厦门欧菲整形医院去痘印多少钱泡泡乐园

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年07月16日 16:35:10
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Im in an old, deserted homestead in the shadow of the Rocky mountains.我现在在落基山脉背阴处 一所荒弃的旧宅里Morning in the rockies after a thunderstorm is about the most spectacular place youll ever see.雨后山脉的清晨 会是你曾见过的最美妙的景色Just beautiful.And a nice time just to warm up before getting going,and also try and freshen up a bit.太美了 在出发前再暖和暖和 而且可以梳洗一下Out in the wild, washing and personal admin are not only important for your hygiene,荒野之中 洗漱干净和保持个人卫生 不仅仅是为了身体健康but they serve as a morale booster and help to lift the spirits.还可以提升士气 帮你重新振作精神Ive got some of this alder branch.Its like natures toothbrush.我找到些桤木树枝 这些可是天然的牙刷You can recognize it because its the only deciduous tree.因为是这片唯一的落叶树 所以可以辨别出来Its got these little cones on it here.在这里可以看见锥形的部位All you got to do-chew the end to rough it up a bit, like that,你要做的就是 咬松它的根部 就像这样then use that to really get in your teeth and give them a clean.然后将它插到牙缝中 开始刷牙And then I got a bit of this mullein.Thats also known as cowboy loo paper.我还找到这些毛蕊花属的植物 它另外一个广为人知的名字是 牛仔的手纸Really velvety, soft leaves perfect. But you are not getting a demo of that one.天鹅绒般柔软的叶子 非常好 但你们是看不到使用示范了In the light of day, this homestead seems a lot more inviting.But its time to move on.在白天 房子看起来还挺吸引人的 但是时候继续上路了Feels kind of weird leaving this old homestead.离开这所旧房子还真感觉有点奇怪Something.. homely about it that kind of half suggests that那房子让我有家的感觉 虽然房子真的是破烂不堪there should be people nearby,even though its really dilapidated.但还是给人带来 附件有人居住的错觉On the outskirts of the homestead,I find an old telegraph pole.在房子郊外 我发现一根旧的电报杆This would usually offer the survivor a glimmer of hope,but out here, signs of civilization mean nothing.这通常都给求生者带来一线希望 但在这里 文明的遗迹却不代表什么Normally, this wouldnt be a bad thing to follow.正常来说 跟着电线杆走是个好选择Being out here, look, just doesnt lead anywhere just goes straight back into the ground.但现在 瞧 跟着走就行不通了 杆子都断了 直指地面201608/460378Talk about leaving a mark. Meet the worlds biggest dinosaur footprint.说到留下痕迹。现在发现世界上最大的恐龙足迹。It was discovered in a remote region of northwest Australia by a team of paleontologists from The University of Queensland.在澳大利亚西北部的偏远地区,一队来自昆士兰大学的古生物学家发现了该足迹。The track measures nearly 5 feet 7 inches, and it belonged to a sauropod.这个足迹近5英尺7英寸,属于蜥脚类动物。The massive footprint was just one of the interesting discoveries the team made in the area, otherwise known as ;Australias Jurassic Park.;巨大的足迹只是这个团队在该地区的有趣发现之一,该地区也被称为“澳大利亚侏罗纪公园”。This area preserves one of the most diverse dinosaur track faunas anywhere in the world.该地区是世界上恐龙足迹化石最丰富的地方之一。Researchers uncovered 21 different prints across the Dampier Peninsula coastline. And these tracks were found in rocks up to 140 million years old.研究人员在丹皮尔半岛海岸发现了21种不同的足迹。这些足迹在1亿4,000万年的岩石中被发现。译文属。201703/500932

  ;Twenty years ago, I started to making gelato, because gelato is something make you feel happy.;“20年前,我开始制作冰淇淋。因为它能让人感到快乐。”Gianluigi Dellaccio came to America with a sweet tooth, a scooter and a dream.带着自己对甜食的喜爱,一台踏板车还有一个梦想,吉安路易吉·德拉西奥只身来到了美国。When I was 6 years old, I had this accident, and the accident, it put me in a position that I had to go swim to help my scoliosis.“6岁的时候,我遭遇了一场事故。正是因为这起事故,我不得不去游泳,从而改善自己脊柱侧弯的情况。;A water polo coach noticed him and a little more than a decade later he scored this,当时一个水球教练注意到了他,十多年后,他取得了这样的成绩,game-winning goal in a junior national championship on his way to join the Italys national team.在国家青少年锦标赛上打出了致胜一球,并顺利加入了意大利国家队。All the strength, all the dedication that I put in the sport I choose to invest it in my own life.“我决定曾在这项运动上付出了多少努力和汗水,如今就要投入多少到自己的生活中去。”The investment put Dellaccio in Germany, learning the gelato business from family there.为了全心投入自己的人生,他去了德国,从家人那里学习打理冰激凌生意。He mastered his craft in Milan where he touched gelato making at a youth jail.在米兰的一个少年监狱中,他接触到了冰激凌制作,并习得了一手好手艺。It was his first chance to use the type of authentic, gelato-making equipment that would shape his future.那是他第一次使用真正的冰激凌制作机器,为他日后的道路打下了基础。My dream was always to open a gelato shop here, in the ed States, and I started in 2006 Dolci Gelati.“我一直以来的梦想就是在美国开一家冰激凌店。终于,2006年我拥有了Dolci Gelati。”But the road to Dolci wasnt easy.但这条路其实并不容易。It took Dellaccio 6 years to get a green card so he could legally work in the US.德拉西奥用了6年的时间才获得了绿卡,这之后才能在美国合法工作。And the American Dream wasnt exactly what he expected.而美国梦也并不完全是他所期望的样子。It was very tough, because sometimes, you know, you have those days that you feel lonely and sad — homesick.“这一路走来真的挺难的,因为有时候,总有那么一些日子,你会觉得很孤单,很难过——特别想家。Those days helped me to build my strength.;这些想家的日子让我变得更加努力。”Until he went to what he knew: Selling gelato from the back of an iconic Italian scooter.直到有一天,他从自己了解的东西开始做起:在一辆标志性的意大利踏板车后面推销冰激凌。;I had a cooler in the back of the Vespa with samples going to restaurants, to different restaurants to let the chef try the product.;“我在黄蜂踏板车后面放了一个装着样品的冷藏箱,然后跑去各种餐馆里面,请厨师尝一尝我的产品。”His direct marketing worked, a decade later, Gianluigi has two stores in the Washington area.终于,他的直销手段生效了。十年之后,吉安路易吉在华盛顿地区开了两家门店。He buys local when he directly employes 18 people and countless others along the supply chain.店里所需材料都是在本地购买,同时他还直接聘用了18名当地人,在供应链上也请了许多其他工人。He serves some big names, he even has a stand at Major League Baseball Park.他还为一些知名人士提供过产品。甚至在美国职业棒球大联盟公园也开设了一家门店。Once you reach a goal, you need to put another target to keep going, because if you reach one goal then you settle,“一旦你达成一个目标,就需要树立下一个来保持前进的步伐,因为如果实现一个目标之后就安于现状,thats the day that you go down,;那么止步之日便是你堕落之时。”Dellaccio was a recent finalist in Chicago at the Gelato World Tour.德拉西奥最近刚刚入围意式手工冰激凌世界巡回赛的决赛。He will compete for the Worlds Best Gelato in September 2017.2017年9月,他将为争夺“世界上最好吃的冰激凌”而战。Its all part of a sweet dream -turned-reality through years of work, lots of smiles and a little scooter.经过多年的努力工作,Dellacci骑着自己的小踏板车,满脸笑意地将梦想迎进现实,而我的讲述也只是他追梦路上的一部分。Arash Arabasadi, VOA news, Washington.VOA新闻,阿拉什·阿拉巴萨第于华盛顿为您播报。201706/515550

  Ive thrown myself headfirst into one of the harshest places on earth Arnhem land, northern Australia. 我头朝下把自己扔到了 地球上最残酷的地方 澳大利亚北部的阿纳姆地If the landscape doesnt get you...the wildlife will.如果你觉得陆地景色平平 这里的野生动物会让你印象深刻的Wow. Look at that head.And a new day will bring new challenges.哇 看那个头 新的一天 新的挑战On our way.Quite a mad place in here.出发 这里真是个疯狂的地方Oh, now, look. Spider in here.Its a huntsman spider.来 看 这里有只蜘蛛 这是只巨蟹蜘蛛Hes called a huntsman,he wont build a web.Hell actively go out and hunt his prey.之所以叫巨蟹蜘蛛 是因为它不结网 它会爬出来行动 寻找自己的猎物And thats the nasty bit of him.Take the head off.看起来真恶心 把头切掉Take the fangs out.And that really is fine to eat.把牙弄掉 这样差不多就可以吃了Its not very appetizing, but thats fine.Okay, moving on.不是非常的可口 但是还好 好了 继续前进This maze-like landscape,riddled with rocky outcrops,is so disorientating.这个迷宫似的地貌 遍布着拔地而起的岩石 让人很没有方向感You cant see far ahead, and its easy to stray off course.根本看不到远处 很容易迷路Actually, look. That ones even higher.Lets get up there. Come on.实际上 看啊 那一座更高 我们爬上去 来吧Finding a high point will provide a much-needed view and let you plan your route through.找到一个制高点 可以让你找到方向 计划好路线Its all sandstone, well-weathered.Still want to be a bit careful of this stuff.Can be pretty loose.到处都是天然雕琢的沙岩 还是要小心为妙 山体结构可能会很松滑This is a tricky climb over 60 feet.这需要很高的爬山技术 有60多英尺高But if you risk nothing, you gain nothing.Its worth the gamble.但是不入虎穴焉得虎子 值得赌一把201701/487318。

  

  原味人文风情:Hi, Mommy! This was our first date together, but...you didnt know I was there yet! I really wanted to surprise you. Surprise!!! I was so small, but your big, big heart made me grow and grow and grow! Is that bacon? Mmm...Im so hungry, Mom! Bacon, bacon, bacon, bacon! I want to eat all the bacon in the world! Oops...morning sicky. Sorry, Mom. I hope you feel better. Its okay. You are still the prettiest!嗨,妈咪!这是我们第一次约会,不过...你还不知道我在那!我真的很想给你个惊喜。惊喜!!!我是那么小,不过你大大的心脏让我长大、长大再长大!那是培根吗?嗯...妈妈我好饿喔!培根、培根、培根、培根!我要吃掉全世界的培根!喔喔...晨吐。对不起,妈妈。我希望你觉得好点了。没关系。你还是最漂亮的!Oh, Mommy! Look at me grow! Look at this, Mom—close, open. Cool... Growing with you is so much fun, Mom. I love our stretchy date, and our yum-yum date! Happy rain! But I think I just want a nappy date for now. I hope the rest of me grows soon so I can hug you, and I can kiss you. For now, Ill just have to dream about it. I love you, Mom. I love you from our very first date together, and I just love you more and more and more.噢,妈咪!看我长大了!看看这个,妈妈--握住、打开。酷... 和你一起长大好好玩,妈妈。我爱我们的伸展约会,还有我们的好好吃约会!快乐雨!但我想我现在只想来个睡觉觉约会。我希望我剩下的部分可以快快长大,好让我可以抱你,还有亲你。现在,我就只能作梦梦到啰。我爱你,妈妈。我从我们的第一次约会开始就好爱你,而且我越来越爱你了。Hi, Mommy! Its our four, eight, umm...manyeth date together! And today, were on a doctors date! Can you see me, Mom? Whats that?!嗨,妈咪!这是我们的四、八,嗯...在一起的第好多好多次约会!今天,我们要来场医生叔叔约会!你看得到我吗,妈妈?那是什么?!Its a girl!是个女孩!Im a girl! I love growing, Mommy! Oh no...Im sorry your pants dont fit anymore—your shoes too. Dont worry! One day, Im going to give you the biggest hug! For now, I hope you can feel this. Mmm! I want you to know I love growing with you. Youve given me a happy pool, and the prettiest eyes too! I love being your little girl, Mommy. I promise, no matter how big I get, I will always be your baby.我是女生!我喜欢长大,妈咪!噢不...我很抱歉你的裤子不再合身--鞋子也是。别担心!有一天,我会给你一个最大的抱抱!现在,我希望你可以感受这个。嗯!我想要你知道我很爱和你一起长大。你给了我一个开心水池,还有最漂亮的眼睛!我爱当你的小女孩,妈咪。我保,不管我长多大,我永远都会是你的宝宝。Hi, Mommy! Its our bajillion, zillion date together! And today, were on a picnic date. Whee!!! Ooh...look at these things Ive grown. Look at what I can do! Oops! Sorry, Mom. Ugh! Its getting really tight in here! Ive had the best time with you, Mommy, but I think Im y to come out. I might not remember all our dates together, but I want you to know, you did a really good job.嗨,妈咪!这是我们在一起的第好几次、第不知道几次的约会!今天,我们在野餐约会。嘻嘻!!!哇...看看我长出来的这些东东。看看我能做什么!喔喔!对不起,妈妈。呃!这里面变得好挤好挤!我和你度过了最棒的时光,妈咪,但我想我准备好要出来了。我可能不会记得我们在一起的所有约会,但我想要你知道,你做得很好。Thanks for sharing your ice cream, and ing to me, and letting me listen to your lalalas. For giving up the bad things you like, and giving me the good things I need. Thank you for my eyes, my ears, and my nose. Thank you for my hands, my feet, and toes. Thank you for my heart. And most of all, Mom, thank you for your love. I love you, Mommy, and I cant wait to meet you.谢谢你分享你的冰淇淋,还有念故事给我听,还有让我听你的啦啦啦音乐。谢谢你放弃自己喜欢的那些不健康的东西,然后给我我需要的好东西。谢谢你生给我眼睛、我的耳朵,还有我的鼻子。谢谢你给了我我的手手、我的脚脚,还有脚趾头。谢谢你给了我我的心脏。还有最重要的,妈妈,谢谢你给我你的爱。我爱你,妈咪,我等不及要见到你了。201612/481352Just draining, sapping,but what are so really difficult things is just about putting your head down,不停地流失水分 排除汗液 但是此时真正难以做到的事情 是你还能低着头and keeping focused,recharging, reassess,and aim for the next one.Just break it down into small bite-sized chunks.集中精力 一边恢复体力 继续判断方向 然后着眼于下一个落脚点 只需打破开来 一点点解决Bottom line is it doesnt matter how good, smart or clever you are.Without water you are dead.现在看重的不是你有多强 有多机灵或者熟练 没有水你就死定了A vital part of survival is always trying to remain alert to whats around you.荒野存活能成功的关键 是对你周围的事物时刻保持警惕Thats unusual.See that mound of earth?Theres a well.I took the camera.Okay. Ive got it.这有点不寻常 看到那堆土了吗 这儿有口井 我来拿摄像机 好了 松手吧You cant even see the bottom there.Lets count this down.你几乎都看不到底 数一下时间One, two, two seconds.Yes, its a good 50 foot down there,but its also dry.This could be long abandoned, this well.一 二 两秒 大概有十五米左右 但这口井已经枯了 这口井应该已经废弃很久了Look. Trees over there and these wells are dug down to the water table. 看 那边有树 这口井应该挖至地下水位了Almost guarantee if I can get down there,dig into the sand theres going to be water somewhere.也就是说如果我下去了 再往下挖就应该会有水了Lets try to work out how to get down this thing without a rope.让我仔细想想 不用绳子怎么爬下去Acacia trees surviving of the deep underground water could provide the materials I need.靠地下水生存的阿拉伯胶树 能够提供我所需的材料I need a couple of long, straight branches.Look. This will be nice.我要两根长而直的树枝 看 这根就很好As long as these poles are longer than the width of the well,I can use them to get down.只要这跟树枝 比井的直径长一点 我就可以靠它们 下至井底I should be able to. Its something I have never tried before.我应该可以 我以前也从没试过Just drag over the sand.Im good to go with this.Okay.在沙子里一 这样就差不多了 好了201611/478276

  TED演讲视频:社会进步指数可以告诉我们什么GDP这个词经常挂在人们口中,好像他们是上帝掷给我们的石子一样。但是这个概念却是由一位经济学家在1920年代提出来的。我们需要的是更加有效的衡量工具,来应对21世纪的需求,迈克尔·格林说道。他用充满魅力和智慧的方式,给我们展示了如何通过三个真正有用的维度来衡量社会。还揭示,当我们使用它的时候,国家的排序会发生戏剧性的变化。201705/507484

  When you have 21 minutes to speak two million years seems like a really long time与21分钟的演讲相比200万年看起来很长But evolutionarily, two million years is nothing但在进化长河中 200万年也不算什么And yet in two years the human brain has nearly tripled in mass.但是在两百万年里人类的大脑的重量已经增加了近三倍going from the one-and-a-quarter pound brain of our ancestor here,从我们远祖的能人1.25磅重的大脑Habilis to the almost three-pound meatloaf that everybody here has between their ears.到现在的 在座各位都拥有的近3磅重的大脑What is it about a big brain that nature was so eager for every one of us to have one?较重的大脑究竟有什么作用 以致于大自然很迫切地要赋予我们这样的特质呢Well, it turns out when brains triple in size,是 当人类大脑变大了三倍的时候they dont just get three times bigger; they gain new structures它们在体积上增大三倍的同时 也获得了新的组织结构And one of the main reasons our brain got so big is because it got a new part, called the ;frontal lobe;.我们大脑变得如此之大的最主要的原因之一是它有一个叫“额叶”的新结构Particularly, a part called the ;prefrontal cortex;.尤其是“前额叶皮层”这部分What does a prefrontal cortex do for you that should justify the entire architectural overhaul of the human skull in the blink of evolutionary time?前额叶皮层有什么样的作用才能明在进化过程中的短时间内对人类头骨的整个架构大修是必要的呢While it turns out the pre-frontal cortex does lots of things,结果表明前额叶皮层有许多功能but one of the most important things it does Its an experience simulator但它最重要的功能之一是一个体验模拟器You know…Pilots practice in flight simulators so that they dont make real mistakes in planes.飞行员会在模拟飞行器上练习以便他们实际操控飞机时不会出事Human beings have this marvellous adaptation that they can actually have experiences in their heads before they try them out in real life.我们人类就具有这种非凡的适应性在实际尝试之前 我们可以在脑海里对它们有些体验This is a trick that none of our ancestors could do,这是我们的祖先做不到的and that no other animal can do quite like we can.并且其它的动物也做不到Its a marvelous adaptation.这是一次神奇的进化Its up there with opposable thumbs and standing upright如今我们有对生拇指 能背脊挺直and language as one of the things that got our species out of trees and into the shopping mall. Now还有作为重要特征之一的语言 它让我们人类这个物种走出森林进入了大商场All of you have done this.你们都经历过I mean…you know…Ben and Jerrys doesnt have liver-and-onion ice cream,Ben and Jerrys美国冰淇淋品牌也没有洋葱搭肝脏口味的冰淇淋and its not because they whipped some up, tried it and went, ;Yuck.;这并不是因为他们做了一些这种口味的冰淇淋 尝试过后才感觉恶心Its because, without leaving your armchair,那是因为 你根本不用离开你的座椅you can simulate that flavor and say ;yuck; before you make it.在你做之前就可以想像出那恶心的味道Lets see how your experience simulators are working.我们来看看经验模拟器如何运作的Lets just run a quick diagnostic before I proceed with the rest of the talk.在我说出其余的话之前让我们做一个快速诊断Heres two different futures that I invite you to contemplate.这里有两个截然不同的未来请你来仔细考虑一下You can try to simulate them and tell me which one you think you might prefer.你可以试图模拟 并且告诉我你认为你会更喜欢哪个One of them is winning the lottery. This is about 314 million dollars.其中一个是中了乐透票 大概3.14亿美元And the other is becoming paraplegic.另外一个是变成瘫痪Just give it a moment of thought.只用一会儿时间来考虑一下You probably dont feel like you need a moment of thought.你可能觉着都不需要任何思考的时间Interestingly, there are data on these two groups of people, data on how happy they are.有意思的是 这里有关于两个群体的一些数据这些数据是关于他们有多快乐的And this is exactly what you expected, isnt it?这正是你预料到的 不是吗?But these arent the data. I made these up! These are the data.但这不是那些数据 是我编造的这些才是真正的数据You failed the pop quiz in your hardly five minutes into the lecture.你的课刚开始不到五分钟你就挂掉了突击测验Because the fact is that a year after losing the use of their legs,因为事实上 在瘫痪一年后and a year after winning the lotto, lottery winners and paraplegics are equally happy with their lives.和在中票一年后 的人和瘫痪的人对他们生活的快乐程度是相同的Dont feel too bad about failing the first pop quiz,别因为第一次突击测验没过而感到沮丧because everybody fails all of the pop quizzes all of the time.因为每个人都会挂掉所有的突击测验The research that my laboratory has been doing,我的实验室一直在做的研究that economists and psychologists around the country have been doing,是国内的经济学家和心理学家一直在做的has revealed something really quite startling to us, something we call the ;impact bias,;它揭示了一些真正令我们感到惊讶的事我们称之为“不公平影响”which is the tendency for the simulator to work badly.这就是模拟器有工作不正常的倾向性For the simulator to make you believe that different outcomes are more different than in fact they really are.因为模拟器会让你相信不同的结果比实际存在的不同更不一样From field studies to laboratory studies,从实地研究到实验研究we see that winning or losing an election, gaining or losing a romantic partner,我们可以看到赢得一次选举或者落选 得到和失去一个爱情伴侣getting or not getting a promotion, passing or not passing a college test,on and on,一次晋级机会的得失 一次大学考试通过与不通过等等have far less impact, less intensity and much less duration than people expect them to have.这些事情对我们造成的影响远远比我们所期待的那样要小 而且这种影响的持续时间要短In fact, a recent study, this almost floors me其实 最近有个研究研究的结果几乎让我惊呆了a recent study showing how major life traumas affect people最近的一项关于严重的生活创伤如何影响人们的研究suggests that if it happened over three months ago, with only a few exceptions,表明 如果该事件发生了3个月之后除了少数例外情况it has no impact whatsoever on your happiness. Why?它对你的快乐感并没有任何影响 为什么呢Because happiness can be synthesized.因为快乐可以被人为制造出来Sir Thomas Browne wrote in 1642, ;I am the happiest man alive.托马斯 布朗爵士在1642年写下 “我是人世间最快乐的人I have that in me that can convert poverty to riches, adversity to prosperity.我拥有化腐朽为神奇的能力I am more invulnerable than Achilles; fortune hath not one place to hit me.;我无懈可击 比阿基里斯更无敌”What kind of remarkable machinery does this guy have in his head?他的大脑里得拥有何等卓越的机制呀Well, it turns out its precisely the same remarkable machinery that all of us have.但结果表明我们每个人都是一样的 都拥有这样的机制Human beings have something that we might think of as a ;psychological immune system.;人类具有某种我们可以把它视为“心理免疫系统”的东西A system of cognitive processes, largely non-conscious cognitive processes,一个认知过程的系统 主要是无意识认知过程that help them change their views of the world,这种认知过程可以帮助人们改变对世界的看法so that they can feel better about the worlds in which they find themselves.以致于人们对这个他们能找到自我的世界感觉更好Like Sir Thomas, you have this machine.如同托马斯爵士一样 你也拥有这种能力Unlike Sir Thomas, you seem not to know it.不同之处在于 你好像没有认识到这点We synthesize happiness, but we think happiness is a thing to be found.我们创造快乐 但却认为快乐是需要苦苦追寻的Now, you dont need me to give you too many examples of people synthesizing happiness, I suspect.现在 我估计你不需要我再给你更多关于创造快乐的人们的例子Though Im going to show you some experimental evidence, you dont have to look very far for evidence.不过我还是要给你看一些实验据你就不用费力寻求据了I as challenge to myself, since I say this once in a while in lectures,我 作为对自己的挑战 因为我会时不时地在我的课堂上讲这件事I took a copy of the New York Times我拿了一份纽约时报and tried to find some instances of people synthesizing happiness.并且试图找一些人们自己制造快乐的例子Here are three guys synthesizing happiness.这里有3个人的例子;Im so much better off physically, financially,emotionally, mentally and almost every other way.我现在在心理上 经济上 感情上和精神上都比以前各方面好多了;I dont have one minutes regret. It was a glorious experience.;我一点都不后悔 那是一个辉煌的经历”;I believe it turned out for the best.;我相信它当时是最好的结果了”Who are these characters who are so damn happy?这都是些什么人物?谁特么会这么快乐?Well, the first one is Jim Wright.第一位是吉姆 莱特Some of you are old enough to remember:你们之中一些年纪大的人会记得he was the chairman of the House of Representatives and he resigned in disgrace他曾是众议院主席并且他在耻辱中辞了职when this young Republican named Newt Gingrich found out about a shady book deal he had done.就在这位名叫 Newt Gingrich的青年共和党人发现了他进行的一桩黑幕交易事件之后He lost everything.他失去了一切The most powerful Democrat in the country lost everything.这位当时最有权势的民主党成员失去了一切He lost his money, he lost his power.他失去了他的金钱和权力What does he have to say all these years later about it?过了这么多年之后 他说了什么呢;I am so much better off physically, financially, mentally and in almost every other way.;我现在在心理上 经济上 感情上以及其他一切方面都比以前好多了”What other way would there be to be better off?其他方面还能有什么能更好呢?Vegetably? Minerally? Animally?植物上 矿物上 动物上Hes pretty much covered them there.他基本上都已经包括了Moreese Bickham is somebody youve never heard of.莫里斯·比可汉是位你从来没听说过的人Moreese Bickham uttered these words upon being released.他在出狱后说了这样的话He was 78 years old.他那时七十八岁了Hed spent 37 years in a Louisiana State Penitentiary for a crime he didnt commit.他因为一次误判在路易斯安那监狱度过了37年He was ultimately exonerated at the age of 78 through DNA evidence.通过DNA鉴定他最终被认定无罪and what did he have to say about his experience?关于这段经历 他说了些什么呢;I dont have one minutes regret. It was a glorious experience.; Glorious!;我一分钟的后悔都没有过 那是段荣耀的经历;This guy is not saying, ;Well, there were some nice guys. They had a gym.这并不是说“监狱里的人都挺好的 那还有一个健身房”Glorious, a word we usually reserve for something like a religious experience.荣耀一词 我们通常用来形容与宗教相关的经历Harry S. Langerman uttered these words, and hes somebody you might have known哈里·朗格曼吐露了这些话 他本应是你可能知道的人but didnt, because in 1949 he a little article in the paper但你并不知道 因为在1949年他在报纸上看到了一篇about a hamburger stand owned by two brothers named McDonalds.关于一家汉堡摊的拥有者麦当劳兄弟的文章And he thought, ;Thats a really neat idea!;然后他想 这真是个好主意So he went to find them. They said,所以他就去找了麦当劳兄弟 他们说;We can give you a franchise on this for 3,000 bucks.;“我们可以以3000美元的价格把连锁经营权卖给你”Harry went back to New York, asked his brother, an investment banker,他返回纽约向他做投资的兄弟借3000美元to loan him the ,000, and his brothers immortal words were,但他的兄弟的神回复是;You idiot, nobody eats hamburgers.;“你个白痴 没人吃汉堡”He wouldnt lend him the money,他的兄弟没有借给他钱and of course, six months later Ray Kroc had exactly the same idea.当然 六个月后 瑞·克罗克也有了同样的想法It turns out people do eat hamburgers,结果是人们喜欢吃汉堡and Ray Kroc, for a while, became the richest man in America.而且 克罗克就成为当时的美国的首富Oh, and then, finally, you know, the best of all past of the world some of you recognize this young photo of Pete Best,最后 你们中的一些人能认出这是 Pete Best的年轻时的照片who was the original drummer for the Beatles,他是甲壳虫乐队最开始的鼓手until they, you know, sent him out on an errand and snuck away and picked up Ringo on a tour.然后你知道的 他们开贝斯特 自己溜走并且在一次巡演时选了林格加入Well, in 1994, when Pete Best was interviewed yes, hes still a drummer; yes, hes a studio musician他仍然是一名鼓手 还是一名做录音的音乐人he had this to say, ;Im happier than I would have been with the Beatles.;关于这事 他说 如果留在甲壳虫乐队 我不会这么快乐Okay. Theres something important to be learned from these people,and it is the secret of happiness.好 我们要从这些人身上学到的重要的东西是快乐的秘密Here it is, finally to be revealed.在这 这个秘密终于要被揭开了First: accrue wealth, power, and prestige, then lose it.首先 积累财富 权力和声望 然后全都失去它们Second: spend as much of your life in prison as you possibly can.其次 尽可能地在监狱里度过你的人生Third: make somebody else really, really rich.第三 让别人成为巨富And finally: never ever join the Beatles. Okay, now最后 永远别加入甲壳虫乐队 好的,现在I, like Z. Frank can predict your next thought which is ;Yeah, right.;我像Z Frank一样能预料到你接下来的想法那就是“是的 太对了;Because when people synthesize happiness,因为当人们制造快乐的时候as these gentlemen seem to have done,就像这几位先生们做的一样we all smile at them, but we kind of roll our eyes and say,我们都会冲他们微笑着 但又翻楞着眼睛说;Yeah right, you never really wanted the job.;;嗯! 对! 你本来也没真心想要那份工作”;Oh yeah, right. You really didnt have that much in common with her,“噢 对呀!你本来就和她没什么共同点and you figured that out just about the time;当你刚刚明白这事的时候;she threw the engagement ring in your face.;;她就把婚戒扔在你脸上了;We smirk because we believe that synthetic happiness我们冷笑是因为我们认为人工制造的快乐is not of the same quality as what we might call ;natural happiness.;比不上自然的快乐What are these terms?这两者的概念是什么Natural happiness is what we get when we get what we wanted,自然的快乐是当我们得到我们想要的东西的时候所获得的快乐and synthetic happiness is what we make when we dont get what we wanted.刻意制造的快乐的情况正好与之相反And in our society, we have a strong belief that synthetic happiness is of an inferior kind.在我们的社会中我们都坚信刻意制造的快乐更加劣质Why do we have that belief?为什么我们会这样认为呢Well, its very simple.很简单What kind of economic engine would keep churning if we believed that not getting what we want could make us just as happy as getting it?虽然得不到自己想要的东西 但我们仍然可以让自己就像得到了它那样快乐如果我们相信这点要怎样的经济引擎才会持续运转呢With all apologies to my friend Matthieu Ricard,先向我的朋友马修 李卡德 抱歉A shopping mall full of Zen monks一个挤满了和尚的购物商场is not going to be particularly profitable,是赚不了多少钱的because they dont want stuff enough.因为和尚想要的东西不多I want to suggest to you that synthetic happiness我想向你表明的是 人为制造的快乐是is every bit as real and enduring真实和持久as the kind of happiness you stumble upon就像自然碰到的快乐一样when you get exactly what you were aiming for.和你达到你想要的目的时产生的快乐一样Im a scientist, so Im going to do this not with rhetoric,我是个科学家 所以我不会用华而不实的言辞去说你but by marinating you in a little bit of data.只是让你浸泡在一小点数据里腌一腌而已Let me first show you an experimental paradigm that is used首先让我来告诉你一个实验范例 它是用来to demonstrate the synthesis of happiness among regular old folks.展示 在普通老年人中的人为制造的快乐And this isnt mine.这不是关于我的Its a 50-year-old paradigm called the ;free choice paradigm.;是一位50岁老人的例子 叫做“自由选择范例”Its very simple.非常简单You bring in, say, six objects,你带来六样东西and you ask a subject to rank them from the most to the least liked.然后你要求一个来参加试验的人 从最喜欢到最不喜欢排列它们In this case, because this experiment will tell you about uses them,在这种情况下 因为这个实验会告诉你它们的使用these are Monet prints.这些印刷品是莫奈的画So, everybody can rank these Monet prints每个人都可以对这些作品进行排序from the one they like the most, to the one they like the least.从最喜欢的 到最不喜欢的Now we give you a choice:现在 我们给你一个选择;We happen to have some extra prints in the closet.我们刚好还有有六幅在柜子里Were going to give you one as your prize to take home.我们会送给你一张带回家作为奖励We happen to have number three and number four,; we tell the subject.我们刚好有第三幅和第四幅” 我们告诉被实验者This is a bit of a difficult choice,这是一个有点难的选择because neither one is preferred strongly to the other,因为哪个都没有比另外的好多少but naturally, people tend to pick number three但很自然地 人们都会去选第三幅because they liked it a little better than number four.因为他们认为三号要比四号好一点Sometime later -- it could be 15 minutes; it could be 15 days --过了一会儿 也许是15分钟 也许是15天之后the same stimuli are put before the subject,同样的实验刺激品即莫奈的印刷品摆在被试验者面前and the subject is asked to rerank the stimuli.被试验者需要重新排列喜恶顺序;Tell us how much you like them now.;“告诉我们你现在有多喜欢它们”What happens?发生什么了呢?Watch as happiness is synthesized.看看人为制造快乐是怎样的This is the result that has been replicated over and over again.这就是一遍遍被复制出的结果Youre watching happiness be synthesized.你正在看的就是制造出来的快乐Would you like to see it again?你还想再看一次吗Happiness!这就是快乐;The one I got is really better than I thought“我得到的比我想的好多了That other one I didnt get sucks!;我没选的那幅差远了”Thats the synthesis of happiness.这就是人为制造的快乐Now, whats the right response to that? ;Yeah, right!;那么现在 什么是对此正确的回应呢?“是啊 太对了!;Now, heres the experiment we did, and I hope this is going to convince you that ;Yeah, right!; was not the right response.现在我们做一个实验 我希望它能让你相信 “是呀 太对了”这样的反应是错误的We did this experiment with a group of patients who had anterograde amnesia.我们这次的实验对象是一群患有顺序性遗忘症的病人These are hospitalised patients这些都住院Most of them have Korsakoffs syndrome,他们大多数患有严重记忆障碍的酒精导致的遗忘综合症a polyneuritic psychosis that they drank way too much, and they cant make new memories.一个多发性神经炎症的精神病 他们因长时间饮酒过量 所以不能留下新的记忆OK? They remember their childhood, but if you walk in and introduce yourself, and then leave the room,他们记得他们的童年 但如果你走房间介绍你自己然后离开when you come back, they dont know who you are.当你回来的时候 他们就不知道你是谁了We took our Monet prints to the hospital.我们带着莫奈的印刷品到医院And we asked these patients to rank them from the one they liked the most to the one they liked the least.然后我们让这些病人按照从喜欢到不喜欢跟它们排序We then gave them the choice between number three and number four.然后我们让他们从第三幅和第四幅画中选择一幅Like everybody else, they said, ;Gee, thanks Doc! Thats great! I could use a new print. Ill take number three.;和其他人一样,他们说 “多谢了 医生 那太棒了 我正想要一副新画 我选三号”We explained we would have number three mailed to them.我们解释说会把第三号寄给他们We gathered up our materials and we went out of the room, and counted to a half hour.就收拾起东西离开了房间 在屋外等了半个小时后Back into the room, we say, ;Hi, were back.;回到房间里 说 “你们好 我们回来了”The patients, bless them, say, ;Ah, Doc, Im sorry,上帝保佑这些病人 一位病人说 “哦 医生 对不起Ive got a memory problem; thats why Im here.我的记忆不好 这是为什么我在这治疗If Ive met you before, I dont remember.;我是不是以前见过你 我记不起来了”;Really, you dont remember? I was just here with the Monet prints?;“真的吗?你不记得我了?我刚刚在这里带着莫奈的画?;;Sorry, Doc, I just dont have a clue.;;对不起 医生 我真没有印象了”;No problem, Jim. All I want you to do is rank these for me from the one you like the most to the one you like the least.;“没关系 吉米 我要你做的就是将这些作品按照你的喜爱程度从好到坏排个序”What do they do?他们做什么呢Well, lets first check and make sure theyre really amnesiac.让我们检查一下确认他们是不是真的有遗忘症We ask these amnesiac patients to tell us which one they own,我们让这些遗忘症患者告诉我们他们选完的那张是哪一张which one they chose last time, which one is theirs.哪一张是他们刚刚选的 哪张是他们的And what we find is amnesiac patients just guess.我们发现遗忘症患者只是去猜测These are normal controls, where if I did this with you,这些是正常的控制 如果给你们做这个实验all of you would know which print you chose.你们所有人都会知道你们选过那一张But if I do this with amnesiac patients, they dont have a clue.但如果是遗忘症患者 他们就完全不知道了They cant pick their print out of a lineup.他们从列出的画中挑不出自己选过的Heres what normal controls do: they synthesize happiness.这是正常控制所做的 他们制造快乐Right? This is the change in liking score,对吗? 这是喜好得分的变化the change from the first time they ranked to the second time they ranked.是从第一次喜好的排序 到第二次排序的变化Normal controls show -- that was the magic I showed you;正常控制显示 我给你展示的是个魔术now Im showing it to you in graphical form --现在我要以图示的方式给你看;The one I own is better than I thought.“我拥有的这幅比我想过的要好多了The one I didnt own, the one I left behind, is not as good as I thought.;那个没有得到的 没拿走的并不是我以为的那么好”Amnesiacs do exactly the same thing. Think about this result.健忘症患者会做一摸一样的选择 想想这个实验结果These people like better the one they own, but they dont know they own it.这些人更喜欢它们所拥有的那幅但他们却不知道他们已经拥有它了;Yeah, right; is not the right response!“是啊 太对了”并不是正确的回应What these people did when they synthesized happiness is they really, truly changed their affective, hedonic, aesthetic reactions to that poster.当这些人制造快乐的时候 他们所做的就是他们真正地改变了对那幅画的情感 享受以及审美上的反应Theyre not just saying it because they own it, because they dont know they own it.他们不是因为拥有了才那么说毕竟他们不知道他们拥有它When psychologists show you bars, you know that they are showing you averages of lots of people.当心理学家向你展示统计图表时你知道他们展示给你的是大多数人通常的行为And yet, all of us have this psychological immune system, this capacity to synthesize happiness,但我们所有人都有这样的神经免疫系统这种制造快乐的能力but some of us do this trick better than others.只不过我们中的有些人更擅长做这种把戏And some situations allow anybody to do it more effectively than other situations do.而且在某些情况下会比在其他情况下让任何人做得更有效It turns out that freedom, the ability to make up your mind and change your mind,is the friend of natural happiness,事实表明 这种自由也就是打定主意和改变主意的能力because it allows you to choose among all those delicious futures它是自然快乐的朋友 因为它允许你在所有那些具有诱惑力的未来中去选择and find the one that you would most enjoy.并且找到你最享受的那一个But freedom to choose, to change and make up your mind, is the enemy of synthetic happiness.但自由选择去改变或打定主意却是人制造快乐的敌人And Im going to show you why.接下来我要告诉你为什么Dilbert aly knows, of course.Dilbert 当然已经知道了youre ing the cartoons as Im talking我在说话的时候你在看这本卡通;Dogberts tech support. How may I abuse you?;;您好 这里是道格伯特技术持 您需要怎样的虐待;My printer prints a blank page after every document.;;我的打印机每次打完文件都会出一张白纸”;Why would you complain about getting free paper?;;免费得到的纸你有什么好抱怨的?;;Free? Arent you just giving me my own paper?;;免费的? 你刚刚给我的不就是我自己的纸吗?;;Look at the quality of the free paper compared to your lousy regular paper!;看看这免费纸的质量 和你糟糕的普通纸比比Only a fool or a liar would say that they look the same!;只有傻子或骗子才会说他们看上去一样;;Now that you mention it, it does seem a little silkier!;“听你现在这么一说 它的确看上去更丝滑;;What are you doing?;“你现在在做什么?;;Im helping people accept the things they cannot change.; Indeed.;我正在帮助人们去接受他们不能改变的事情” 的确如此The psychological immune system works best when we are totally stuck, when we are trapped.当我们完全陷入困境的时侯 就是心理免疫系统的作用发挥得最好的时候This is the difference between dating and marriage, right?这就是约会与婚姻的不同之处 对吗?I mean, you go out on a date with a guy, and he picks his nose; you dont go out on another date.我是说 比如你和一个家伙出去约会他用手指挖鼻子 你不会再去和他约会了Youre married to a guy and he picks his nose?那如果你嫁给了一个挖鼻孔的家伙呢?You know, he has a heart of gold. Dont touch the fruitcake! Right?你知道 他有颗金子般的心 只是别碰那块他做的水果蛋糕哈! 是这样吗?You find a way to be happy with whats happened.虽然事情发生了 你会找到一种方式让自己开心Now, what I wanna show you is that people dont know this about themselves,现在 我想要告诉你的是人们不知道他们自己这一点and not knowing this can work to our supreme disadvantage.而不知道这点却能解决我们最大的缺点Heres an experiment we did at Harvard.这是一项我们在哈佛大学做的实验We created a black-and-white photography course,我们开设了一门黑白照片摄影课and we allowed students to come in and learn how to use a darkroom.并且我们允许学生们进入到暗室学习怎样使用它So we gave them cameras; they went around campus;我们发给他们相机 他们在校园里到处拍照they took 12 pictures of their favorite professors他们给他们最喜爱的教授拍了12张照片and their dorm room and their dog,还拍了他们的宿舍 他们的and all the other things they wanted to have Harvard memories of.还有其他所有他们认为应留在他们哈佛记忆中的东西They bring us the camera; we make up a contact sheet;他们把相机拿回来 我们做一个联系方式表格they figure out which are the two best pictures;他们选出两张最好的照片and we now spend six hours teaching them about darkrooms.之后我们花六个小时的时间给他们讲关于暗室的知识And they blow two of them up,然后他们选出两张and they have two gorgeous eight-by-10 glossies of meaningful things to them, and we say,他们有了两张8寸x10寸表面处理为光面的照片拍的是对他们来说很有意义的东西 然后我们说;Which one would you like to give up?;;你愿意放弃哪一张呢?;;I have to give one up?;;我必须要放弃一张吗?;;Oh, yes, we need one as evidence of the class project.;是的 当然 我们需要一张作为班级项目的据So you have to give me one. You have to make a choice.你得给我一张 你就不得不做出个选择You get to keep one, and I get to keep one.;你保留一张 我保留一张Now, there are two conditions in this experiment.这时 在这项试验里有两个条件In one case, the students are told,在一种情况下 学生们被告知;But you know, if you want to change your mind,;你知道 如果你改变主意Ill always have the other one here,我这里会一直保留另外一张 直到and in the next four days, before I actually mail it to headquarters;四天以后 我就要把它寄到总部了”Id be glad to...Yeah, ;headquarters;我会很高兴地.....是的 “总部”;Ill be glad to swap it out with you.“我会很高兴地帮你把它换过来In fact, Ill come to your dorm room to give, just give me an email.其实我也可以把它送到你的宿舍门口 给我你的邮箱地址就行了Better yet, Ill check with you.最好是 我到时会再向你确认一下You ever want to change your mind, its totally returnable.;看你是不是想改主意 它完全是可以退还的;The other half of the students are told exactly the opposite:但另外一半的学生被告知的内容却是完全相反;Make your choice, and by the way, the mail is going out, gosh, in two minutes, to England.“做出你的选择 顺便说一下邮件两分钟后就发去英格兰了Your picture will be winging its way over the Atlantic.你拍的照片会飞越大西洋You will never see it again.;你就永远都见不到它了;Now, half of the students in each of these conditions are asked to make predictions about现在 每一组条件下的一半学生被要求作出预测how much theyre going to come to like the picture that they keep and the picture they leave behind.预测他们会多喜欢保留的照片和挑剩下的照片Other students are just sent back to their little dorm rooms其他学生只是被送回他们的小宿舍and they are measured over the next three to six days on their liking, satisfaction with the pictures.他们根据自己的喜好在接下来的3-6天內衡量对照片的喜欢及满意的成度And look at what we find.看看我们发现了什么First of all, heres what students think is going to happen.首先 学生们认为要发生的事情是They think theyre gonna maybe come to like the picture they chose a little more than the one they left behind,他们觉得自己可能会喜欢他们已选择的照片比他们挑剩的那张更多些but these are not statistically significant differences但在统计方面没有什么显著的区别Its really a very small increase, and it doesnt much matter真的只是一个非常小的增加whether they were in the reversible or irreversible condition.无论他们处于可逆转或不可逆转状态 这都并不重要Wrong-o. Bad simulators. Because heres whats really happening.选错了也好 糟糕的模拟器也好 这才是真正发生的事情Both right before the swap and five days later,可交换时和五天后people who are stuck with that picture,那些只能选择那张照片who have no choice,没有其他选择who can never change their mind, like it a lot!也不会改变主意的人十分喜欢那张照片And people who are deliberating -- ;Should I return it?那些正在仔细考虑;我是不是应该用它把另一张换回来”Have I gotten the right one? Maybe this isnt the good one?“我选出的对不对?; ;可能这张并不好”Maybe I left the good one?; -- have killed themselves.;我可能没拿好的那张”的那些人为考虑这些问题把自己折磨死了They dont like their picture,他们不喜欢自己挑出的照片and in fact even after the opportunity to swap has expired,而且实际上甚至是过了可交换的最后期限之后they still dont like their picture.他们还是不喜欢他们的照片Why? Because the irreversible condition is not conducive to the synthesis of happiness.为什么呢 因为不可逆转的条件是不利于人为制造快乐的So heres the final piece of this experiment.那么这就是这试验的最后一部分We bring in a whole new group of naive Harvard students我们带来了全新的一组没经验的哈佛学生and we say, ;You know, were doing a photography course,我们说 “你知道 我们正在开一门摄影课and we can do it one of two ways.我们可以两种方式选其一We could do it so that when you take the two pictures,我们可以这样做 那就是当你拍摄这两张照片时youd have four days to change your mind,你会有四天的时间去考虑是否改变主意or were doing another course where you take the two pictures或者我们开另外一个课程 你可以在拍那两张照片时and you make up your mind right away and you can never change it.就做决定 而且你不能改变这个决定Which course would you like to be in?; Duh!你会选择上哪一门课呢?; 还用说吗!prefer to be in the course where they have the opportunity to change their mind.喜欢选择有机会改变主意的课程Hello? 66 percent of the students choose to be in the course也就是66%的学生会选择in which they will ultimately be deeply dissatisfied with the picture.最终会让你有那张非常不满意的照片的课程Because they do not know the conditions under which synthetic happiness grows.因为他们不知道制造快乐形成的条件The Bard said everything best, of course, and hes making my point here莎翁说的一切当然都是最好的 他在这句话里也说出了我的观点but hes making it hyperbolically:但他的观点是有些夸张的;Tis nothing good or bad / But thinking makes it so.;;世上之事本无好坏之分 只是想法决定了其好坏而已;Its nice poetry, but that cant exactly be right.这是首好诗 但却不是绝对正确的Is there really nothing good or bad?世上的事物真的没有好坏之分吗?Is it really the case that gallbladder surgery and a trip to Paris are just the same thing?胆囊炎手术和一次去巴黎的旅行真的是一回事吗?That seems like a one-question IQ test.这似乎是个只有一题的智商测试They cant be exactly the same.它们不可能一样In more turgid prose, but closer to the truth, was the father of modern capitalism, Adam Smith, and he said this.在更多的散文作品里 更接近事实的是现代资本主义理论之父 亚当·史密斯 说过This is worth contemplating:值得好好考虑他的话:;The great source of both the misery and disorders of human life seems to arise from overrating the difference between one permanent situation and another人生痛苦的最大根源似乎都来源于我们过分夸大了一种长久的情形和另外一种的差距Some of these situations may, no doubt, deserve to be preferred to others,这些情况中的一些 毫无疑问 可能被部分人所喜好but none of them can deserve to be pursued但没有任何情况值得with that passionate ardor which drives us to violate the rules我们被与狂热驱使而违反规则地去追求either of prudence or of justice,无论是谨慎的还是正义的or to corrupt the future tranquility of our minds,又或是对我们思想的未来安宁的破坏either by shame from the remembrance of our own folly,无论是因为我们自己愚昧的记忆而感到耻辱or by remorse for the horror of our own injustice.;还是因为我们自己不公正的恐惧而产生的悔恨In other words: yes, some things are better than others.换句话说 是的 有些事情比其他的事情更好We should have preferences that lead us into one future over another.我们应该要有那些 能够把我们带入到一个超越了另一个未来的偏好But when those preferences drive us too hard and too fast但因为我们过分高估了两个未来之间的不同because we have overrated the difference between these futures, we are at risk.而让这些偏好极力地过快地驱驶我们 我们就会有风险When our ambition is bounded, it leads us to work joyfully.当我们的野心被限定的时候 它会使我们愉快地工作When our ambition is unbounded,it leads us to lie, to cheat, to steal, to hurt others,to sacrifice things of real value.当我们的野心无限膨胀的时候 它会诱使我们去撒谎 欺骗 盗窃 和伤害他人 甚至会使我们失去那些真正有价值的东西When our fears are bounded, were prudent, were cautious, were thoughtful.当我们的恐惧是有限的的时候我们是审慎的 小心的我们是考虑周到的When our fears are unbounded and overblown, were reckless, and were cowardly.当我们的恐惧是无底限而且过分夸大的我们是鲁莽的 懦弱的The lesson I want to leave you with,我想留给你思考的课题就是from these data, is that our longings and our worries are both to some degree overblown,从这些数据我们可以看出 我们的期望和担心都在某种程度上被夸大了because we have within us the capacity to manufacture the very commodity因为我们自身有制造这种有价值的事物的能力were constantly chasing when we choose experience. Thank you.这是在我们选择经验时不断追寻的 谢谢大家!201706/513859

  Minerals like calcium and phosphate keep your bones tough and rigid,像钙和磷酸盐这样的矿物质使你的骨骼保持坚硬,so your limbs can be attached properly, and your bodys not just a squishy mess of tissue.这样你的四肢才能正常地活动,你的躯体,不至于成为一堆软乎乎的组织。But sometimes minerals can build up where theyre not supposed to.但有时矿物质能够在意料之外的地方起作用。In fact, after a heart attack, some of your heart tissue could effectively turn into bone.事实上,心脏病发作后,你的部分心肌组织能有效的转化为骨。This might sound kind of like a mutant superpower, but its actually really dangerous,这可能听起来像是一种超强突变,但实际上这相当危险and has perplexed scientists for a while.并且曾经困扰了科学家一段时间。But a new study published in the journal Cell Stem Cell suggests that these bony calcium deposits但发表在Cell Stem Cell杂志上的最新研究表明,这些骨钙沉积are just an unfortunate byproduct of the heart trying to heal itself.仅仅是心脏试图治愈自身的不良副产物。Its no surprise that heart tissue and bone tissue have really different jobs.心肌组织和骨组织具有完全不同的功能,这并不奇怪。Heart muscle has to be flexible and beat in a rhythm to keep your blood circulating.心肌必须灵活,以一定的节律跳动从而保持血液循环。Your heartbeat is controlled by electrical signals that sp through the muscle cells你的心跳受到心肌细胞中传递的电信号的控制that make up different heart chambers.这些心肌细胞构成不同的心脏室。So when heart tissue turns all stiff and mineralized, it cant conduct those signals as well,因此当心脏组织变得僵硬和矿化时,它也就不能执行这些电信号了,and your heart cant keep that smooth, steady beat – a condition called heart block.心脏不能保持平稳的心跳,这种情况叫做心肌梗死。And theres currently no medical treatment to break down these calcium deposits if they form.并且这些钙沉积物一旦形成目前没有医疗手段能够分解它们。This bone-like tissue can form after a heart attack, where blood flow gets blocked这些类骨组织会在心脏病发作后形成,它们会阻碍血液流动so the cells get deprived of oxygen and start to die.因此细胞会缺氧并开始坏死。We know that the heart can kind of repair itself when it gets injured.我们知道心脏受伤时会自我修复。In fact, in an earlier paper, this team of researchers showed事实上,在更早的文献中这个团队的研究显示that some heart cells can even switch jobs to try and patch things up.一些心脏细胞甚至能够转而承担修补工作。See, usually, all mature cells take on a specific function and stay that way forever.通常,所有成熟细胞都有其特定功能并且一直保持这样。But rarely, with the right signal from the body, certain cells can change forms.但罕见地,在接收到来自身体的正确信号时某些细胞可以改变形态。In this case, the turncoats are called cardiac fibroblasts, a type of connective cell,这种情况下,这些“变节者”被称为心脏成纤维细胞,它是一种连接细胞which can become blood vessel cells after an injury.能够在机体受伤之后成为血管细胞。And in the study published this week, these researchers found that cardiac fibroblasts在本周发表的研究中,这些研究者发现心脏成纤维细胞can also become cells that act just like osteoblasts,也能够表现成骨细胞的特性成骨细胞,the cells responsible for depositing minerals in your bones.负责在骨骼中储存矿物质。To figure this out, they took heart fibroblasts from mice with calcified hearts为了弄清楚,他们从心脏钙化的老鼠身上获取成纤维细胞and put them in healthy mice hearts.然后放到正常老鼠心脏里。They observed that these osteoblast-like cells started depositing calcium,他们观察到这些类成骨细胞开始储存钙质,and mineralizing other cells.并矿化其他细胞。Theyre still not completely sure why heart cells would start spewing out minerals,他们仍然不能完全确定心脏细胞为何会大量释放矿物质but its probably an accident.但那可能是一个意外。Maybe the fibroblasts are trying to switch jobs one way to be helpful, they mess up,可能成纤维细胞试图通过转变功能来变的更有用,但它们搞砸了and go down a different developmental path.走上了一条不同的发展道路。The researchers hope that by understanding how heart cells can make this mistake,研究者希望通过理解心脏细胞的犯错机制theyll be able to develop drugs that block this sort of calcium buildup in patients.他们能够开发出阻断病人体内这种钙沉积的药物。Lots of scientists are researching really small things许多科学家在研究很不起眼但是可能在人体中that can go wrong in human bodies, but plenty are also looking at planet-wide issues.出错的过程,但是还有很多科学家关注的是全球的问题。For example, some fish populations are plummeting because of things like commercial fishing and climate change.比如,一些鱼类种群数量由于商业和气候变化的原因而骤降。And its not like you can just stick your head underwater and count them to check on the damage.并不是你把头伸到水下数数就能核实危害的程度。So, in a new paper, a team of Danish researchers think a soda bottle full of seawater因此,在一项新研究中一个丹麦的研究团队认为一苏打水瓶的海水might have the power to tell us how many and what kinds of fish are in the ocean.可能能够告诉我们海里有多少鱼、是什么种类的。One strategy to keep tabs on fish populations is trawling,监视鱼类种群数量的一种方法是拖网作业,or dragging a big net across the seafloor and seeing what you scoop up.即在海底撒一张大网看看能捞上来什么。But it has its problems: only part of the ocean floor is flat enough to drag a net across,但是这种方法存在问题:不是所有的海底都平坦到适合撒网,some bigger animals can easily avoid the nets, its pretty invasive, and its not all that fast.一些大型的动物能轻易地避开网,这种方法太具侵略性并且没有那么快。Researchers can also ask commercial fishing companies how much theyve caught,研究者也可以了解渔业公司捕到的鱼数量,and try to estimate fish populations that way.以此来推断鱼类种群的数量。But this is the twenty-first century, and we have cool sciencey toys now,但现在是二十一世纪了如今我们有更酷的科学玩具,like quick, cheap, accurate DNA sequencing.比如快速、廉价、精确的DNA测序。Fish shed DNA in the water all the time,鱼类在水中会一直脱落DNA,just like we humans leave bits and pieces of ourselves wherever we go.就像我们人类到哪都会留下我们自身的皮屑毛发一样。So instead of scooping up the fish, a team of Danish researchers figured所以一个丹麦的研究者团队认为他们可以they could just scoop up a bunch of environmental DNA, or eDNA, from the water,从水中取得一些环境DNA或eDNA来取代,and match it to known tissue samples and sequences.然后将得到的DNA和已有的组织样本和序列进行比对。They ran a traditional trawling study side-by-side with this eDNA study,他们同时进行了拖网作业研究和这个eDNA研究,pulling up two liters of water – a soda-bottle sized amount – everywhere they dropped a net.在每个撒网的地方取两升水样--一瓶苏打水的量。And, for the most part, the eDNA was able to tell them what was in that part of the ocean.在大多数情况下eDNA能够告诉他们在那片海里有哪些动物。eDNA sequencing did miss some rare fish that trawling caught,eDNA测序确实漏掉了一些拖网作业捕到的稀有鱼,suggesting that two liters of water just didnt have enough of their DNA in it.说明两升水里这些鱼DNA的含量不够多。Plus, the scientists are still figuring out how the amount of DNA can be used另外,科学家仍然在研究如何用DNA的含量to estimate the actual number of fish in the water.估计海里鱼的数量。But in the case of one species, the Greenland shark,但对其中一个物种格陵兰鲨鱼来说,the eDNA method may actually have done a better job than trawling.eDNA方法实际上已经比拖网作业得到了更好的结果。The researchers say that Greenland sharks are big enough to avoid trawling nets.研究者说格陵兰鲨鱼大到能够避开拖网。But this issue doesnt apply to their DNA, so it might provide a better estimate of their numbers.但这个问题不适用于它们的DNA,所以eDNA方法可能提供了更好的方法估计它们的数量。Mostly, because eDNA sequencing is much less invasive than trawling,主要是因为eDNA测序对环境的破坏性比拖网作业小得多,these scientists think its a promising option for future fish studies, even though it still needs some refining.这些科学家认为这是未来鱼类研究一个很有前途的方向,即使它仍需改善Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow News, brought to you by our President of Space,谢谢观看由我们的President of Space带来的本期科学秀,you guessed it…. SR Foxley! Thanks SR!你一定猜到了。SR Foxley!谢谢SR!And if you want to help support this show, you can go to patreon.com/scishow.如果你想赞助本节目,请访问patreon.com/scishow。And dont forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!别忘了登录youtube.com/scishow订阅我们!201706/515411。

  This is a warning and it might be the only one that you get.我只会警告你这么一次For those who dont mind living in a world unchanged, this is not for you.对于那些不求改变的人,我就不多费唇舌了But for those who want something more,但对于那些想更上一层楼、for those who wonder what it feels like to make a difference, this warning is for you.或那些想做出改变的人,这就是给你的警讯There is a profession where you work with the most volatile, explosive medium known to men.这个职业的工作内容必须和全世界最危险的生物相处A career were challenging the status quo is part of your daily to-do-list.改变现况是你每日的例行公事Align with work where you leave those you love, to struggle, fight and conquer.你更必须抛弃所爱,去面对并克挑战The future hangs in the balance.未来岌岌可危We will wage war on things like doubt and I dont get it.我们将向那些对所有事存疑,并说“我还不懂”的人宣战It will be relentless arsenal of yes you can.我们将说他们:“对,你可以”And consequently, you will start raging fires of ambition that can never be extinguished.因此,你的内心会燃起雄心壮志,且永远不熄灭Also, I should warn you, your identity will be compromised我同时也要警告你,你的身份将会曝光and you will be known forever by those whose lives has changed.而那些生活有所改变的人们将会永远记住你的名字So, consider yourself more, should you take this on,所以,好好的考虑,要不要接下这份工作you will lead a legacy, you will change the future, and you will feel what its like to make more.你会创造传奇,你会改变未来,而你将会知道付出的感觉是什么Okay, class. Were going to get started. Put your hands up if youre paying attention.好,孩子们,我们要开始上课了。有在听老师说话的请举手Okay, now, were gonna go over where we stopped last week.好,我们要继续上星期的进度。I dare you. I dare you to change the world.我向你挑战。你敢不敢改变世界。Yeah you, getting that college education.对,要的就是拥有学士学位的你!I dare you to be somebody important, like be a teacher, or a reality TV star.你敢不敢成为举足轻重的人,像老师,或是实境秀明星I dare you to stand up here, to call the shots, to be a role model.你敢不敢站上来,发号施令,或成为榜样。201704/501940

  

  【新闻精讲】You might think frogs catch insects ‘cause their tongues are sticky. ;But why is the tongue sticky, and how does it actually adhere to these insects at these very high accelerations?;Those are the questions Alexis Noel, a PhD candidate in mechanical engineering at Georgia Tech, wanted to answer. So she and her team got frog tongues from a dissection lab, and tested their consistency. Ten times softer than human tongues. A texture more like brain tissue. ;Their tongue is very much like a sponge. Its infused with this thick, viscous saliva.;That saliva was their next study subject. ;And in order to test the saliva we had to get about a fifth of a teaspoon of fluid. Which is a lot of saliva, in a frogs case.; They put the saliva in a rheometer, a tool that can measure viscosity. And they found that frog saliva is whats called a shear-thinning fluid—its viscosity changes, depending on conditions.You might be more familiar with a different shear-thinning fluid. ;Ketchup. When you smack the bottom of the ketchup bottle youre actually invoking shear forces within the ketchup itself. And ketchup, because its shear thinning, its viscosity actually drops and allows it to slide out of the bottle easily.;So back to our frogs: the tongue shoots out, hits the bug and deforms around it. That impact is like a smack on a ketchup bottle—it changes the saliva from thick and sticky to more watery, free to flow all over the bug. Then the tongue bounces back, like a bungee cord, and the saliva thickens up again. Whats next is beyond weird.;Frogs actually take their bulbous eyeballs and bring them down into their mouth cavity and use their eyeballs to shove the insect down the throat.; That force turns the saliva watery again, ;and the insect slides down the gullet.; The study is in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.【视频讲解】You might think frogs catch insects ‘cause their tongues are sticky. ;But why is the tongue sticky, and how does it actually adhere to these insects at these very high accelerations?;你可能认为,青蛙因为要抓昆虫,所以它们的舌头都是粘性。但,为什么舌头是黏黏的?舌头是如何能极其快速地抓住昆虫呢?adhere to stick to 粘附Adhere1. 遵守例:All members of the association adhere to a strict code of practice.所有该协会的成员都遵守严格的业务守则。2. 紧贴,粘住例:Small particles adhere to the seed.微小的粒子紧贴着种子。Those are the questions Alexis Noel, a PhD candidate in mechanical engineering at Georgia Tech, wanted to answer. So she and her team got frog tongues from a dissection lab, and tested their consistency.乔治亚理工大学生物工程学士Alexis Noel想回答这些问题!所以,她和她的团队从解剖实验室取得青蛙的舌头,然后检查粘度。Dissect1. 解剖2. 剖析People want to dissect his work and question his motives.人们想剖析他的作品,质疑他的动机。Consistency1. 黏稠度2. 连贯性; 一致性例:She scores goals with remarkable consistency.她以非凡的连贯性进球得分。Ten times softer than human tongues. A texture more like brain tissue. ;Their tongue is very much like a sponge. Its infused with this thick, viscous saliva.;青蛙的舌头比人类的柔软十倍,纹理更像人类大脑。“它们的舌头像海绵,它吸收浓厚,粘性的唾液”Sponge 海绵Infuse 注入 (某种特性)例:Many of the girls seemed to be infused with excitement on seeing the snow.许多女孩子似乎一看到雪心里就充满了兴奋。Viscous 黏稠的dark, viscous blood....深色且黏稠的血液。Saliva 唾液That saliva was their next study subject. ;And in order to test the saliva we had to get about a fifth of a teaspoon of fluid. Which is a lot of saliva, in a frogs case.;唾液是那些研究课题,为了得到唾液,他们取样了五分之一的茶匙. 对青蛙而言,已经足够了Subject1. 课题,主题2. 受…影响的 (subject to )例:Prices may be subject to alteration.价格可能会受变更影响。Teaspoon 茶匙They put the saliva in a rheometer, a tool that can measure viscosity. And they found that frog saliva is whats called a shear-thinning fluid—its viscosity changes, depending on conditions. ,他们将唾液放在测试粘度的电流计中;他们发现,青蛙的粘液是“剪切稀化液”,也就说粘度会随着环境而改变Rheometer 电流计,血流速度计Shear1. 剪毛例:Competitors have six minutes to shear four sheep.参赛者们有6分钟的时间来给4只羊剪毛。2. 大剪刀例:Trim the shrubs with shears.用大剪刀修剪这些灌木。Thin1. 稀释2. 消磨掉例:War has achieved little, and public patience is wearing thin.战争收获甚微,公众的耐心日渐消磨。You might be more familiar with a different shear-thinning fluid. ;Ketchup. When you smack the bottom of the ketchup bottle youre actually invoking shear forces within the ketchup itself.你可能熟悉其他不同的剪切稀化液“比如番茄酱。当你拍打番茄酱底部的时候,实际上就在唤起番茄酱内部剪力”Ketchup 番茄酱Smack1. 击打例:She smacked me on the side of the head.她打到了我一边脑袋上。2. 带有…迹象; 含有…意味例:The engineers union was unhappy with the motion, saying it smacked of racism.工程师联合会不满意这个提议,说它有种族主义的味道。3. 恰好例:In part thats because industry is smack in the middle of the city.部分是因为工业恰恰就在该市的中心地带。And ketchup, because its shear thinning, its viscosity actually drops and allows it to slide out of the bottle easily.;由于剪力稀释,所以番茄酱的的粘度实际下降,然后让番茄酱轻松流出来Drop1. 下降2. 放弃例:This was one of the factors that led to President Suhartos dropping of his previous objections.这是导致苏哈托总统放弃他先前反对意见的因素之一。3. 滴; (如酒) 少量例:...a drop of blue ink.…一滴蓝墨水。So back to our frogs: the tongue shoots out, hits the bug and deforms around it. That impact is like a smack on a ketchup bottle—it changes the saliva from thick and sticky to more watery, free to flow all over the bug.回到青蛙上来:舌头射出去,击中虫子,然后使它变形。这种影响力,就像在番茄酱瓶子底部拍打——它改变了从唾液最粘变到不太粘,然后自由将虫子包裹住Bug1. 小虫2. 故障例:There is a bug in the software.软件出了故障Watery1. 微弱的; 淡薄的A watery light began to show through the branches.一缕微弱的光线从树枝间透射过来。2. 含水的; 似水的; 由水组成的例:There was a watery discharge from her ear.她的耳朵里有水状物流出。Then the tongue bounces back, like a bungee cord, and the saliva thickens up again. Whats next is beyond weird.然后,舌头像皮筋一样弹回去,唾液再次变厚。接下来更加不可思议Bounce使…弹起; 弹起例:My father would burst into the kitchen bouncing a tennis ball.我父亲会拍打着网球闯进厨房。bungee cord弹力绳Cord 线路,绳子...electrical cord.…电源接线。;Frogs actually take their bulbous eyeballs and bring them down into their mouth cavity and use their eyeballs to shove the insect down the throat.;青蛙实际上要用他们的球状眼睛,然后将他们送入嘴里。然后用眼球将昆虫进入到喉咙里面bulbous圆滚滚的例:his bulbous purple nose....他的紫红色酒糟鼻。Shove猛推例:He shoved her out of the way.他把她推开。That force turns the saliva watery again, ;and the insect slides down the gullet.; The study is in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.这种力量会使得唾液稀释些,然后昆虫会从滑过食道。这项研究发表皇家社会联系期刊上Turn 变得 (接形容词)例:If the bailiff thinks that things could turn nasty he will enlist the help of the police.如果司法官认为情况可能会变糟,他会寻求警方帮助。gullet食道Interface相互联系; 连接例:...the way we interface with the environment.…我们与环境相互联系的方式。201705/504813

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