。17世纪末威廉三世(William III)与他的死敌路易十四(Louis XIV)进行一场残酷的战争时,招揽了德霍夫。德霍夫受命创作出大量漫画,将威廉三世与法国国王和其盟友之间的这场战争描绘为自由与宗教专制之间的战斗。讽刺漫画家们再次视自己为引领着骑兵队冲向宗教盲从者们的先锋队。而放手让他们创作符合新教国家利益。The golden age of no-holds-barred graphic satire in the 18th century arose on the tomb of religious warfare. But it was also made possible, in Britain especially, by the space opened when no one political force or institution could command a monopoly of power. Though the Whigs — grandees — dominated government for much of the century, it was never to the total exclusion of opposition, and as with all oligarchies, factions arose, each of which turned to the caricaturists to puncture the pretensions of their enemies, expose their hypocrisies, and bring down the mighty in a gale of scornful hilarity.18世纪,无拘无束的讽刺漫画在宗教战争的坟冢上改头换面,迎来黄金时代。但这一黄金时代之所以能够到来,还有一个原因是(就英国而言尤其如此):没有哪一种政治势力或机构能够垄断权力。尽管代表权贵的辉格党(Whigs)在18世纪的大部分时间里主导政府,但它始终没有完全把反对党赶出政治舞台,而且如寡头政治一贯的情况那样,派系出现了,各个派系都诉诸讽刺漫画来戳穿敌对派系的伪装,揭露他们的虚伪,在一片欢笑的讥讽中将位高权重者拉下台。Thus it fell to the British to reinvent politics as comedy, and they went at it, on stage and in print, with a ferocious energy that has never been surpassed. Even now in the US, the enemy of democracy — after the poison of money — is reverence; with satire penned into the safe fold of late-night television.于是,以喜剧形式重新解读政治的任务落在了英国人肩上,他们努力不辱使命,在舞台上,在书刊中,他们奉献出了从未被超越的热情。即便是在如今的美国,民主的敌人——除了金钱的毒化以外——仍然是敬畏权势;讽刺电视节目被局限于安全的午夜档围栏中。But in the great age of graphic attack politics there was nowhere to run to and no great institution or person was safe from the barbs of comedy. The Church of England; dissenters such as the Methodists; the Bank of England; leading politicians and the royal family itself were all fair game.但在那个以漫画为政治攻击武器的伟大时代,没有地方可以让你躲过攻击,没有哪个伟大的机构或人物能够免受喜剧作品的讥讽。英国国教会(Church of England)、卫理公会教徒等非英国国教信徒、英国央行(Bank of England)、政治要人、以及皇室家庭,都是可攻击的对象。Satire became the oxygen of politics, ventilating healthy howls of derision in coffee houses and taverns where caricatures circulated every day and every week. James Gillray, the greatest of all the caricaturists, was in such demand that Hannah Humphrey, his publisher, would rent out entire albums of his choicest items for a night’s or a weekend’s entertainment. Good fun was to be had by all perusing images: a grossly bloated Prince of Wales recovering from a night’s dissipation; William Pitt, prime minister, as a toadstool growing out of a dunghill; or a cartoon of Queen Charlotte, pendulous breasts nakedly exposed, holding at bay the prime minister and the Lord Chancellor.讽刺成为了政治的氧气,有了它,才有了咖啡馆和酒馆中生气勃勃的嘲讽,在那些地方,人们每天、每周都在传阅各种讽刺漫画。最伟大的讽刺漫画家詹姆斯#8226;吉尔雷(James Gillray)当年是如此受欢迎,以至于他的出版人汉娜#8226;汉弗莱(Hannah Humphrey)会把他的全套精选作品集出租一个晚上或一个周末,供人们。一幅幅漫画为人们带来过无数欢乐:从彻夜狂欢中回过神来的大腹便便的威尔士王子(Prince of Wales);首相威廉#8226;皮特(William Pitt)化身毒蘑菇,插在一坨粪中;夏洛特女王(Queen Charlotte)裸露着下垂的乳房,与首相和大法官保持安全距离。Gillray was arrested only once — for a cartoon of politicians kissing the bottom of a royal newborn — and never imprisoned. Whatever the liberties he took, no harm befell him. The great tradition of ridicule passed to heirs in Britain, then to America and Europe: to Daumier and Cruikshank; the begetters of Krokodil and Private Eye, Spitting Image and Canard Enchainé as well as Charlie Hebdo.吉尔雷只被逮捕过一次,是因为一幅政客们亲吻皇室新生儿屁股的漫画;他从未被投入监狱。无论他如何无礼,伤害从未降临他头上。讽刺的伟大传统在英国一代代流传,然后又传到了美国和欧洲大陆:克鲁克香克(Cruikshank)和杜米埃(Daumier);《鳄鱼》杂志(Krokodil)、《侦探》杂志(Private Eye)、模仿秀Spitting Image、《鸭鸣报》(Canard Enchainé)、以及《查理周刊》的主办者,都是这种传统的传人。Yesterday there was a bloody attempt to wipe the smile from our faces. But though the self-righteous have killed the satirists they will never annihilate satire itself. Just the opposite. From now on, Charlie Hebdo will be the rallying point for all those who cherish life and laughter over the death cult of sanctimonious gloom. So we owe it to the fallen to remind ourselves, amid the blood, grief and rage, that just because the unhinged perpetrators are murderers does not mean they are also not clowns.本周三,有人试图通过血腥暴力来抹掉我们脸上的笑容。但是,尽管那些自以为替天行道的手杀害了讽刺漫画家,但他们永远不可能消灭讽刺艺术本身。恰恰相反,从现在开始,《查理周刊》将成为所有珍爱生命和欢笑、厌恶那种信奉死亡和伪善之邪教的人们的旗帜。因此,为了让逝者不白白死去,我们也应该在眼下血腥、悲痛和愤怒的氛围中提醒自己,仅仅因为那些疯狂的行凶者杀了人,并不意味着他们就不是小丑。 /201501/353579Dieters have long sworn that grapefruit helps them lose weight。长期以来节食者们一直信誓旦旦地宣称葡萄柚有助减肥。 Now, scientists are beginning to believe them。如今科学家们也开始相信他们的论断。A study has found that drinking grapefruit juice when eating fatty food lowers the amount of weight put on by up to a fifth。一项研究表明食用油脂食物时饮用西柚汁最多可以减少五分之一的增重。The research also suggested that grapefruit could be as good as prescription drugs at keeping blood sugar levels under control – a key part of managing diabetes。该研究还指出,在维持血糖处于正常水平方面,葡萄柚可与处方药媲美,而这正是控制糖尿病病发的关键。The experiments were conducted on mice – but researchers say the results justify studies on humans. Professor Joseph Napoli, of the University of California, Berkeley, said: ‘We see all sorts of scams about nutrition. But these results, based on controlled experiments, warrant further study of the potential health-promoting properties of grapefruit juice.’虽然试验对象为老鼠,但研究人员表示结果仍适用于人群。加州大学伯克利分校的约瑟夫·那不勒斯教授说:“我们看过形形色色有关营养品的骗局。但这些控制试验的试验结果已经向我们明,我们有必要对西柚汁提高人体健康方面的潜力作进一步的研究。”The Grapefruit Diet, also called the Hollywood Diet, dates back to the 1930s and has a host of celebrity fans including singer Kylie Minogue. It involves having grapefruit or grapefruit juice with every meal while cutting back on calories。葡萄柚减脂法也称好莱坞减脂法,最早可追溯到20世纪40年代,受到歌手凯莉·米洛等众多好莱坞明星的热烈追捧。那时人们便开始通过每餐食用葡萄柚或饮用西柚汁减低卡路里。The researchers found that when the mice were fed fatty food for three months, those given grapefruit juice to drink gained up to 18 per cent less weight than those given water。研究人员发现同样食用了三个月油脂食物的老鼠,与只喝水的老鼠相比,喝过西柚汁的老鼠的增重仅为前者的82%。They also had lower blood sugar and insulin levels – despite eating the same number of calories and doing the same amount of exercise as the mice who drank water. In fact, grapefruit juice was as good at controlling insulin as the widely used diabetes drug metformin, the journal PLOS ONE reports。不仅如此,后者的血糖指数和胰岛素指标也相对较低,尽管其卡路里摄入量和运动量与前者没什么区别。据科学公共图书杂志报道,实际上,西柚汁在控制胰岛素方面的作用也不亚于广泛使用的糖尿病药物二甲双胍。However, the fruit juice only had an effect on weight when the animals ate fatty food.The researchers said they did not know how grapefruit stops the pounds from piling on。但实验中只有在老鼠食用油脂食物时饮用西柚汁才对减肥有效。研究人员表示他们也不知道为什么葡萄柚能够阻止脂肪的形成。The British Dietetic Association said the fruit now needs to be thoroughly tested in humans to see if it could help with weight loss and stem the rise of obesity and diabetes。英国饮食健康协会声称,还需在人体上进行大量试验,以判断葡萄柚是否真的有助于减肥,是否真的能够阻止肥胖和糖尿病的产生。Spokesman Mariette Abrahams, a dietician, said until then it is too early for people to try grapefruit diets. ‘Grapefruit should be part of a healthy balanced diet, but it shouldn’t be the focus of the diet,’ she said。反对此做法的代表饮食专家玛丽埃塔·亚伯拉罕曾表示,至少在当时,把食用西柚当作减脂良方还为时过早。“ 食用葡萄柚可以作为健康均衡饮食的一部分,但不能成为节食菜单的主要部分,”玛丽埃塔说道。 /201507/386123

The man in the khaki vest slurped noisily from his cup, descended briefly into scowling meditation, spat the contents into a sink and then unleashed a torrent of approving descriptors, lavishly rolling his r’s along the way: “No foreign taste, very refreshing, robust, strong tannins, a tingly sensation at the end of the tongue — good show!”穿卡其布马甲的男人用杯子咕嘟咕嘟大声喝着东西,蹙眉沉思片刻,把嘴里的残渣吐进水槽,顿时爆发出一阵滔滔不绝的赞美,口音里“r”的发音特别重:“绝对本土,特别清新、口感强劲、丹宁口感、回味无穷——好东西!”I sipped as well and nodded gravely, thinking: right, but it’s still tea. Granted, it was excellent tea, cultivated just outside the Norwood Estate processing factory where we stood, surrounded by whirring machines and immense bags stuffed with tea leaves.我也品了一小口,郑重其事地点了点头,心想:挺好的,不过再好也就是茶嘛。但退一步说,它的确是好茶。我们身在诺伍德不动产茶叶加工厂,周围全是呼啸作响的机器和塞满茶叶的大包,这些茶叶都是在工厂外的茶园种植的。Here, near the town of Hatton, in the alluring hill country of Sri Lanka, some of the finest tea in the world is grown at an elevation exceeding 4,000 feet. And as Andrew Taylor, the vest-clad Norwood resident planter and native Sri Lankan, had made emphatically clear, everything about this beverage required martial exactitude, from the small-handed women who carefully picked the leaves to the 170 minutes the leaves spent being machine-oxidized, to the 21 minutes of drying on long trays, and at last to the six minutes Mr. Taylor cheerily advised me was optimal to consume my drink after it was brewed — “so bring your stopwatch, ha ha!” Nonetheless, I confessed that I had other liquid preferences.我们置身斯里兰卡美丽的丘陵,距离哈顿镇(Hatton)不远,在这个超过海拔4000英尺的地方,生长着世界上最好的若干茶叶。穿马甲的这位名叫安德鲁·泰勒(Andrew Taylor),他是诺伍德本地的茶园主,斯里兰卡人,他强调,任何与茶有关的事情都需要一丝不苟:茶叶要由长着纤细双手的女人悉心采摘、要在机器中经过170分钟的氧化发酵工序,之后在长长的托盘里干燥21分钟,最后,泰勒兴高采烈地告诉我,茶叶制作完成6分钟后是最佳饮用时间——“所以带上秒表吧,哈哈!”不管怎样,我坦白告诉他,我更喜欢的是另一种饮料。“Coffee has almost no medicinal effects,” the planter scoffed. A regimen of four cups of tea a day, on the other hand, would indemnify me against indigestion, heart disease and general dysfunction. I asked Mr. Taylor how many cups he consumed daily.“咖啡几乎没什么医学价值,”这位茶园主嘲笑道——但是每天喝四杯茶却能预防消化不良、心脏病和身体综合机能失调。我问泰勒他自己一天喝多少杯。He beamed and replied, “Five to six.”他乐呵呵地回答:“五六杯吧。”Sri Lanka is a sunny heartbreak of a nation, a welcoming South Asian island country beset by three decades of ethnic war that came to an end in May of 2009, when the Sinhalese government routed the Tamil Tigers in a brutal show of overwhelming force. As many as 100,000 Sri Lankans died along the way. Another 38,000 were killed when the tsunami of 2004 pulverized its eastern coast.阳光明媚的斯里兰卡却是一个伤心之地,这个好客的南亚岛国30年来一直抱受种族战争困扰,直到2009年5月僧伽罗政府以绝对优势的兵力无情地击溃了泰米尔猛虎组织,战争才告结束,其间约有10万名斯里兰卡人死于战火,2004年席卷这个国家东海岸的海啸又带走了约38000人的生命。It’s entirely possible to visit the country formerly known as Ceylon in a state of blissful ignorance, to ogle its elephants and leopards roaming about in the national parks, or to languish on the many beach resorts in coastal Galle and Batticaloa, and in that way sidestep altogether the scabs of history.但是游客如果幸运地对此一无所知,也同样可以畅游这个原名锡兰的国家,眺望国家公园里四处漫步的大象与豹子,抑或在沿海的加勒与拜蒂克洛的诸多海滨圣地之间举棋不定,把历史的伤痕丢在脑后。By contrast, the hill country stretching across the island’s midsection presents an authentic side of Sri Lanka that can be visited without experiencing pangs of guilt. Though largely unblemished by the long war, the roots of conflict — proud Buddhist nationalism (as evinced by the region’s great temples), the residue of British colonialism (apparent in its tea estates) and Tamil militancy (expressed in a single but notable act of violence, a deadly bombing in a Buddhist temple) — are all here to be discovered and pondered.相形之下,绵亘在岛屿中部的丘陵地带才呈现出斯里兰卡的真正面目,访客很难不感受到阵阵愧疚的刺痛。经历了漫长的战争,冲突的源头却还清晰可见——骄傲的佛教民族主义力量(可以从这一带宏伟的寺庙看出)、英国殖民主义残余(从这些茶庄就可以看出),以及泰米尔武装力量(它的暴力只留下唯一一个显眼的据:对一座佛教寺院的致命轰炸)——置身于此,人们可以好好去观察与思忖。At the same time, the region feels like its own country, as it essentially was when the Buddhist Kingdom of Kandy held sway over the hills five centuries ago. It is noticeably cooler, higher and greener than elsewhere on the island, with the omnipresent terraces of neatly pruned waist-high tea plants as its aesthetic and economic organizing principles. Today Sri Lanka is the world’s fourth-biggest producer of tea; most of it, along with the island nation’s excellent cinnamon, comes from the hill country.与此同时,这一带又完全自成一体,和五个世纪之前横亘在群山之间的康提佛教王国别无二致。和岛上其他地方相比,这里地势较高,气候格外凉爽,植被也特别苍翠,到处都是种满茶树的梯田,按照特有的美学与经济原则修剪成整饬的齐腰高度。如今,斯里兰卡已是世界上第四大产茶区,大部分都产自这片丘陵地带,此外这里还出产独特的肉桂。The names of the plantations — Strathdon, Shannon, Kenilworth — are distinctly Anglo and many of the field workers today are descendants of the “plantation Tamils” who were transported by boat from southern India to pick the first tea leaves cultivated in the 1860s. (Shortly after the British awarded Ceylon its independence in 1948, the new Sinhalese government stripped the Indian Tamils of their voting rights, setting into motion ethnic grievances that would eventually lead to war.)这些茶园的名字都非常英国化——斯特拉思顿、香农、肯尼尔沃斯之类的,如今,很多茶农都是“种植园泰米尔人”的后裔,他们的祖先于19世纪60年代从南印度乘船而来,采摘这些茶园里的第一批茶叶(1948年,英国授予锡兰独立身份之后不久,新的僧伽罗政府剥夺这些印度泰米尔人的选举权,引起种族不和,最终导致兵戎相见)。Navigating the hills by rail can be a beguiling experience but also a time-consuming one, as the trains move slowly through the undulating rough country and run infrequently throughout the day. I opted instead for a van with a cheerful Sinhalese driver named W. S. Yapa, who has been ferrying tourists and journalists throughout Sri Lanka for over three decades. (Sri Lanka’s roads are invariably two lane but well-paved and safe. And the country’s better hotels typically offer lodging for tourist drivers at nominal or no charge.)乘火车在山间旅行是一种迷人但颇为耗时的体验,列车在崎岖的丘陵之间缓慢颠簸,每天的车次也很少。于是我选了坐面包车旅行,司机是个快活的僧伽罗人,名叫W·S·亚帕(W. S. Yapa),30多年来一直搭载旅客和记者们在斯里兰卡全境旅行(斯里兰卡的公路都是只有两个车道,不过路面状况很好,很安全。全国最好的酒店一般都给搭载旅行者的司机提供费用低廉甚至是免费的住宿)。On the three-hour drive from the capital city, Colombo, to Kandy, Mr. Yapa pulled over twice so that I could visit roadside stands selling delicious locally grown cashews and boiled corn on the cob.在从首都科伦坡开往康提的三小时旅行中,亚帕靠边停车两次,让我下车看看路边卖的本地腰果和小块煮玉米,它们都非常美味。Kandy sits in a valley beside a placid lake that was ordered by the region’s last Sinhalese emperor. Like most Sri Lankan cities, Kandy, which has a population of 109,000, has the unzoned, mangy atmosphere of a once-small village that proceeded over generations to become sloppily urbanized.康提(Kandy)坐落在山谷之中,毗邻一片宁静的湖泊,是由这个国家最后一位僧伽罗君主兴建。和大多数斯里兰卡城市一样,拥有10.9万人口的康提也是经历了数代人的发展营建,由一个小村庄走向混乱的城市化,有一种邋遢杂乱的气氛。I killed a couple of hours gathering up dried peppers and cinnamon at the local market and wandering through the tearooms — but really, one comes to Kandy for three principal reasons. One is to visit the Royal Botanical Gardens, across from the university about three miles from the city — though I’ll confess that I did not do so, because it was drizzly and the grounds are famous above all for their orchids, and even on a dry day I am strangely underwhelmed by orchids.我在当地市场购买干辣椒和肉桂,然后又去茶室流连,藉此消磨了几个小时。但是游客前往康提一般主要有三个去处。首先就是本地的皇家植物园,它坐落在本地大学对面,离城区约有三英里远,不过我得承认我没去,因为当时下着毛毛雨,而且那个地方最有名的就是兰花,就算天气好,我对兰花也不怎么感兴趣,挺奇怪的。Besides, Kandy’s other two attractions were easily worth the trip. The first is the famed Buddhist sacred Temple of the Tooth, in the very center of town. While paying 1,000 rupees (about at 125 rupees to the dollar) for admission, I noticed the security guard informing a female tourist that her dress did not cover her knees. Unruffled, the woman walked over to a nearby clothing vendor and, for about 25 cents, rented a sarong, wrapped it around her waist and strolled through the security gates. I slipped off my shoes, entered through the security booth and found myself in a crease of the city where all is suddenly hushed and orderly.还是另外两个地方更值得一去。其一是著名的佛牙寺,就坐落在市中心。花1000卢比(按125卢比兑换一美元,约合8美元)买了门票,我注意到保安告诫一个女游客说她的裙子没有过膝,那女人镇静地进了旁边一家小装店,花了大约25美分租了一条纱笼裹在腰间,悠闲地踱进安检门去。我脱掉鞋子,走过安检岗哨,发现自己置身城市的裂隙,身周的一切突然变得整洁宁静。The sumptuous marble temple contains two large shrines, along with a series of paintings that memorialize the odyssey of the Buddha’s tooth from one place to the next until the end of the 16th century, when it at last arrived in Kandy and is presently entombed in a small gold casket. Upstairs from the shrines is a small museum with incense, jewelry and other relics of the imperial era. One floor up was a memorial of a different kind: an exhibition of photographs depicting the temple’s wall in a state of semi-demolition, the result of the 1998 bomb blast attributed to the Tamil Tigers that killed 11. Sixteen years later, security guards were still frisking visitors before they entered the temple complex.这座辉煌的大理石佛寺内有两座龛位,还有一系列绘,纪念佛牙从一处到另一处辗转流落的奥德赛之旅,直至16世纪末终于来到康提,如今,它被安放在小小的金匣子里。圣龛楼上有一个小小的物馆,燃着焚香,陈列着珠宝和其他帝国时代的文物。再往上走一层,又是另一种完全不同的纪念:一个照片展,全部是寺院的断壁残垣,那是1998年泰米尔猛虎组织爆炸袭击的结果,11人在事件中丧生。16年后,在游客入寺之前,保安仍会对他们进行搜身。From the temple I wandered a few hundred yards into the Kandyan Art Association and Cultural Center just as an hourlong performance by traditional dancers and fire-eaters was getting underway, led by a Sumo-sized but fervid and surprisingly nimble young male dancer. Watching them hop across a bed of fiery coals reminded me that I needed to retrieve my shoes. I did so, called Mr. Yapa on my cellphone and together we drove from the temple into the hills above the city, where I was due for an evening at Helga’s Folly.出寺院再走几百码,我来到康提艺术协会文化中心,这里有传统舞蹈和吞火表演,长一个小时,我来的时候正演到一半,领衔的是一个年轻的男舞者,身材好像相扑运动员,但却极具,而且意外的身手矫健。看着他们跳过一片燃烧的煤块,我突然想起还得回寺院取回鞋子。我回去取了鞋,用手机给亚帕打了电话,从寺院开车驶进城市上方的山麓,赶往夜色中的海尔格富丽酒店(Helga’s Folly)。The visual pandemonium of this rambling 35-room chalet — Dali meets Addams Family — overwhelmed me at first, like tumbling through a kaleidoscope of oil paintings, vintage furniture and spicy fragrances. As the photographs on the walls attested, the Folly’s 60-year-old guest dossier includes Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru, Sir Laurence Olivier, Gregory Peck and Vivien Leigh. The suite I stayed in felt like a large, dramatically lit family scrapbook. A sign admonished me to keep the windows closed so that monkeys wouldn’t raid the kitchen. Peering out, I could see a few of them scampering from the treetops.这是一片散乱的山间房舍,有35个房间,有点像达利外加亚当斯之家(Addams Family),一开始,繁杂的视觉效果就令我为之震撼,感觉自己在无数油画、古董家具与香料的万花筒里跌跌撞撞。墙壁上悬挂的照片告诉人们,60年来,富丽接待的贵宾包括圣雄甘地(Mahatma Gandhi)、尼赫鲁(Nehru)、劳伦斯·奥利维尔爵士(Sir Laurence Olivier)、格里高利·派克(Gregory Peck)和费雯丽(Vivien Leigh)。我住的套间有点像一个巨大的、富于戏剧色的家庭剪贴簿。一个告示牌告诫我关好窗子,以免猴子冲进来跑到厨房捣乱。向外看去,的确有几只猴子在树梢上蹦蹦跳跳。While eating my excellent curried lamb in the candlelit dining room connected to my suite, a red-haired, pale-skinned woman in a crushed velvet dress and oversized sunglasses materialized from an unseen staircase. This was the proprietress, Helga Perera. She asked if she could join me and then told my waiter to bring me a different dessert, her personal favorite — though, to be honest, I was no longer paying attention to the food.正当我在套间旁边的烛光餐厅吃着美味的咖喱羊肉之际,一位红发雪肤的女人从一道隐蔽的阶梯上款款而下,她身穿带褶皱的丝绒长裙,戴着大号太阳镜——正是这里的女主人海尔格·佩莱拉(Helga Perera)。她问能不能和我一起用餐,并让侍者给我上另一道甜品,这是她的最爱——不过实话说吧,看到她我就没法再注意食物了。When I inquired as to what planet she was from, Ms. Perera said that she was born and raised in Kandy, the daughter of a prominent Sri Lankan politician and a mother who was active in Berlin’s Bauhaus art scene. For the last few decades she had lived in the private quarters upstairs with her third husband, a former local tea planter and presently a “total recluse” surrounded by weathered books.后来我打听她的身世,她说她是在康提出生长大,父亲是一位著名的斯里兰卡政治家,母亲是柏林包豪斯艺术圈中的活跃人物。过去几十年里,她一直同自己的第三任丈夫一起生活在楼上的私人区域,他原本是本地的茶园主,现在“完全与世隔绝”,专门研究古籍。Ms. Perera said her mother had designed this structure as their family home, as “a sort of Bauhaus” artist collective, and that to this day artist friends stayed at her hotel to pursue their inspirations. I found myself wondering if Jack Torrance, the murderously blocked writer in “The Shining,” might have found a more agreeable balance of work and play at Helga’s Folly.佩莱拉夫人说,这里的建筑是她母亲设计的,既是为了家人,也是为了“某种包豪斯的”艺术群体,至今艺术家朋友们都会到这个酒店来寻求灵感。我忍不住思忖,电影《闪灵》(The Shinning)里受困于杀人之念的作家杰克·托伦斯(Jack Torrance)如果来到海尔格富丽的话,可能就不会落得“只工作不玩耍”了吧。I left the hotel the next morning in a lingering state of stupefaction. The 40-mile drive upcountry to the town of Hatton took us two and a half hours. The hills were tropical, and fruit stands girdled the two-lane A-7 highway, which had little traffic beyond the ubiquitous feral dogs and three-wheeled Asian taxis known as tuk-tuks.翌日清晨离开酒店之时,恍惚之感依旧萦绕在我的心头。我们开车花两个半小时向内地行驶了大约40英里,赶往哈顿镇。山间一片热带风光,两个车道的A-7公路两侧种满果树,无处不在的野和名叫“tuk-tuk”的亚洲三轮出租车不时制造小小的交通事故。As we continued to climb, past 4,000 feet, the vistas opened up to reveal majestic waterfalls and terrace after terrace of tea plants. We pushed through the compressed beehive of Hatton, past Castlereagh Lake and into the heart of tea plantation country, a world of verdant staircases occupied by laborers with heavy bags across their shoulders. When I stepped out of the van into the crisp mountain air enveloping the spectacular gardens leading to the bungalow where I would stay that night, I suddenly lost all memory of that unforgettable place in Kandy.我们继续向上行驶,大约过了海拔4000英尺,眼前出现一片巨大的瀑布,茶园的梯田鳞次栉比。我们穿过熙攘拥挤的哈顿,经过卡斯尔雷湖(Castlereagh Lake),深入茶园之乡的腹地,这里到处都是绿油油的梯田,工人们肩扛着沉重的大包行走期间。走出面包车,山间新鲜的空气扑面而来,茶园美景一览无余,远处有几间平房,我晚上就要在那儿过夜,面对此情此景,康提那些难忘的景色也不禁被我丢在脑后。I had arrived at Tientsin, the oldest (built in 1888) of four bungalows operated in the Hatton area by Ceylon Tea Trails, Sri Lanka’s first Relais amp; Ch#226;teaux resort. Shortly after I was shown to my colonial high-ceilinged room (one of six in the bungalow), the chef knocked on my door and proceeded to describe the three-course lunch and four-course dinner he had in mind for me to make sure that I had no dietary concerns.这里名叫Tientsin,是“锡兰茶径”(Ceylon Tea Trails)酒店在哈顿地区运营的最古老的四处平房酒店(始建于1888年)之一,“锡兰茶径”也是斯里兰卡的第一家罗莱夏朵(Relais amp; Ch#226;teaux)集团酒店。这里有六座平房小屋,我住的是其中一座,务员领我进了殖民地风格的高屋顶房间,没过多久,大厨就敲响我的房门,为我描述他为我设计的有三道主菜的午餐和四道主菜的晚餐,还问我有没有忌口。I sat on the patio overlooking the terraces and enjoyed a near-perfect meal of carrot and coriander soup, fresh b, grilled tuna with tarragon sauce and apple crisp. I was about to order tea when the manager informed me that wouldn’t be necessary: I had an appointment in 15 minutes at the nearby Norwood tea factory with their planter in residence, Mr. Taylor.后来我坐在天井里,一边品尝胡萝卜芫荽汤、新鲜面包、烤金鱼配龙蒿酱和苹果脆片,一边俯瞰下面的梯田。我本想点茶水,但经理告诉我完全不用,15分钟后,我就可以按照行程安排参观附近的诺伍德茶厂,并同茶园主会面——也就是泰勒先生。Two hours after my tea-slurping seminar, I went for a long stroll through the tea plantation abutting Tientsin. Along the narrow roads, the only other pedestrians were women carrying freshly plucked leaves in large sacks or bundles of tea plant branches to use as firewood back home. The British planters had long since left the hills: Their estates had been expropriated by the new government in the 1950s, then returned to them a few years later, though the ensuing years of war and government-initiated land reform efforts had compelled their interests elsewhere.开完两个小时的品茶会,我在毗邻Tientsin的茶园漫步。狭窄的小路上只有扛着大包新采摘的茶叶或是大捆茶树枝干的女人们,这些树枝是要拿回家去生火用的。英国种植园主早已离去,20世纪50年代,新政府没收了他们的产业,几年后又归还给他们,但是接踵而至的战争岁月以及政府发起的土地改革迫使他们只能另谋他处。Even under local ownership, however, a colonial air pervades the region. The women laborers greeted me warmly and chatted among themselves as they, with their armloads, walked off into the setting sun, but I suffered no illusion that their -a-day livelihood was a particularly happy one.虽然眼下茶园归本地人所有,殖民遗风依然随处可见。夕阳西下,扛着东西的女工们热情地和我打招呼,但是她们每天只能赚四美元,我不会幻想她们可以轻松愉快地维持生计。Presently I was alone, moving through the sea of leaves, past residences pumping out local music and Bollywood dialogue. Behind me tucked into the hills was a single aglow building, the Tientsin bungalow, and I would get there when I got there.后来我孤身走过茶树的碧海,路边的民房里传出本地音乐和宝莱坞电影的对白。Tientsin平房的孤灯在我身后闪耀,渐渐隐没于山色之中,我愿意什么时候回去都可以。Mr. Yapa picked me up the next morning at 7:30. The three-and-a-half-hour drive along the A-5 to Ella was even more absurdly beautiful — velvety mountains, the mighty Devon Falls, the twinkling Gregory Lake, the wildly baroque roadside Rama Sita temple — than the previous day’s journey. And an even sweeter surprise was Ella itself, the one town I would unhesitatingly recommend as a destination. (Caveat: I didn’t have time to visit the much-touristed city of Nuwara Eliya with its profusion of vegetable gardens and fine colonial buildings.)翌日清晨七点半,亚帕来接我。我们沿着A-5公路开了三个半小时,来到艾拉(Ella),这里的风景美到不可方物——天鹅绒般苍翠碧绿的群山、巍峨的德文瀑布(Devon Falls)、波光粼粼的格里高利湖(Gregory Lake),路边奇异的罗西塔寺(Rama Sita)——比起昨日的景色还要有过之而无不及。最美妙的惊喜还要算艾拉本身,这才是我可以毫不犹豫地推荐给所有人的小镇(注意:我没去游览游客众多的努沃勒埃利耶(Nuwara Eliya),那里有很多植物园和精美的殖民时期建筑)。Ella possesses an agreeable scruffiness, the tea plantations and noble birch trees sharing the landscape with a host of ramshackle restaurants and guesthouses. A couple of miles past town, we pulled in to the Secret Ella, a sleek resort that had opened only two months earlier. The concierge showed me to my shiny wood-and-concrete room and presented me with a mobile phone with which I could summon him at a moment’s notice.艾拉有种令人愉悦的保守气息,茶园之间矗立着高贵的桦树,镇上有不少老旧的饭馆和宾馆。我们住在镇外几英里的“秘密艾拉”(Secret Ella),这是一处隐蔽的酒店,两个月前才开张。看门人带我进了崭新的木结构混凝土房间,里面放着一部手机,供我随时用来召唤他。Though it was getting chilly, I could not resist the rolling views from the dining patio, where I was presented with enough food — fruit salad, wild mushroom soup, curried fish — to fortify five of me. I did what I could before wandering down the road to the Secret Ella’s big sister, the lovely 98 Acres Resort, with its swimming pool seemingly hoisted up by the tea terraces.尽管有点冷,我还是忍不住到天井里用餐,顺便饱览美景,晚餐分量很足——水果沙拉、野生蘑菇汤、咖喱鱼——足够五个人吃。我尽量享用了一番,然后沿路走到可爱的“98亩酒店”(98 Acres Resort),它可以算得上是“秘密艾拉”的姊姊了,那里有个游泳池,似乎正坐落在茶园之上。I took a drink at the bar and continued my stroll downhill toward Ella. Then the rain began to fall hard. Drenched, I staggered into a place called the Curd amp; Honey Shop, at the town’s main junction. Those gathered on the covered patio were similarly soaked: a German family of four, a Chinese female traveler and an American techie named Neil who had cashed out a few years ago and was now backpacking across Asia, with tomorrow’s destination being Kandy where a five-day course in meditation awaited him. I counseled Neil to visit Helga’s Folly. Then I ordered a pot of tea, which cost about a dollar.我在酒吧喝了一杯,然后又一路下坡,走到艾拉。这时开始下起大雨。我很快就浑身湿透,冲进一家名叫“炼乳与蜂蜜”(Curd amp; Honey Shop)的地方,这是镇上最大的场所,院子里遮起了天蓬,各种各样的人都进来躲雨:一个德国四口之家,一个来自中国的女游客,还有一个名叫尼尔的美国技师,几年前他破了产,现在成了背包客,在亚洲到处旅行,明天他要到康提去次参加五天的冥想课程。我建议他一定要去海尔格富丽看看。后来我点了一壶茶,只要一美元。I sat there for an hour or so, watching the rain thin out while the ancient properties of the local beverage worked their magic on me. Newly imbued and somewhat dry, I marched back uphill.我坐了一个小时左右,雨势渐收,而茶水也开始在我身上发挥它古老的魔力。我带着焕然一新的心情和干爽起来的衣,回头向山上走去。If You Go实用信息:Local cuisine in the hill country is similar to Indian food, though often spicier (particularly in restaurants with Tamil chefs). Sri Lankan as well as Asian and European meals are generally of particularly high quality in the region’s more notable hotels, such as the following.这个山地之国的美食和印度菜有点像,不过通常更辣一点(尤其是泰米尔大厨掌勺的饭馆)。高档酒店通常会提供更好的斯里兰卡菜、亚洲菜和西餐,比如下面这些酒店:Helga’s Folly (32 Frederick E. de Silva Mawatha, Kandy, 94-81-223-4571,helgasfolly.com): A delightful alternative universe to Sri Lanka, fashioned by an eccentric native. Luxurious in its own way, with delicious dinners. Rooms for two from 0.海格尔富丽 (32 Frederick E. de Silva Mawatha, Kandy, 94-81-223-4571, helgasfolly.com):斯里兰卡一处美妙的平行宇宙,有种奇异的本土色,其奢华自成一格,晚餐十分美味。双人间每晚200美元起。Ceylon Tea Trails (four locations between Castlereigh and Hatton, 94-11-774-5700,resplendentceylon.com): Handsome and spacious Relais amp; Ch#226;teaux bungalows strewn across the hushed, high-altitude interior of tea country. With outstanding service and cuisine, the Tientsin bungalow with its magnificent British garden constitutes a destination all its own. All-inclusive rate for a single room starts at 7.锡兰茶径(四处地址,坐落于卡斯尔雷与哈顿之间,94-11-774-5700,resplendentceylon.com):罗莱夏朵旗下美丽宽敞的平房酒店,坐落在高海拔茶园宁静的中心。务与菜肴都属一流,Tientsin平房酒店有魅力的英式花园,别具风情。单间各种费用全包,437美元起。The Secret Ella (Passara Road, Ella, 94-57-222-6333, thesecrethotels.com): A sleek new addition to Ella’s many (and mostly scruffy) hotels, situated about a mile from town and catering to couples and families. Excellent local food served on a picturesque terrace. Room-only rate for two starts at 0.秘密艾拉 (Passara Road, Ella, 94-57-222-6333, thesecrethotels.com):艾拉有众多酒店,大都破旧邋遢,这家新酒店却是整洁干净,坐落在镇外一英里处,接待情侣和家庭。院落内风景如画,提供精美的本地食品。双人间(只含房租):180美元起。 /201504/370008

  Keeping a pet cat puts owners at greater risk of going blind, but a dog appears to protect eyesight, a new study suggests.一项最新研究表明,养猫会增加主人失明的风险,但是养却能保护主人的视力。Scientists have discovered that dogs and cats carry antigens which can prompt different immune responses in humans.科学家们发现和猫身上都携带能激起人体的不同免疫反应的抗原。While the allergen which dogs carry reduces the chance of developing glaucoma – the second leading cause of blindness in theUK– owning a cat nearly doubles the risk of contracting the eye disease.身上携带的过敏原会降低主人患青光眼的几率,在英国,青光眼是导致人们失明的第二大诱因,而养猫让主人感染这一眼疾的风险增加了一倍。Many pet owners suffer mild allergic reactions to their pets but still choose to keep them. However the new study suggests that even a small immune response could lead to blindness.许多宠物主人对他们的宠物都有轻微的过敏反应,但是却坚持养宠物。然而最新研究表明,即使是个很小的免疫反应都有导致失明的危险。The study by the University of California, Los Angeles, found that cat owners who reacted to their pet allergen had a 90 per cent increased risk of glaucoma compared with non-pet owners. But dog owners were 20 per cent less likely to develop the debilitation condition.加州大学洛杉矶分校的这项研究发现,如果宠物猫的主人对他们的宠物过敏的话,其患青光眼的风险比没养宠物的人高90%。但是,宠物的主人出现视力减弱的几率却很可能比一般人低20%。Keeping a dog also has the added benefit that owners are outside more which has been proven to protect against short-sightedness.养的主人需要经常在户外活动,这同时也有助于保护主人的视力,不会近视。“Not only is Fido man#39;s best friend, he may also save your sight,” said British laser eye surgeon Dr David Allamby.英国激光眼科医生大卫·阿兰比士说:“宠物不仅是人类最好的朋友,还可以保护你的视力。”“Cats could cause our immune system to react in a way that predispose eyes to the development of glaucoma.“而宠物猫却会诱发我们的免疫系统做出不同的反应,导致青光眼的出现。”“Exposure to dogs appears to be linked to the opposite effect and could be protective against the disease.”“与接触却会产生相反的作用,并且还能防青光眼。”Glaucoma occurs when fluid in the eyeball stops draining efficiently, causing a build-up of pressure which damages the optic nerve and nerve fibres from the retina. Previous studies have suggested that inflammation can drive the disease and the researchers wanted to find out if that could be triggered by pet allergens.青光眼是由于眼球中的液体不能有效排出,导致眼内压力累积,从而导致视网膜的视神经和神经纤维受损导致的。早前的研究表明炎症能引起青光眼,研究人员同时还想弄清楚,宠物过敏原是否也会导致青光眼。Animals frequently groom themselves so allergens from saliva and secretions sp throughout the home, becoming airborne easily where they can be inhaled by humans.由于动物们频繁地梳理它们自己,所以来自唾液和分泌物的过敏原很快就扩散到整个家里,接着又通过空气传播很容易就被人类吸入体内。The researchers believe that dogs are healthier for humans because they spend more time outdoors.研究人员认为,对人类来说,更健康一些,因为它们大多数时间都在户外。“The protective effect of dogs could be due to their natural antigens in their dead skin, but might also be because they spend more time outdoors and are happy to get dirty, whereas cats are cleaner animals,” said Dr Anne Coleman, of UCLA.加州大学洛杉矶分校的安妮·科尔曼士表示:“的防护作用可能是来自于它们死皮内的自然抗原,但是也可能是由于它们更多时间都在户外,而且把自己弄脏了也很开心,然而,猫却是种爱干净的动物。”“We aly know that exposure to dogs and the germs and bacteria they carry can be good for the immune system. Now it seems to be the case for the eyes too.“我们已经知道接触和它们携带的细菌对人类免疫系统有益。现在发现这似乎对人类的眼睛也有益处。“Allergens from cats may have biochemical or physical properties that trigger antibodies targeting the optic nerve, while dog allergens may behave differently, possibly because dogs spend more time outdoors.;“猫身上携带的过敏原可能有生物化学性或物理性特征,能诱发针对视神经的抗体,而身上携带的过敏原起到的作用却不同,可能是因为大多数时间都在户外。” /201505/376232

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  Barrage, geek culture and ACG (animation, comic and game) – behind this *jargon beats the pulse of the newest generation of youths. Born from the mid-1990s to the 2000s, this group is called Generation Z.弹幕,极客文化和动漫游(动画,漫画和游戏)——这些行话背后隐含的是最新一代年轻人跳动的脉搏。这些上世纪90年代中期至2000年代出生的一群人,被叫做Z一代。China Youth Daily has called them the Internet’s *indigenous residents; The Beijing News said their lifestyles seem naturally integrated with technology; and Zhang Xiaoquan, the 1995-born author of “I am Different From This World”, noted outsiders must crack their code of *discourse to gain access to the complexity of their minds. Generation Z is coming to take hold of Chinese campuses, and it is expected to remake the world as we know it with new values, judgments, ways of living and a fresh outlook on the world.《中国青年报》称这群人为网络原住民;《新京报》称他们的生活方式似乎与科技天生就是一体;张小权,这位《我和这个世界不一样》的95后作者,指出外界的人想要进入他们复杂的内心世界需要破解他们的话语密码。Online indigenous网络原住民According to Zhang Baoyi, the head of Tianjin Academy of Social Sciences, the post-1995 generation is hypersocial online. Since their childhood, their social behavior has been molded by online communities where the limitations of space, time and identity are stretched thin.天津社会科学院研究所所长张宝义称,95后热衷网络社交。从童年开始,他们的社会行为就被网络社区所塑造。在网络社区那里,空间,时间和身份变得淡化。“So the post-1995 generation is very adept at communicating with strangers and making friends to expand their aly diverse circle of *acquaintances,” said Zhang. “The drawback is that when caught in a face-to-face communication scenario, they could seem awkward.”“因此95后能非常娴熟地与陌生人聊天,交朋友,进而扩大本已多元的社交圈,”张说道。“这样子的缺点是如果换做面对面交流,他们可能会略显尴尬。”Where the post-1980s and post-1990s generations expanded their real-world social connections via the Internet, the reverse is true for the post-1995 generation: real-life connections tend to supplement online friend groups.80后、90后通过网络扩大现实生活的社交,95后则正好相反:现实生活中的社交是网友圈的补充。Young *paradox年轻的悖论Zhang Xiaoquan, the post-1995 writer, sees his peers’ double identity as the hallmark of his generation.张小权,95后作家,将同龄人的双重身份视为他这代人的印记。They can sometimes seem *blunt and wild, but they are also sensitive enough to capture slight emotional fluctuations like, say, in a selfie. “Post 1995-ers” might be the most plugged-in generation, but they’re still capable of being overwhelmed by the loneliness, fear and sense of having missed connections caused by being a single child.他们有时候看起来直率而不受约束,却也足够敏感到能捕捉,比如说自拍照里人的轻微情绪波动。“95后”可能是与科技结合最紧密的一代,但是作为独生子女,他们也可能会被孤独、恐惧和缺乏人际网络这些感觉吞噬。“I think that’s the paradox shaping this generation of Chinese who have opened their eyes to a world driven by a rush of technology that brings change to almost everything,” said Zhang, who is now enrolled at the Beijing Film Academy.“我想,这就是塑造这代中国人的悖论,他们看到的世界被科技的急流推动,而这股急流几乎给一切带来改变”,在北京电影学院就读的张小说道。Promising batch前途无量的一代However, often described as *capricious, bold and *maverick, the post-1995 generation is reported to be more socially responsible than their predecessors, according to a report conducted by the Ministry of Education on about 7,000 college students born after 1995.然而有报告称,尽管经常被冠以反复无常、放肆大胆、特立独行之类词汇,95后比他们之前的一代更具社会责任心。这是教育部调查了约7000名95后大学生后得出的结论。“Naturally tech-savvy and Internet literate, the post-1995 generation is more responsible for their online behavior and expression than post-1980s,” survey project administrator Wei Jinping told China Education Daily.“95后天生精通科技与网络,他们对自己的网络言行更加负责,”该调查的项目管理员魏进平这样告诉《中国教育报》。With various tags aly attached to post 1995-ers, the rising of a new generation is bound to bring more surprises.95后已被贴上诸多标签,这新一代的成长必将带来更多惊喜。 /201504/372533;There will be six designated yawning breaks during my presentation.Please pace your boredom accordingly.;在我的讲演中将会有六次特定的打哈欠短停,因此请按部就班地安排好你的厌倦期。 /201506/382501“Three-miles” Seasoned Rice Vinegar“三公里”的丽江头醋Hundreds of vinegar jars were lining up in Zhang Sui#39;s backyard, a manifesto of his family#39;s devotion to vinegar making which lasts more than one hundred and fifty years. Among six generations, women instead of men were in charge of vinegar making. The name of the vinegar ;Three-mile; might seem confusing and irrelevant, but it embodied profound meanings.Above all, when Zhang Sui#39;s ancestors made the vinegar for the first time, they were told by the neighbors that the odor could be smelt beyond three miles. As a result, residents who were fascinated by the scent flocked to his ancestor#39;s house and enquired if they could take a bowl of vinegar home. In addition, virtually the name indicated Zhang Sui’s family’s long-lasting love for vinegar making which Zhang Sui#39;s mother, a lady of sixty years old, exemplified. “Those vinegar jars are part of my life. I cannot imagine a life without them. My mother#39;s mother can lift them up even when she was eighty years old.”She said with excitement. To the family, perhaps, making vinegar had aly become a way of life.“三公里”丽江头醋由玉米和大麦纯粮酿造的,但是“醋根”是张家的。当家的叫张岁,他家是制醋世家,男的行医,女的做醋,六代人150多年衣钵相传。张岁的母亲说舍不下那些酿醋的老坛子,它们釉厚胎薄,翻糟轻便,她说:“我婆婆的婆婆80多岁时还能搬动它们”。可见他们对酿醋的感情深厚。 /201505/375882

  Recently, a friend showed me her mobile phone, with a despairing sigh. The screen was a mosaic of photos of a goggle-eyed baby, taken from every conceivable angle, sometimes holding chirpy, handwritten messages. “It’s overwhelming my inbox!” she muttered, explaining that four months earlier she had become a grandmother to the infant, who lived in a different city. A decade ago, that would have meant she only saw the baby every month — say, over a holiday meal.最近,一位朋友带着一声绝望的叹息,把她的手机给我看。屏幕上是一个睁大眼睛的婴儿各个角度照片的拼接图,有的照片还附带了快活的手写信息。“这塞满了我的收件箱!”她嘟囔着,解释说屏幕上是她那4个月前刚出生的孙子。孩子和父母在另一个城市生活。若是换到10年前,她只能一个月见到孩子一次,比如在节日聚餐的时候。But not in 2015. In the past month, the doting parents have taken to dispatching baby photos to all their friends and family on a daily basis. And now — to her utter bewilderment — my friend has been asked to send text messages to the infant. The idea is that these “texts” can be posted online to show that the grandparents are constantly thinking about their new grandson, and thus enable the family to “connect”. “It’s crazy,” she giggled, explaining that she didn’t want to cause offence but could not quite bring herself to send texts to a four-month-old. “What do I do?”但在2015年,情况不同了。上个月,宠爱孩子的父母开始每天向所有的朋友和家人发送孩子的照片。而现在,让我的朋友非常迷惑的是,他们要求我的朋友给孩子发文字消息。这其中的想法是,这些“文字”能够公布到网上,以彰显祖父母时刻在思念着他们刚出世的孙子,从而让整个家庭“联系起来”。“这太疯狂了,”她咯咯直笑,解释说她不想惹恼家人,但她真的没办法给一个4个月大的婴儿发送文字消息。“我该怎么办呢?”It is a peculiarly 21st-century dilemma. As linguists and anthropologists know well, the way that human families define themselves and communicate with each other has changed numerous times over the millennia. But the past decade has produced a shift in the pattern of family communications that is more speedy and intense than anything seen before.这是一个21世纪特有的窘境。语言学家和人类学家非常了解,千年以来,人类家庭诠释自身以及成员间互相沟通的方式发生了无数次改变。但在过去十年,家庭沟通方式发生的转变比以往任何一次都要迅速和剧烈。Never mind the fact that the internet has suddenly linked the entire globe; social media and mobile phones have enabled us all to disappear into cyber space, colliding and connecting — however we choose. That is not just reshaping work but altering domestic space, creating new forms of cyber family traditions, even during the holidays.不必担心如下事实:互联网在突然之间将全球连接在一起;社交媒体和手机让所有人消失在网络空间之中,发生不受我们自身控制的相互碰撞和连接。这不仅重塑了我们的工作环境,也改变了我们的家庭空间,创造出新形式的网络家庭传统,甚至是节日传统。For many people, this shift seems frightening. Last month, for example, Newmarket Holidays, one of the UK’s largest tour operators, conducted a survey of grandparents that showed that more than three-quarters thought that their relationship with their grandchildren was different from the relationship they had with their own grandparents — and that more than half feel that the difficulty in sharing Christmas traditions is due to computer games taking the attention of their grandchildren. Another third blamed mobile phones and TV for distracting the kids and undermining the type of traditional Christmas activities that the grandparents thought were crucial to maintain family ties (such as talking, playing board games or singing songs).对很多人来说,这种转变似乎很可怕。比如,英国最大的旅行社之一Newmarket Holidays上个月对祖父母进行了一项调查。结果显示,超过四分之三的受调查者认为他们与孙辈的关系不同于他们和自己的祖父母的关系,超过一半的受调查者感到与孩子分享圣诞节传统存在困难,原因是电脑游戏占据了孙辈们的注意力。另有三分之一的受调查者指责手机和电视让孩子分心,削弱了他们认为对维系家庭关系起关键作用的圣诞节传统活动(比如聊天、玩棋盘游戏或者唱歌)。Other surveys in the US reflect this concern. Between half and two-thirds of adults today say that children are too obsessed with social media, and fear that the rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets is creating a more individualistic, alienated society. It is little wonder, then, that one of the fastest-growing categories of self-help books is the one which tells people how to maintain social connections — and quality family time — in the face of this digital onslaught. No doubt some of those books have been handed around as Christmas presents (along with a vastly bigger mountain of electronic gadgets).美国的一些其他调查也反映了这种忧虑。现在有一半到三分之二的成年人认为儿童对社交媒体过于沉迷,他们担心电子玩意儿的迅速普及正在造就一个人们更强调个性、彼此更疏远的社会。所以,这也难怪增长最快的一类自助图书,是教人们如何在这种数字攻势下维持社会关系、保和家人一起度过宝贵时光的书。毫无疑问,一些人将这种书作为圣诞礼物(与大得多的一堆电子器件一起)送给家人朋友。But while it is easy for parents (like me) to worry that iPads, iPhones and Instagram are undermining the family, it is not always that simple. As Danah Boyd, a digital anthropologist, points out, our cyber behaviour needs to be viewed in a much bigger social context. Take the oft-cited concern that electronic media are separating children from their parents (or grandparents). To a casual observer, this might seem self-evident, given how much time children tend to spend online, roaming cyber space or chatting with friends.但是,尽管父母们(比如我)很容易担忧iPad、iPhone和Instagram正在削弱家庭关系,可事情并不总是那么简单。数字人类学家丹纳#8226;伊德(Danah Boyd)指出,我们在网络上的行为需要放到一个大得多的社会背景下进行理解。一个常被提及的忧虑是,电子媒体正使孩子与他们的父母(或者祖父母)的关系更为疏远。以此为例,对一般的观察者来说,考虑到孩子们在网络漫游或者与朋友聊天等在线活动上花了多少时间,这一点似乎是不言而喻的。But, as Boyd points out, what children are doing online today is simply an extension of what they used to do in the real world. In the past, kids often wandered the streets (or woods and fields) with relative freedom, and used that time to explore boundaries and congregate with friends. But now that this has been curtailed by protective parents, children are roaming in cyber space instead. While Twitter or Instagram might be new, what is not new is the idea that teens want to escape — even at Christmas.但是,就如伊德指出的,今天的孩子们在网络上做的事情不过是过去他们在真实世界里做的事情的延伸。过去,孩子们经常相对自由地在街道上(或者树林和田野中)漫游,并且花时间探索边界,与朋友们聚在一起。但现在,想保护孩子的父母限制了这些活动,因此孩子们转而在网络空间中漫游。尽管Twitter或者Instagram或许是新事物,但青少年哪怕是在圣诞节的时候都想要逃离,这种想法却并不是新鲜事。Similarly, while the rise of social media might undermine the type of family traditions that grandparents say they love, it is also creating new links. Parents today can monitor what teenagers are saying to each other far more closely than before. Kids can talk — or Skype or FaceTime — with their relatives all over the world on Christmas Day. Family news or holiday snaps can be shared on social media platforms.类似的,尽管社交媒体的兴起或许削弱了祖父母喜爱的一些家庭传统,但同时也创造了新的关联。当今的父母们可以更严密地监控青少年谈话的内容。孩子们可以通过Skype或者Facetime在圣诞节这天与世界各地的亲人聊天。家庭新闻或者节日照片能够在社交媒体平台上分享。Then there is the innovation of sending “texts” to babies. To some people (such as my friend) that might sound bizarre; to others (like my friends’ children) it seems normal. Either way, the key point is this: in today’s cyber world we have extraordinary freedom to reshape our family web as we choose. And that is rather an inspiring development to consider — particularly as another holiday season draws to a close. 6还有关于给婴儿发送“文字”的新颖做法。对一些人(比如我的朋友)来说,这听上去可能很怪异,但对另一些人(比如我朋友的子女)来说,这或许很正常。不管怎样,关键点是在今天的网络世界里,我们有很大的自由,按照自己的心意重塑家庭网络。这是一种值得我们思考的、令人相当鼓舞的新情况,尤其是在下一个节假日到来之前。 /201501/354732It had been another long day for Eliza, a 41-year-old stay-at-home mother who lives in Los Angeles with her two sons. She had taken the boys, 10 and 13 at the time, to school, taken care of the house, and after putting them to bed, planned to relax in front of her computer.对41岁的全职妈妈伊丽莎(Eliza)来说,这又是漫长的一天。她和两个儿子住在洛杉矶。她把10岁和13岁的两个儿子送去学校,然后开始整理房间,晚上打发他们上床后,她打算在电脑前放松一会儿。At least that’s what she was hoping to do. Eliza opened her computer and started to search for a document, but based on previous searches, the term “child porn” appeared on the screen.至少,那是她的打算。伊丽莎打开电脑,开始寻找一份文件,但是基于以前的搜索,“儿童色情”这个词出现在屏幕上。“I went into a panic,” said Eliza, who was given anonymity to protect the identity of her children. Her mind started to race in a million different directions.“我吓了一跳,”伊丽莎说(为了保护孩子的身份隐私,她决定隐去姓氏)。各种念头涌进她的头脑。Two nights later, as they were going to bed, she asked the older son if he had searched for “child porn” and if so, why. “He said he was looking for porn made for children,” she told me. “He explained, embarrassed, that he just wanted to know what his body was supposed to look like at his age.”两天后,她在睡觉前问大儿子是否搜索了“儿童色情”,如果是的话,为什么要这样做。“他说自己在找给孩子看的色情片,”她说,“他尴尬地解释说,他只是想知道他这个年纪的身体应该是什么样子的。”Welcome to the new teenage years. Not long ago, boys and girls nearing that curious age might sneak a peek at Playboy or scour the underwear section of a J. C. Penney circular.欢迎来到新的青少年时代。不久前,男孩女孩们在这个好奇的年纪可能会偷看《》或者翻看杰西潘尼百货公司宣传单的内衣部分。Today, teenagers have easy access to a seemingly endless supply of pornography, including things that even many adults don’t want to see, such as mock sexual violence, misogynistic s and, in extreme cases, child pornography.如今,青少年很容易接触那些似乎无穷无尽的色情片,其中一些甚至连很多成年人都不想看,比如模拟性暴力和歧视女性的视频,极端的例子包括儿童色情片。“At first, I told my son the next time he wanted to look at things like this, to talk to me and we’d do it together,” Eliza said. “Yet as soon as the words left my mouth I realized, and said, ‘No, no, no, that would be a terrible idea.’ ”“一开始,我对儿子说下次他想看这种东西时,告诉我,我们一起看,”伊丽莎说,“但是话一出口我就觉得不对,连忙说,‘不,不,不,这个主意很糟糕。’”Parents I’ve spoken with who have young boys acknowledged that trying to stop them from seeing online pornography is all but impossible. One father, for example, said that he installed web filtering software on the home computer, only to learn that his son had watched a gross-out pornography clip at a friend’s house.我采访过一些有未成年儿子的父母们。他们承认,阻止孩子看网络色情片几乎是不可能的。比如,一位父亲说,他给家里的电脑安装了网络过滤软件,但是发现儿子在一个朋友家里看了一段令人作呕的色情片段。I spoke with researchers at the Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire, who walked me through a number of long-term studies that the group has been conducting since 2000 on children’s exposure to pornography. In one paper, the group found that 42 percent of online users ages 10 to 17 had seen pornography, and that 66 percent of those had seen it unwittingly, often as display ads on file-sharing sites.我采访了新罕布什尔大学涉童罪行研究中心(Crimes Against Children Research Center)的研究员们。他们给我简要介绍了该机构从2000年起进行的一些关于儿童接触色情内容的长期研究。其中一项研究发现,在10至17岁的上网者中,有42%看过色情片,其中66%的人是在无意中看到的,通常是在文件共享网站的醒目广告中。Another study by the same university found that 93 percent of boys and 62 percent of girls were exposed to online pornography during their adolescence. You don’t need to be a scientific researcher to realize that’s a lot of exposure for children.这所大学的另一项研究发现,93%的男孩和62%的女孩在青春期看到过网络色情内容。即使不是科学研究者,你也能感觉到,对孩子们来说,这也有点太多了。For parents, this leaves two questions. First, is the pervasiveness of online pornography bad for today’s youth, potentially creating a society of sexual deviants? And second, what can parents do to help protect their children?对父母们来说,这引出了两个问题。第一,网络色情无处不在,这对如今的青少年有害吗?会导致这个社会充满性变态者吗?第二,父母们能做些什么来保护孩子?There is no definitive answer to the first question, although it is a running debate in the nation’s culture wars. For example, the 2013 movie “Don Jon,” which starred Joseph Gordon-Levitt as a man hooked on pornography, prompted a new round of anti-pornography commentary, including one from a sex therapist arguing that online pornography is severely corrupting today’s youth. “I see a sexual and relational train wreck happening,” the therapist said.第一个问题没有确切,不过它是美国文化论战中的一个长期论题。比如,在2013年的影片《唐璜》(Don Jon)中,约瑟夫·高登-李维(Joseph Gordon-Levitt)饰演一个痴迷色情片的人。该片引发了新一轮反色情,其中有一位性心理医生认为,网络色情正在严重侵蚀如今的青少年。“我看到很多人难以维持正常的性关系和亲密关系,”这位心理医生说。But other experts who monitor teenagers and sexuality say that there is plenty of evidence pointing in the opposite direction. Teenage pregnancy has dropped sharply in recent years; the number of sexual partners that teenagers have is down; and the number of ninth graders having sexual intercourse has fallen, to cite just three examples.但是其他观察青少年和性的专家说,有很多据表明情况正相反。先举三个例子:近些年,青少年怀案例急剧减少;青少年拥有性伴侣的人数减少了;发生性关系的九年级学生人数减少了。“If you just look at the indicators of sexual responsibility, you don’t see a generation of kids looking like they are off the rails,” said David Finkelhor, an author of several books on child abuse and a director of the Family Research Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire. But Dr. Finkelhor acknowledged that the long-term psychological effects of teenagers’ access to online pornography was still being determined.“如果只看和性责任相关的某些指数,你就不会觉得这一代孩子好像都误入歧途了,”大卫·芬克霍尔(David Finkelhor)说。他是新罕布什尔大学家庭研究实验室的一位主管,写过几本关于虐待儿童的书。但是芬克霍尔承认,青少年接触网络色情对心理的长期影响仍有待确定。Which leads to the second question. Dr. Finkelhor and other experts I spoke with said that today’s easy access to pornography, especially its violent and illegal forms, makes it imperative for parents to educate their children, not only about sex but specifically about online pornography, in all its flavors. And given how easy it is to find it online, it is important to inculcate them at an early age.这就引出了第二个问题。芬克霍尔以及我采访过的其他专家说,如今接触色情内容变得太过容易,特别是暴力和非法的色情内容,所以父母们必须得教育孩子,不只是关于性,还要特别就各种类型的网络色情对他们进行教育。考虑到现在很容易在网上找到色情内容,所以从很小就谆谆教诲很重要。Here’s the new reality: Thanks to the Internet, children will see things that children probably shouldn’t. Teenagers with active hormones will get together with their friends and, when parents are out of sight, seek out and explore dark and salacious imagery.新的现实情况就是这样的:因为有了互联网,孩子们会看到他们不该看到的东西。父母不在身边时,荷尔蒙分泌旺盛的青少年会和朋友们聚在一起,寻找阴暗淫荡的画面。So as uncomfortable and embarrassing as it may be for both parents and teenagers, part of raising a child today means explaining that, like Hollywood movies, pornography is often a fantasy that can take things to extremes.所以,虽然对父母和青少年来说,这让人难受、尴尬,但是如今养育孩子的部分责任是向他们说明,色情片就像好莱坞电影,往往是一种幻想,有时会比较极端。Also, children should be warned about the dark and dangerous material they may stumble across online. If parents don’t, that uncomfortable and embarrassing feeling could be replaced with something much worse.另外,应该警告孩子们,他们在网上会碰到一些阴暗危险的内容。不警告的话,倒是可以避免难受、尴尬的感觉,但取而代之的是更糟糕的情况。Take it from Eliza. The last thing you want to find on the home computer is a previous search for the term “child porn.”伊丽莎就是个例子。你在家庭电脑上最不想看到的就是历史搜素记录里有“儿童色情”的条目。 /201501/355265

  

  One Friday night last fall, 50 well-dressed guests piled into an apartment in Hell’s Kitchen for a party celebrating Sheela-Marie Padgett, a 57-year-old former dancer with the New York City Ballet.去年秋天的一个周五晚上,位于纽约地狱厨房区的一处公寓楼内,50位衣着光鲜的客人接踵而至。他们前来参加为前纽约市芭蕾舞团舞蹈演员、57岁的茜拉·玛丽·帕吉特(Sheela-Marie Padgett)举行的派对。Waiters passed drinks before a buffet dinner of fancy Indian food was presented. Then came a chocolate cake from the Erotic Bakery made in the shape of corseted showgirl with a male appendage. It was sliced up and served to the crowd.侍者们供应着酒水。之后,客人们享用了印式精致美食自助餐。甜点是来自“情欲面包房”的一块巧克力蛋糕。蛋糕的形状是一个穿了紧身胸衣却有着男性性器官的歌舞女郎。蛋糕被切成小块以偿宾客。Which was fitting enough, because the following morning, Sheela — formerly known as Bruce — was scheduled to fly to Scottsdale, Ariz., for the last major procedure in her transition from male to female: gender reassignment surgery.这真是再应景不过了。第二天早上,茜拉——她之前的名字是布鲁斯——就要飞到亚利桑那州的斯克茨戴尔完成她从男性变为女性的最后一步:变性手术。One by one, friends made their way over to the Nakashima-style wood dining table to offer congratulations. Almost unanimously, they noted that Bruce had been cynical, withdrawn and biting, while Sheela is soft and effervescent.朋友们一个接着一个走到中岛风格(Nakashima-style)的餐桌前,向茜拉表示祝贺。他们几乎不约而同地注意到:之前的布鲁斯愤世嫉俗、孤僻、爱嘲讽,而茜拉却温婉活泼。“It’s like you’re a different person,” said Edwin Pabon, a freelance photographer. “Before the lights were off, and now they’re on.”“她完全变了一个人,”自由职业摄影师埃德温·帕波恩说:“就好像之前灯是关着的,现在它们打开了。”“It’s true,” said Ms. Padgett, who stands 5 foot 7 inches tall (when not in heels), wore a black lace top, and, with her hair done in a Raphaelite style, looked rather like the portrait that would emerge if John Singer Sargent were alive today to paint Madonna. “My friends were all frightened of me. I was a nasty person. I was so unhappy. It tainted all my relationships.”“这是真的,”帕吉特女士说:“以前,我的朋友们都怕我。我不是一个好相处的人。我非常不快乐。这影响了我所有的人际关系。”帕吉特身高一米七,穿着一件黑色的蕾丝上衣,头发的样式模仿了拉斐尔派画像里的女性。如果肖像画家约翰·辛格·萨金特(John Singer Sargent)还在世的话,他画的麦当娜可能会和她别无二致。Lori Ogle, another friend, said: “It’s really brave to do what she’s doing and it’s even braver because it’s so late in life. We were born the same year. I don’t know what I want to change, but this is inspiring. It’s like, ‘Go ahead, it’s not too late.’ ”另一位朋友,萝莉·奥格(Lori Ogle)说:“她做这件事真的很有勇气。考虑到她的年龄,她尤其显得勇敢。我们是同一年出生的。帕吉特给了我激励,尽管我不知道我想改变什么。这就好像有人告诉我:‘放手去做吧,还为时不晚。’”Awareness of transgender issues has surged over the last year. Laverne Cox, a star of the television show “Orange Is the New Black,” appeared in June on the cover of Time. Janet Mock chronicled her transition from male to female in the memoir “Redefining Realness,” which landed last spring on the New York Times best-seller list. Transgender models like Andreja Pejic have walked the runways in New York and Milan. And major retailers like Barneys are using transgender men and women in their ad campaigns.对于跨性别话题的关注从去年开始高涨。电视剧《铁女子监狱》(Orange Is the New Black)中的主演之一,变性女星拉文·考克斯(Laverne Cox)在去年六月上了《时代》周刊的封面。简妮特·默克(Janet Mock)的回忆录《重新定义真实》(Redefining Realness)记述了她从男性到女性的转变,并于去年春季跻入《纽约时报》畅销书排行榜。像安德烈·佩伊其(Andreja Pejic)这样的跨性模特在纽约和米兰的秀场崭露头角。而诸如巴尼斯(Barneys)这样的零售商巨头也在广告宣传中启用了跨性人士。But it took Amazon’s popular and acclaimed TV series “Transparent,” about a septuagenarian father of three who is coming out as trans (which coincided with frenzied coverage of Bruce Jenner’s drastically changed physical appearance) to shed light on a largely undiscussed segment of the transgender population: those who undergo a gender change later in life, sometimes even in their 60s and 70s, after decades of feeling not fully whole.而很少人会去关注那些在人生后半段——有些甚至是到了六七十岁,在经历了好几十年的缺憾后才开始转变性别的跨性人群。亚马逊出品的《透明家庭》(Transparent)改变了这一情况。这部人气高涨,备受好评的电视剧讲述了一位耄耋之年,养育了三个子女的跨性父亲的出柜故事(电视播出的同时,媒体正大肆报道1949年出生的前运动员布鲁斯·詹纳[Bruce Jenner]变性后大为改变的外貌)。Coming out as transgender is not easy for anyone. But the issues are particularly thorny for those trying to reconfigure a central tenet of identity decades after building an adult life with family and career.出柜对于跨性人士来说并非易事。对于那些构建了好几十年人生,有了家庭和事业的人们来说,要想改变身份的核心成分更是难上加难。Social changes have a tendency to take root among the young, and to then trickle up years (sometimes decades) later. To be in transition around the time you qualify for AARP membership is to be on some level a paradox; a person newly born at a seasoned age.社会身份的变化会在年轻人心目中扎根,然后在数年甚至数十年后体现出来。到了该退休的年龄再想改变性别,这无异于一个悖论:本是熟龄人士,却刚获得新生。Additionally, these late transitioners grew up in an era of rigid gender stereotypes, which they have been both oppressed by and in some cases internalized. A great number of them are married and have children who struggle to accept that the person who raised them is now becoming someone new.此外,这些高龄变性者成长于一个性别观念僵化的年代。他们被这些观念压迫,而这些观念也成了他们当中某些人自我意识的一部分。他们中的大多数人都已成家,有了子女。对后代来说,要接受养育他们的家长现在就要变为另外一个人,这会是一个艰难的过程。There are pragmatic as well as physical challenges, too, particularly for the older population of trans women (which refers to those born with men’s anatomy and who have since transitioned). Men’s jaws and shoulders widen over time, making a more “womanly” shape hard to achieve. Hair grows on their bodies while disappearing from their scalps, necessitating hair transplants or wigs.另外还有一些现实的和身体上的挑战,尤其是对于女性跨性别者(女性跨性别者指的是生下来是男性,后来转变为女性的人士)来说。男性的下颚和肩膀会随着年岁增长变宽。这使得他们更难获得较为女性化的身材。他们的体毛变得旺盛,但是头发却逐渐脱落。这样他们不得不进行头发移植,或是戴假发。All of which has profound emotional consequences for a group of people coming to terms not only with their genders but with the indignities of aging and impending mortality. Many will not be beautiful, like the young transitioners they watch on TV. Many will not “pass.”所有这些困难对高龄变性人的情绪影响极其深刻:他们既为自己的性别身份而苦苦挣扎,同时还要面对因为衰老而丧失尊严和即将到来的死亡所带来的困扰。许多人都不会像他们在电视上看到的那些年轻变性人那样美貌。还有许多人的变性结果并不会获得社会“认可”。“After I went on hormones, there was a letdown,” said Barbara, 63, who lives on the Upper East Side and agreed to talk to a reporter on the condition that her last name not be used. “I thought, ‘Where do I go now?’ I’m not going to look like a movie actress in her 20s or 30s. I’m not going to look like Laverne Cox.”“在摄入荷尔蒙后,我有点失望,”63岁的芭芭拉说。芭芭拉住在纽约的上东区,她接受记者采访的条件是不透露姓氏。“我想:‘我现在该怎么办?’我不可能变成像二三十岁的电影演员那样美丽。我不可能变得像拉文·考克斯那样。”Today, she goes to a support group at Sage, the largest organization for older LGBT people. “No one there is dating,” she said.如今,芭芭拉参加了一个名为Sage的互助小组,这是全国最大的老年LGBT人士互助小组。“我们小组里没有一个人在约会,”芭芭拉说。Still, the pull to live as a person wants, even for a short time, even under reduced circumstances, remains powerful. Some people interviewed said they waited to retire before transitioning so as not to disrupt or destroy their careers. Others chose to push forward after the deaths of their parents or after their children had left the nest.尽管如此,能过上自己所渴望的生活——哪怕只是很短的时间,并有各种不尽如人意——这种吸引力还是巨大的。接受采访的一些人说,为了不至于干扰自己的事业,或是使事业毁于一旦,他们等到退休后才开始变性。另一些等到他们父母去世或是子女们成人离家后才开始有所动作。But invariably, they said that they had given enough, pretended enough, and wanted to claim the years remaining as their own. The entirety of their bucket list was to finally become themselves.但是所有的人都说他们已经付出够多,伪装够长。他们想在有生余年过上自己想要的生活。他们现在的人生目标清单只有一项,那就是做回自己。As Ms. Padgett tells it, she lived the first part of her life assuming that the pull to be female would go away. Her father was a Baptist minister in Mississippi. Her mother taught first grade. When she came to New York and became a dancer, she thought that she had found her calling, a world that was more open and tolerant.就像帕吉特女士所讲述的那样。在她人生的上半段,她一直都以为自己想要变成女性的渴求会随时间消逝。她的父亲是密西西比州的一位浸礼会牧师。母亲是小学一年级教师。当她来到纽约成为一名舞者后,她以为自己找到了人生归宿——一个更加开放和宽容的世界。She hung out with Andy Warhol at Indochine and spent late nights at Studio 54 and the Peppermint Lounge.她和安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)一起在印度那(Indochine,纽约著名餐厅——译注)用餐,在54号工作室(Studio 54,纽约一俱乐部——译注)和薄荷舞厅(Peppermint Lounge)寻欢到深夜。And yet during all the years she was a member of one of the world’s most famous ballet companies, she stood off to the side, wanting not to be the prince in “Swan Lake,” but Odette, the female swan.但是置身世界上最有名的芭蕾舞团之一的这些年里,她却一直是一个边缘人物。她不想当《天鹅湖》中的王子,却一直想出演白天鹅奥杰塔。It didn’t happen. Instead, after she turned 50, she found herself increasingly lonely and isolated. Then, in 2007 and 2008, her parents died in quick succession. She began to think of what she characterizes (in stronger language) as the “what the hell” years.她没有如愿。反而,在过了50岁之后,她觉得自己越发孤寂。她的父母于2007年和2008年先后过世。“怎么会这样?”(帕吉特女士的原话语气更为强烈)是她这段时间里的口头禅。生活的不如意促使她思考。There was a small inheritance. A friend who had had gender reassignment surgery more than 20 years before went in for facial feminization surgery. “It was a big success,” Ms. Padgett said. “It completely changed her appearance.” Soon, she began telling people that she was transitioning.她继承了一小笔遗产。一位朋友在20年前做了变性手术,这会儿刚做完了使脸部女性化的手术。“手术很成功,”帕吉特女士说:“她完全变了样。”不久,帕吉特开始告诉周围的人她在变性。Though the reaction to Ms. Padgett’s transition has been largely positive, the process nevertheless has been arduous, and filled with roadblocks that may not have existed had she made the leap earlier.大多数人对帕吉特女士变性消息的反应是正面的。尽管如此,变性的过程相当艰难,充满了许多障碍,而如果帕吉特女士早一点决定变性的话,这些障碍可能并不会存在。“Your grandmother looks more like your grandfather than she did while they were younger,” said Dr. Jeffrey Spiegel, a plastic surgeon in Boston who works largely on trans women and who treated Ms. Padgett. “The eyebrows drop, the nose changes, cheeks get more flat, the upper lips get longer, the jaw gets wider, skin quality deteriorates.”“你的祖母年岁越大长得就越像你的祖父,”杰弗瑞·史比格尔(Jeffrey Spiegel)——一位波士顿的整容医师说。史比格尔医生的客户大多是跨性女性。他也是帕吉特女士的医生。“女性随着年龄的增长眉毛会下垂,鼻子也会有所改变,面颊变平,上唇变长,下颚变宽,肤质也变差了。”“Dr. Spiegel redid my forehead,” Ms. Padgett said. “I had a very masculine brow bone, so he softened that. He raised my eyebrows so that there’s more space between my eye and my eyebrows. He cut the skin inside my lids to take away the old skin. He did a rhinoplasty to make my nose smaller and more delicate. He raised my upper lip so that there’s less space between my nose and my upper lip. He put in cheek implants and chin implants, and he did a tracheal shave and a lower neck and face-lift.”“史比格尔医生给我的额头做了些改变,”帕吉特女士说:“我之前的眉骨非常男性化,所以他把它变得柔和了一些。他还把我的眉毛提高,这样我的眼睛和眉毛之间距离就大了一些。他割去了我眼皮下的一些老皮。还给我的鼻子做了手术,让它变得小巧玲珑一些。他提升了我的上唇,缩小了我的鼻子和上唇的距离。他还给我的面颊和下巴放入了填充物。他除掉了我的喉结,并给我做了下颈部和脸部的拉皮。”The total cost for Dr. Spiegel’s work was ,000. In addition, Ms. Padgett has had several years of painful electrolysis treatments to stop hair from growing on her face and body. Almost nothing related to Ms. Padgett’s gender transition was covered by her health insurance company, including her gender reassignment surgery and breast implants. With those three things added on, she estimates that the cost of transitioning physically was about 0,000. “I am broke,” she said.史比格尔医生做的这些一共花去了53,000美元。除此之外,帕吉特女士还进行了好几年痛苦的电解治疗,使她脸上和身上的毛发停止生长。所有这些和变性有关的治疗,包括变性手术和乳房填充术,帕吉特女士的医疗保险公司几乎都不受理。帕吉特女士估计在变性上的花销一共有差不多10万美元。“我已经成穷光蛋了,”她说。Many trans people older than Ms. Padgett describe growing up in a time when there was really no vocabulary to even describe what they were.许多比帕吉特女士年长的跨性人士都说,在他们成长的那个年代,甚至没有一个词汇来描述他们这群人。“The only word was ‘transvestism,’ nothing was known of this at all,” said Bobbi Swan, 84, of Clinton, Mich., just north of Detroit. She transitioned at age 72.“唯一的一个词就是‘异装癖’了,人们对此真的是一无所知,”84岁的葆比·斯万(Bobbi Swan)说。斯万来自位于密歇根州紧邻底特律南边的科林顿。她在72岁的时候开始了变性历程。After high school, deeply in the closet, Ms. Swan went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, got her degree in aeronautical engineering, and then served in the Air Force during the Korean War.高中毕业后,严守自己跨性身份秘密的斯万就读于麻省理工学院,并在那儿拿到了航天工程学位。之后,她参加了朝鲜战争,在空军役。In 1954, she went to work at Ryan Aeronautical, where one of her jobs included flying target drones over China during the Eisenhower administration. She became a member of the National Rifle Association, donated to numerous Republican candidates, married three different women, had two children, ran a hunting preserve and, in the ’90s, secretly edited a magazine for transvestites called “Our Way.”她于1954年加入了赖安航天公司。在那里,她的工作职责之一是在艾森豪威尔执政期间操控无人机在中国上空进行侦查。她是美国全国步协会的成员,给众多共和党候选人捐过款,先后与不同的女性结了三次婚,有两个孩子,管理着一个狩猎场。在九十年代,她秘密地编辑了一本给变装者看的名为《我行我素》(Our Way)的杂志。“I think it’s safe to say that the employment I had would prohibit any sign of cross-dressing or anything like that,” Ms. Swan said. “I would have lost my job. The main customer is the Department of Defense. It was totally out of order.”“我的工作禁止我露出一点易装或是诸如此类的苗头,这么说我想并不为过,”斯万女士说,“我会丢了工作。我们的主要客户是国防部。我根本不敢有任何非分之想。”But by 2000, she had retired. Her children were grown. Her parents were no longer alive. It was time, she decided, to make a change she had long dreamed of.到了2000年,斯万女士退了休。她的孩子们也已长大成人,父母也过了世。她决定,梦寐以求的做出改变的时机已到。So three years after Ms. Swan began taking hormones and dressing daily as female, she underwent gender reassignment surgery in Thailand. She paid for it mostly through a ,000 check sent by one her sons that came with a note from him that : “Sometimes the most important thing in life is finding oneself.”就这样,在斯万女士开始每天摄入荷尔蒙并按女性着装的三年后,她在泰国接受了变性手术。她两个儿子中的一个给了她一张5000美元的票,用来付了手术开销的大部分。儿子在票上写道:“有时生活中最重要的事情就是找到自我。”That level of acceptance can be the exception. Stephanie James, a 64-year-old trans woman in St. Louis, said she is pleased that she is no longer living a lie (“It’s been worth every penny,” Ms. James said), but the reaction from her three sons was dispiriting. She told her youngest two sons in 2007. “They were bewildered,” she said. Her oldest son found out a week later and stopped speaking to her.家人的这种接受程度并不常见。斯提芬妮·詹姆斯(Stephanie James)是一位住在圣路易斯的跨性女性,今年64岁。她说她很高兴自己不用再在欺骗中生活。(“能这样花出去的钱都值了,”詹姆斯女士说。)但是她的三个儿子的反应却令人失望。她在2007年向两个小儿子说出了实情。“他们根本不理解我,”詹姆斯女士说。她的大儿子一个星期后知道了真相,从此没有跟她说过话。They remain estranged. “I have not even met my grandbaby,” she said.直到现在他们的关系依旧疏远。“我甚至都没有见过我的儿孙,”詹姆斯女士说。In 2009, she was fired as a strategic account manager at Graybar Electric, where she had worked for five years, during which time she transitioned. (Carrie Johnson, director of corporate and marketing communications at Graybar, said Ms. James’s departure was an “individual personnel matter” and declined further comment, saying, “I’m sure you can understand.”)2009年的时候,她被Graybar Electric公司从战略客户经理的职位上解雇。她在公司工作了五年,并在其间开始变性。(凯莉·约翰逊[Carrie Johnson]是Graybar的企业与营销传播部主任。她说詹姆斯女士由于“个人原因”离开了公司。她拒绝进一步解释,“我想你能理解”,她说。)In her last two years at Graybar, Ms. James said, she earned 5,000 with benefits and bonuses. This year, working as a live-in caregiver to an 86-year-old woman, she earns 0 a week, plus health care. “You do the multiplication,” Ms. James said.在Graybar的最后两年里,詹姆斯女士说她连福利带奖金一共挣了125,000美元。今年,她给一位86岁的老太太做护工,每周的工资加上医保是480美元。“你自己做乘法吧,”詹姆斯女士说。Over time, Ms. James has come to a number of awakenings not just about transphobia, but about sexism in general — dynamics she did not understand during 50-plus years living outwardly as a man.这些年下来,詹姆斯女士不但对人们对跨性者的恐惧有了认识,她还对性别歧视有了新的看法。在之前做为男性生活的50多年里,她并没有觉得性别歧视是个问题。“The loss of a position in a white male society is subtle but omnipresent,” Ms. James said. “I remember, before I was let go, I was in a corporate meeting and one of the V.P.’s said, ‘Who brought the bagels?’ No one had. So the V.P. says, ‘Stephanie, would you mind running out to pick them up?’ It was pouring down rain! We could all see it. There were windows on three sides of the conference room. That kind of stuff never happened before I transitioned. It happened all the time after.”“在白人男性社会失去地位是一件微妙的事,但是你时刻都会感知到这个事实,”詹姆斯女士说,“我记得,在我被解雇前,我们在开一个公司会议。一个副总裁问:‘谁买了面包圈?’没有人买。于是这个副总裁说:‘斯提芬妮,你介意跑出去买一下吗?’外面下着瓢泼大雨。会议室三面都有窗户,我们都能看到。在我变性前,这种事是绝对不会发生的。我变性之后,就屡见不鲜了。”Gretchen Lintner, 58, lives in the San Francisco Bay Area. Shortly before she was laid off from her job at a commercial real estate firm, an executive there said to her, “Don’t you people just go somewhere new and start over?”58岁的格蕾馨·林特纳(Gretchen Lintner)居住在旧金山湾区。在她被一家商业地产公司解聘不久前,一位经理问她道:“像你们这样的人是不是都搬到一个新地方重新开始?”On a recent Friday, she was sitting in the lobby of a hotel near Union Square in San Francisco. She arrived wearing a Chanel-inspired blazer from Coldwater Creek, a Jones blouse, Gap jeans and a pair of alligator-patterned pumps. Her hair was long and blond and she wore silver hoop earrings. Nevertheless, as she walked in, the doorman greeted her by saying, “Hello, sir.”不久前的一个周五,她坐在位于旧金山联合广场附近的一个酒店大堂里。她穿着一件Coldwater Creek的仿香奈儿上装,Jones的衬衫,Gap的仔裤和一双鳄鱼皮的高跟鞋。她留着金色的长发,带着银色的大圈耳环。就是这样一幅装扮,在她走进酒店时,门卫对她的问候是:“先生,你好。”“That’s how I go through life,” she said. “It’s the small oppressions that you get that you just have to be able to deal with.”“这就是我的人生,”林特纳女士说:“我不得不应对生活中的这种小小苦闷。”“The hardest thing,” she continued, “is working for less money and being bumped off my career track because of being a woman, because of being a trans woman, because of the 2008 economic dislocation. I don’t blame anyone, but it’s a fact. And I’m over 50 and it’s hard for any individual over 50 to find employment.”她接着说道:“但是最艰难的是工作被减薪以及被迫终止我的职业。这些只不过是因为我是一个女人,一个跨性女性,当然还有2008年经济形势混乱的因素。我不责怪任何人,但这是事实。我已经50多岁。任何一个50多岁的人要想找工作都不容易。”Other things have changed as well. Today, Ms. Lintner dates both men and women. “For me, the parts are negotiable,” she said. “My sexual attraction was always toward women, and then as I transitioned I became more interested in men.”另外还有一些别的改变。现今,林特纳女士的约会对象有男有女。“对我来说,在两性关系里扮演哪个角色是可以商量的,”她说:“我从前一直对女性有性趣,在我变性后,男性对我更有吸引力。”For many, aspects of sexual identities shift. Language fails. There is a contingent of “transbien” relationships, the common term among LGBT types for what happens when two trans women get together. Straight men become straight women. Lesbians become gay men. This is what happened with Eugene Potchen-Webb, 60. He transitioned at 50 from female to male and, after having been a lesbian for many years, discovered he was into guys. “It was a surprise to me,” he said.许多人的性别身份都发生了改变。这些改变很难用语言描述。在同性恋和跨性者群体里,出现了许多所谓的“跨女同性恋”关系,指的是两位跨性女性之间的亲密关系。异性恋男性变性后成了异性恋女性。同性恋女性变性后成了同性恋男性,60岁的尤金·泼特琴·韦(Eugene Potchen-Webb)就是这样。他在50岁的时候从女性变成了男性。这之前他一直是位跨性女同性恋者,变性后却发现自己只对男性有性趣。“这真令我吃惊,”他说。Rachel Sorrow is a 64-year-old San Francisco-based architect and amateur stand-up comedian who remains married to her spouse, though they date other people and sleep in different bedrooms in the apartment they share in the Castro.64岁的蕾切尔·索罗(Rachel Sorrow)是旧金山的一位建筑师和业余滑稽说笑演员。变性后她没有和原配偶离婚。她们在卡斯特罗区共同拥有一处公寓。她们各自约会,睡在不同的卧室里。“When I’m having sex with a man, I feel 100 percent a woman, and when I have sex with women I slip back into male roles,” Ms. Sorrow said. “I always thought if you are a guy and you have a sex-change operation and you’re still dating women, you’re a lesbian, because you look like a woman and you’re dating them. It’s a relatively reasonable assumption unless you know a lot of trans people.“当我和男性做爱时,我觉得我百分百是个女人,而当我和女性做爱时,我就又回到了男性的角色,”索罗女士说:“我之前一直以为,如果你生来是男性,在你做了变性手术后还是和女性交往,那你就是一位女同性恋者。因为你有女性的外表,你也和女性约会。这种想法听上去很合理,但是如果你认识许多跨性者,你就不会这么认为了。”“In our case, I think it just doesn’t apply. I have way more flexibility than that. Trans means to move back and forth, like transportation, and I think that’s just part of it.”“这种观念对我来说就完全不适合。我要有灵活性得多。‘跨’(trans)这个词根的意思就是有进有退,就像‘交通’(transportation)这个词。我认为这是‘跨性’这个词含义的一部分。”But having a progressive attitude about sex and self-expression doesn’t preclude clinging to ideals that are anachronistic and even a little bit sexist. Many older trans women grew up in “Mad Men”-era houses where women were accessories and children were supposed to speak when spoken to. And sometimes these tendencies are absorbed and play out in ways feminists sometimes find disconcerting.对于性别身份问题,跨性人士的观念颇为进步,但这并不意味着那些老套甚至有点性别歧视的观点被完全摒弃。许多年长的跨性女性成长于《广告狂人》那个年代。在那个年代里的家庭里,女性是附属品,孩子们不能随便讲话。有时这些观念根深蒂固,并被带到了跨性者的日常行为中,这让女权主义者时常感到不安。“I do feel like sometimes I have to be more feminine than anyone else,” said Ms. Padgett, the onetime New York City Ballet dancer. “There have been so many times when I’ve been on the street and I realize I’m the only one in a dress and heels. I reach for those things that are more feminine than a genetic girl would go for. The stakes are higher for me because I wasn’t born female so I don’t take it for granted.”“确实,我有时觉得我必须得比别的女性更加有女人味儿一些,”曾经是纽约市芭蕾舞团成员的帕吉特女士说:“有好多次,我意识到我是街上唯一穿裙子和高跟鞋的。和普通的女性相比,我会选择那些更女性化的东西。我生来不是女性,现在的身份来之不易,所以我要比别人付出更多。”Ms. James of St. Louis agrees: “I feel naked if I don’t have eye makeup on. I’ve worked hard to get this far.”圣路易斯的詹姆斯女士也这么认为:“如果我不上眼妆的话,我就会觉得像没穿衣一样。能到今天这样,我付出了太多努力。”Nearly all older trans men have experienced oppression, but they had the advantage of growing up in an era when coveting manhood was somewhat understandable and tomboyishness was at least forgiven.几乎所有年长的跨性男性都受到过歧视和压制。但是他们却有一项优势——在他们成长的年代里,女孩子渴望做男生情有可原,而假小子的行为也至少会被原谅。Jeffrey Dickemann, an 85-year-old retired anthropology professor from Sonoma State University in California who transitioned in his 60s, recalls that when he was in college, there were rules against women wearing trousers. But he also had a dad who bonded with him over sports and clothes. “In high school, my father gave me his military boots, which I wore,” he said. “I didn’t even realize how much I stuck out.”85岁的杰弗瑞·迪克曼(Jeffrey Dickemann)是加州索诺玛州立大学的一位退休人类学教授。他在60多岁的时候开始变性。他回忆起当他上大学时,学校有规定不许女生穿裤子。但是他却有一位关系亲密的父亲,带他进行体育活动,并指导他着装。“高中时,父亲把他的军用靴子给了我,我穿上了它们,”迪克曼先生说,“我那会儿甚至都没有意识到我是多么与众不同。”Katherine Rachlin, a therapist who counsels trans people, said these themes come up frequently. “It’s much more difficult if you’re a woman that is 6-foot-3 than a man who is 5-foot-3,” she said. “We look at women differently.”凯瑟琳·拉切林(Katherine Rachlin)是一位给跨性人士做咨询的心理医师。她说她时常能在治疗中听到这类话题。“一位一米九的女性比一位一米五的男性相比,前者作为变性者要艰难得多,”她说,“人们看女人有另外的一套标准。”This also resonates with Vanessa Fabbre, an assistant professor at the Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis, and one of the few experts on the subject of late transitioners. “I hear a lot of older trans men say that they were tomboys and that it was acceptable,” she said. “But we don’t have an equivalent term for tomboy with people who are born male. We have yet to create a real option for young boys wanting to express an aspect of their female selves.”拉切林的观点和凡妮莎·法的看法一致。法是圣路易斯的华盛顿大学布朗社会工作学院的副教授,也是研究高龄变性人士为数不多的专家之一。“我听到许多年长的变性男性说他们年轻时是假小子,人们并没觉得这有什么,”她说,“但是对于那些生为男性却身份认同是女性的人群来说,并没有一个和‘假小子’相应的词来形容他们。我们必须给那些想表达他们女性一面的男孩们一个真正的选择。”Three years ago, Ms. Fabbre was studying for a doctoral degree in social sciences at the University of Chicago, when she decided to write her thesis on late-age transitioners. With Jess T. Dugan, 28, a photographer who is also her life partner, Ms. Fabbre has been documenting the lives of many of these people on a website called To Survive on This Shore. However ostracized and exoticized they are, perhaps the most shocking thing about their pictures on the site is how ordinary the people in them seem.三年前,法女士在芝加哥大学攻读社会科学士学位。她把她的士论文选题定为了高龄变性人士。她和她的伴侣、28岁的摄影师杰斯·T·杜根一起创建了一个名叫“此岸生存”的网站,记录了许多高龄变性人士的生活。这些人受到社会排斥,并被视为异类,网站上的照片可能最让人震惊的地方就是他们在其中看上去跟普通人并没有区别。A fair number of them have been following the news of Bruce Jenner with interest. So has Ms. Padgett, who said it was obvious to her what was going on well before People Magazine reported it had confirmed that Mr. Jenner was in transition.他们中的许多人都在密切地关注布鲁斯·詹纳的新闻。帕吉特女士也是。她说早在《人物》杂志核实詹纳先生确实在变性之前,她就知道是怎么回事了。“I could just tell,” she said. “I kept saying, ‘I think he’s transitioning.’ He was taking all the actions I took. But I can’t imagine what it must be like to be him. People have said to me over and over ‘What you’re doing is so brave.’ But I never felt it had anything to do with braveness. It was a need and a hunger, and when I saw the solution it was like a truckload of food coming at a starving person. Someone like Bruce Jenner has to do it in front of the entire world. That is brave.”“我一眼就看出来了,”她说,“我一直在说,‘我认为他在变性。’他经历的过程我都经历过。但是我不能想像如果我是他的话会是怎么样。人们反复跟我说‘你所做的真是太勇敢了’,但是我从来不觉得这和勇敢什么关系。这就像一种渴求,当我看到满足这种渴求的办法时,就好像一个挨饿的人看到一卡车食物冲他而来。像布鲁斯·詹纳这样的人却要在全世界面前做这件事,这才是勇敢。”Occasionally, she has noticed the sneering tone of some of the tabloid coverage, the incredulity that someone could have hidden this for so long and decided so late to take action. But that’s exactly why she thinks it will be a watershed moment.偶尔,她注意到一些小报报道采用了一种讥讽的口吻,质疑竟然会有人隐藏了这么多年,直到这么大年纪了才采取行动。但正因为如此,帕吉特女士认为詹纳出柜这件事会成为一个转折点。“It’s going to spotlight these issues to millions of Americans,” Ms. Padgett said. “It shows that whatever body you’re born into, being transgender doesn’t go away. I thought it wasn’t going to last, the desire to be female would go away. If anything, at 50 it got stronger. And then it was like ‘what the hell.’ I’ve only got a few more years. Why not do what I’ve always wanted to do?”“这件事让上百万的美国人注意到了这些问题,”她说:“这件事说明,不论你出生时的性别是什么,你是跨性者这个事实是不会改变的。我从前以为自己想变成女性的渴望不会持续,会随着时间的流逝而消失。但是,当我50岁时,这种愿望更加强烈。那时,我想:‘我就豁出去了。’我的余生之年屈指可数,是该做些自己一直想做的事了。” /201504/368568。

  

  World#39;s Longest And Highest Glass-Bottom Bridge Promises Planet#39;s Highest Bungee Jump!世界上最高最长玻璃桥将设全球最高蹦极台Earlier this month, the officials of China#39;s Hunan Province revealed what they believe will be a new ;Wonder of the World; - the planet#39;s longest and highest glass-bottom bridge. When complete, the 430m (1,214 ft) long and 6m wide structure will connect the two summits across the Zhangjiajie Grand Canyon. 这个月初,中国湖南省官方向外界展示了可能成为世界上又一创举——世界最长、最高的玻璃桥。建成之后,这座全长430米(1214英尺),6米宽的大桥将连接横跨张家界大峡谷两个峰顶。For those seeking an extra adrenaline rush there will also be a bungee jump - and not just any ordinary one, but the world#39;s highest! Situated in the middle of the bridge it promises a leap that is a whopping 60m (197 ft) higher than the current record holder, the AJ Hackett bungee jump from China#39;s Macau Tower.对于喜欢追求刺激的人来说,蹦极台也值得期待——这并不是普通的蹦极台,而是全球最高的!蹦极台将设在桥中央,下落的距离有60米(197英尺),比AJ Hackett从中国塔上跳下的那个还要高。The Israeli architectural firm of Haim Dotan that designed the impressive structure asserts that the bridge which will open to the public in October, will be able to accommodate up to 800 people at a time! In addition to being a popular tourist destination, Dotan also envisions it being used as a catwalk for fashion shows.设计此桥的以色列渡堂海建筑公司表示,大桥将于十月份对外开放,可同时容纳800人!渡堂海还预言,除了成为新的旅游胜地之外,大桥还能用作时尚发布会的T台。This is not the first heart-stopping glass structure constructed in China. Earlier this year, the Longgang National Geological Park in Chongqing,unveiled the world#39;s longest glass-bottomed cantilever skywalk. The .6 million USD structure that dangles precariously on the edge of a cliff stretches out an astounding 1,010 m (3,314 ft), offering stunning views to those that dare to walk on thin air!此桥并非中国首例令人心跳的玻璃建筑。年初,重庆龙港国家地质公园还开放了世界最长的玻璃廊桥。这个玻璃廊桥价值560万美元,悬扣在海拔1010米(3314英尺)的绝壁之巅,绝妙景观,尽收眼底。Even more terrifying is the Tianmenshan crystal glass skywalk in Zhangjiajie. The 3ft wide 2.5-inch thick walkway that has runs alongside the edge of the mountain sits 4,700 ft above sea level and is defintely not for the faint hearted!张家界天门山玻璃栈道会更加刺激。这条3英尺宽,2.5英尺厚的栈道环绕在海拔4700英尺的山间,玩的就是心跳!Besides the glass structures, Zhangjiajie, a 56 square-kilometer designated tourist park inside the bigger Wulingyuan Scenic Area has one more claim to fame. It was the inspiration for the breathtaking planet of Pandora in James Cameron#39;s 2009 blockbuster film, Avatar!除玻璃建筑外,张家界硕大的武陵源风景区还有一个占地56平方千米的公园值得一提,那就卡梅隆导演风靡全球的电影《阿凡达》中美轮美奂的潘多拉星的取景地。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201507/383619

  

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