原标题: 黑龙江省青年医学会附属医院做彩超B超价格爱典范
The Christmas pudding we recognise today is a Victorian dish made from suet, dried fruit, candied peel, bcrumbs, spices, egg and grated carrots and apples.我们现在经常见到的圣诞布丁,最早起源于维多利亚时代。其主要成分包括(牛羊腰部的)板油、干果、蜜饯果皮、面包屑、香料、鸡蛋、磨碎的胡萝卜和苹果。The Victorians shaped their puddings into a spherical shape and boiled them in a muslin cloth.维多利亚时期的人把布丁弄成球型,并用棉布包着放在水里煮。‘Stir up Sunday’ (the last Sunday before Advent) has become associated with the start of the pudding-making process, in order to allow it least a month to mature before being consumed on Christmas Day.唤醒星期日(基督降临日前最后一个星期日)一般标志着圣诞布丁制作过程的开始,因为布丁最后做好需要至少1个月的时间。这个时候开始制作可以确保在圣诞节当天大家能够享用圣诞布丁。At Christmas, the pudding is doused in brandy and set alight.圣诞节当天,布丁会被淋上白兰地(烧酒)然后点着火、点亮,然后端上桌。 /201312/2692811. Get interested第一步:对所学之物感兴趣Make no mistake. Your interest in the subject is the essentialdriver of success. You can;t learn what you do not want to learn.Emotion is an important part of the learning process. If you areeven moderately interested in a subject, give yourself a chance.The key is to get started. If you can create some pleasurableroutines, you may find that the subject grows on you. “L’appetitvient en mangeant” (the appetite comes with eating) as they say inFrench。可别搞错了,兴趣是成功学成某件事的根本要素!你不想学的东西当然学不会。在学习过程中保持热情至关重要。所以如果你对某件事有些兴趣,那就给自己一个学习的机会。关键是要“开始”!如果你能创造一些让自己开心的学习模式,那么就能好好开始学习这门科目。就像他们在法语里说的那样:吃着吃着就有胃口了!很多同学因为看美剧或动漫而对英语、日语产生了强烈的兴趣,这就是一个很棒的开始。如果你能抓住这个兴趣,把兴趣发展到语言学习中,你就不仅仅能得到看剧的快乐,更能为自己添加一种新的能力。不要担心自己学不下来,总要给自己一个机会开始。2. Expect problems and you won’t bedisappointed。第二步:降低期望值,这样就不会对自己失望Don#39;t expect to understand things, much less remember them,the first time you study them. Trust that things will get cleareras your brain comes to grips with new information. It is like ajig-saw puzzle or a cross-word puzzle. As you start to put thepieces together, or string the words together, the full picturebecomes clearer. The brain learns all the time, but on its ownschedule. Learning does not take place according to a schedule laiddown by a curriculum or teacher. Some things are easier to learnthan others. Some things just take longer to click in. Keep at it,and you will gradually find that things that seem difficult atfirst, will become second nature with time。当一开始学习的时候,别指望能一下就全部理解、更别说记住所有知识点了。要相信,随着你了解越来越多的新知识、你的头脑也会变得清晰起来。这就像是拼图、或者填字游戏那样:当你把图形一个一个拼起来、或是把单词一一填进去,整个大局就会清楚。大脑其实随时都在学习,不过它也有自己的节奏。学习的过程是不会按照一个课程、或是老师给你规定的进行的。有的东西比其他好学,有的东西就是需要花更多时间。坚持下去,你慢慢就会发现那些一开始看上去很难的东西也会随着时间变得简单了。3. Cover the same ground from differentangles。第三步:从不同的角度学习同一个知识点。Your brain is struggling to form patterns to cope with newinput from your learning activities. Sometimes, no matter how longyou focus on one subject, your brain is not going to pick it up. Ifyou are stuck, move on. Then cover the same general informationfrom a different source, a different book, or a podcast, or anonline lecture or a . Try to become a grazing learner, roamingthe countryside, rather than a feedlot learner, just standing therein one spot, munching on the same bale of hay. The broader yourbase, the easier it is to learn. Just as the “rich get richer”, themore you know, the more you can learn。在新知识的学习过程中,你的大脑会通过固有模式来接受新的知识点。有的时候,不管花多长时间对着一个科目,你就是记不住它。如果卡在这种时候,就略过它。跟着从其他的信息来源:比如不同的书籍、播客、线上课程或视频来重新学习同一个知识点。试着把自己变成一个“放养”的学习者——在知识的草原上四处周游;而不是“圈养”的学习者——只站在一个点上学习,反复咀嚼一个知识点。看地越广、就能学的轻松。就像是“有钱的更有钱”的道理那样,你知道的越多、就能学的越多。4. Be a multimedia learner。第四步:做一个多媒体学习者The more varied your learning content, and the more varied theways in which you learn, the clearer the puzzle will become.Different learning activities suit different people, at differenttimes of the day. Vary your activities in order to keep yourinterest level up. Even if listening and ing work best for you,treat yourself to the odd lecture, or get-together with otherlearners. This will renew your batteries。你学习的内容越多、来源越多,你就会对知识点越清楚。不同的人适合不同的学习方法,每天的学习“兴奋点”也不错。所以最好能找到自己的一套学习规律来保持自己的“兴奋度”。即便听和读是你习惯的学习方式,也要让自己试着去听听看视频的演讲、或是跟其他学习者交流。这会让你重新充满精力!5. Anytime is learning time。第五步:随时都是学习时间!Take full advantage of the Internet, iTunes, and variousmobile devices, not to mention good old-fashioned books andmagazines. Learn during “dead time”. Listen in your car, on thetrain, or while jogging. Have your learning with you while waitingin the doctor#39;s office, or listen while checking out at thesupermarket. Anytime is learning time. Remember, you are learningthrough exposure, not by nailing things down. It is more likemoisture accumulation in a cloud, rather than building a brickwall。一定要好好利用互联网、iTunes和其他多种移动便携设备,更不用说书籍和杂志这样的传统学习资源啦!把那些“死时间”也都利用起来:开车、坐火车、或者慢跑时都可以听课。在医院排队、或是超市等结账的时候你有没有在听课呢?其实随时都可以是学习时间。记住,你要与学习材料耳鬓厮磨来学习,而不是痛苦地一点一点去啃材料。这个过程更像是一朵云的形成,是水汽的一点点累计;而不像砌一面墙那样,把砖堆上去就好。 网络课程最大的优势就在于“随时随地”!只要有网络,学习时间由你定。有的人适合早起,一清早最有效率;可有的人就是天生的夜猫子,早晨的学习效率无论如何都高不起来。现在都不用担心了,你完全可以按照适合自己的时间点来调节、来学习。6. Join learning communities。第六步:加入学习社区The “loneliness of the distance learner” is a thing of thepast. Join a learning community on the web, where members sharetheir knowledge and experience. Search for the communities thatsuit your interests and learning style. You will findencouragement, advice and stimulus from fellow learners, as well asfrom tutors, teachers and coaches. In these communities, you canmeasure your progress against your own goals, or compare yourexperience with that of other learners. You can even teach and helpothers, which is a great way to learn。“远程教育是孤独的”概念已经成为过去。现在你可以加入一个网络学习社区,和大家一起分享知识与经验。找一个符合你兴趣和学习方式的社区。在那里你可以从其他学习者身上找到鼓励、建议和动力,同时也有导师、老师和教练给你提供持。在这些社区中,你能更好地检验自己的学习进度、也可以和其他学习者竞争。甚至,你还可以教授或帮助其他人,这的确是一个学习的好方法! /201311/265706

It doesn’t kill germs better than cooler water, but turning tap temperatures high, the US burns carbon equal to the emissions of Barbados. People typically wash their hands seven times a day in the ed States, but they do it at a far higher temperature than is necessary to kill germs, a new study says. The energy waste is equivalent to the fuel use of a small country. It#39;s cold and flu season, when many people are concerned about avoiding germs. But forget what you think you know about hand washing, say researchers at Vanderbilt University. Chances are good that how you clean up is not helping you stay healthy; it is helping to make the planet sick.天气一变冷似乎特别容易感冒,于是很多人开始考虑如何避免消灭细菌,但是用热水洗手并不会像你想的那样可以杀死细菌。Amanda R. Carrico, a research assistant professor at the Vanderbilt Institute for Energy and Environment in Tennessee, told National Geographic that hand washing is often ;a case where people act in ways that they think are in their best interest, but they in fact have inaccurate beliefs or outdated perceptions.; Carrico said, ;It#39;s certainly true that heat kills bacteria, but if you were going to use hot water to kill them it would have to be way too hot for you to tolerate.; She explained that boiling water, 212°F (99.98°C), is sometimes used to kill germs - for example, to disinfect drinking water that might be contaminated with pathogens. But ;hot; water for hand washing is generally within 104°F to 131°F (40°C to 55°C.) At the high end of that range, heat could kill some pathogens, but the sustained contact that would be required would scald the skin. Carrico said that after a review of the scientific literature, her team found ;no evidence that using hot water that a person could stand would have any benefit in killing bacteria.; Even water as cold as 40°F (4.4°C) appeared to reduce bacteria as well as hotter water, if hands were scrubbed, rinsed, and dried properly.研究人员说,高温确实能够杀死细菌,但这种沸腾的高温是你无法忍受的。没有任何据能够明用热水(40-55°C)洗手能杀死细菌,而且长时间用热水洗手会破坏我们皮肤表面的保护层,使皮肤的抗菌能力降低。In fact, she noted that hot water can often have an adverse effect on hygiene. ;Warmer water can irritate the skin and affect the protective layer on the outside, which can cause it to be less resistant to bacteria,; said Carrico. Using hot water to wash hands is therefore unnecessary, as well as wasteful, Carrico said, particularly when it comes to the environment. According to her research, people use warm or hot water 64 percent of the time when they wash their hands. Using that number, Carrico#39;s team calculated a significant impact on the planet.研究人员说,你把手洗干净并且擦干,即使用4°C的水也能杀死细菌。;Although the choice of water temperature during a single hand wash may appear trivial, when multiplied by the nearly 800 billion hand washes performed by Americans each year, this practice results in more than 6 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions annually,; she said. That#39;s roughly equal to the emissions of two coal-fired power plants, or 1,250,000 passenger vehicles, over the course of a year. It#39;s higher than the greenhouse gas emissions of small countries like El Salvador or Armenia, and is about equivalent to the emissions of Barbados. If all US citizens washed their hands in cooler water, it would be like eliminating the energy-related carbon emissions of 299,700 US homes, or the total annual emissions from the US zinc or lead industries. The researchers found that close to 70 percent of respondents said they believe that using hot water is more effective than warm, room temperature, or cold water, despite a lack of evidence backing that up, said Carrico. Her study noted research that showed a ;strong cognitive connection; between water temperature and hygiene in both the ed States and Western Europe, compared to other countries, like Japan, where hot water is associated more with comfort than with health. The researchers published their results in the July 2013 issue of International Journal of Consumer Studies. They recommended washing with water that is at a ;comfortable; temperature, which they noted may be warmer in cold months and cooler in hot ones.用热水洗手不仅没有必要,恰恰很浪费,特别是对环境来说。根据研究计算得出的数据,全美国每年8000亿次(热水)洗手加起来将产生600万吨二氧化碳的排放量。 /201312/270080

Unable to sleep at night? It has now been medically shown that insomnia may be caused by an overactive brain, according to a new sleep study conducted by Dr. Rachel Salas, assistant professor of neurology at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and head author of the new research project.最新研究显示,比起睡眠良好的人,失眠人群大脑的可塑性可能更强。Salas stated in the report from their research in Sleep Journal that insomniacs have more active brains than sound sleepers, and the disorder is not something that occurs only at night. Insomnia is “more of a 24/7 disorder,” she said. “The light switch is continually on.”研究人员征集了28名成年受试者,用经颅磁刺激(TMS)激活受试者脑中的运动皮质区域,这28人中,18人患有失眠症,10人没有失眠症。受试者收到刺激后四肢会向特定方向不自主运动。Originally, Salas assumed that deep sleepers had more plastic and attentive brains. She explained that brain plasticity is how easily neural pathways can be tailored by experience and adapt to change. Salas set up a sleep study including 28 participants: 18 who suffered from chronic insomnia for more than a year and 10 people with no trouble sleeping.研究人员在受试者四肢上绑定加速计测量运动幅度,接下来观察受试者在四肢不受控运动下,多久能学会往反方向控制四肢运动。研究人员说,在这种条件下,适应的越快,运动皮质的灵活度就越好。Each subject was given 65 electrical pulses to the brain using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), targeting a specific point in the motor cortex. The researchers focused on stimulating involuntary movements of each person’s thumb and then asked volunteers to move their thumbs for 30 minutes in the opposite direction (without electromagnetic currents) as the uncontrolled reaction caused by the experiment.研究人员开始还担心失眠患者的大脑会因休息不良难以控制四肢,但是试验结果却让人大跌眼镜。结果显示慢性失眠症患者适应地更快,因为他们的大脑有更强的可塑性。The volunteers were then pulsed a second time to see if their brains had learned to move their thumbs in the new direction. If the thumbs twitched in the new path, it showed that the brain was adaptable to change.失眠症状如何导致可塑性提高的联系还不能确定,科学家也不知道具体作用机制,也不清楚可塑性提高是否是失眠导致。 /201403/279181The government policy that promotes marriage among single mothers as a key part of the effort to fight poverty has missed the mark, according to one leading researcher.一位研究主管称,政府制定了政策,想要通过促成未婚妈妈结婚来帮助她们脱贫。但是,这不能从根本上解决问题,结婚可能不会帮助未婚妈妈脱贫。The reason, said Kristi Williams, Ph.D., an associate professor of sociology at The Ohio State University, is that marriage fails to provide the same benefits to poor, single mothers as it does for others.美国俄亥俄州立大学社会学副教授、克丽丝蒂?威廉姆斯( Kristi Williams)士说,和其他的结婚人群不同,贫困的未婚妈妈不会从结婚中受益。“If the goal of marriage promotion efforts was truly to lower poverty rates and improve the wellbeing of unmarried parents and their children, then it is time to take a different approach,” Williams said.威廉姆斯说:“如果政府在婚姻推广政策上下功夫的真正目的是降低贫困率、为未婚单亲家庭谋福祉,那么政府是时候去改变策略,换一种方法来解决问题了。”That could include preventing unwanted births and giving more child care support for single mothers, she said.她说,政府应该采取措施控制意外生育,给未婚妈妈提供更多的儿童保育援助。Williams wrote a briefing paper on the issue for The Council on Contemporary Families. Her report was one of two released to assess the state of the War on Poverty on its 50th anniversary.威廉姆斯就这个问题给现代家庭委员会(The Council on Contemporary Families)写了一份简报。1964年,约翰逊?肯尼迪总统发起了“向贫困宣战”( War on Poverty)这一项目,今年是该项目的50周年纪念。有两份发布的报告被用作“向贫困宣战”这一项目实现程度的评价指标。威廉姆斯的报告是其中之一。It’s easy to see why marriage promotion is appealing, Williams said: About 46 percent of children in single-mother households were living in poverty in 2013, compared to 11 percent of children living with two married parents.威廉姆斯说,2013年的统计数据表明,未婚妈妈家庭中有46%的儿童生活在贫困中,而正常的婚姻家庭中只有11%的儿童生活贫困。这样看来,政府对婚姻促成(marriage promotion)政策热衷的原因并不难理解。Marriage promotion became an official U.S. policy in 1996 when Congress passed welfare reform legislation that allowed states to spend welfare funds on a range of efforts to get single mothers to marry. It has continued, with some modifications, to this day.1996年,国会通过福利改革法案,允许各州花费社会福利,以致力于推动未婚妈妈结婚。此后,婚姻促成政策正式成为美国的一项政策。该政策几经修订,延续至今。“But the flaw in this approach is the assumption that all marriages are equally beneficial,” Williams said.威廉姆斯说:“但是,该政策的缺陷在于,它想当然地认为所有结婚的未婚妈妈都能脱贫。”In fact, research shows that single mothers living in impoverished neighborhoods are likely to marry men who won’t help them get out of poverty.实际上,研究表明,居住在贫民区的未婚妈妈很可能嫁得不好,她们的丈夫帮不了她们脱贫。These men are likely to have children from other partnerships, lack a high school diploma, and have been incarcerated or have substance abuse problems, Williams noted.威廉姆斯注意到,未婚妈妈们嫁的这些男人本身就问题多多,情况很可能是这样的:他们有的与前女友或者前妻生育的有孩子,有的没有高中毕业,有的进过监狱,还有的吸毒。“Single mothers who marry and later divorce are worse off economically than single mothers who never marry,” she said.她说:“那些结过婚又离婚的未婚妈妈的经济状况比从未结婚的未婚妈妈的经济状况要糟得多。”Promoting marriage among single mothers may not help their children, either. Recent research by Williams and several colleagues found no physical or psychological advantages for the majority of teenagers born to a single mother who later married.未婚妈妈的结婚推广政策对孩子的成长而言也没有多大帮助。威廉姆斯和几位同事最近进行的研究表明,对于大多数出生在未婚妈妈家庭的青少年来说,母亲后来结婚这件事,没有对他们身心成长大有裨益。Rather than promoting marriage, the government should focus on preventing unintended births, Williams said. She found in one study that having a child outside of marriage is associated with negative mental health outcomes among African-American women only when the birth was unexpected.威廉姆斯在一项研究中发现,非裔美国女性的心理健康程度与是否生育非婚生子女息息相关。只有当意外生育发生时,非裔美国女性才会产生心理健康问题。她表示,政府应该去关注如何控制意外生育,而不是关注如何促成未婚妈妈的婚姻。 /201401/272272;Sometimes your joy is the source of your smile, but sometimes your smile can be the source of your joy.; -- Thich Nhat Hahn有时候你笑起来是因为你高兴,有时候你笑着笑着就高兴起来了。——一行禅师We often tend to associate smiling as the result of a positive event or mood. But research demonstrates that the act of smiling, in and of itself, can be the catalyst for joy. Wonderful things, ranging from an improved mood to a better relationship, can be the result of the simple act of smiling. Even better, it is a tool that is free, easy and always available. So turn the corners of your mouth upwards and on about five scientifically backed reasons why you should smile (a lot) more. Hopefully, by the time you#39;re done you#39;ll have learned something new and will be in a better mood!我们通常认为微笑是喜事或喜悦的产物,可研究表明微笑本身也能够催化喜悦的心情。从提升情绪到增进感情,只要微笑就可能发生一切美妙的事情。更棒的是,微笑不要钱也不用教,随时随地就可以笑。现在就扬起嘴角看看微笑的五大好处吧,这可都是有科学依据的,也许看完这篇文章你就会有新的领悟和更好的心情。1) You#39;ll Feel Better, Emotionally and Physically1. 微笑对情绪和身体都有好处Smiling, even when you aren#39;t feeling happy, can help shift your mood. Darwin posited, back in 1872, that making changes in our facial expressions can shift our emotional experience, something he called facial feedback response theory. Psychological research has validated Darwin#39;s assertion that expressions do not just result from moods, but actually influence them. Additionally, research by Tara Kraft and Sarah Pressman at the University of Kansas demonstrated that smiling can alter our stress response by slowing down the heart rate and decreasing perceived levels of stress regardless of whether the person actually feels happy or not. So instead of waiting for something to happen around you to make you happy, take the power into your own hands and smile your way to a better mood.哪怕在你并不开心的时候,微笑也有助于提升情绪。早在1872年,达尔文就提出面部反馈响应理论,假设面部表情的改变也会使情绪体验发生转变。心理学研究实了达尔文的说法,表情不只是被心情决定,反过来也影响心情。另外,堪萨斯大学的克拉夫特和普莱斯曼研究发现,微笑可以减缓心跳速率,降低感压程度,从而改变一个人的应激反应,这与这个人到底开不开心没有什么关系。与其等着周围发生点让你开心的事情,不如靠你自己笑出好心情。2) It May Help You Live Longer2. 笑能延年益寿Smiling more may actually extend your lifespan. Research out of Wayne State University which examined the smiles of baseball players in headshots from the 1952 season found that players with largest smiles lived an average of 79.9 years, two years longer than the average lifespan in the ed States. The players who didn#39;t smile at all in their photos lived an average of 72.9 years, seven years less than those with the biggest grins. Additionally, the research by Kraft and Pressman cited above, indicates that smiling may improve heart health by decreasing heart rate after stressful events. So, adding smiling to your health regime of eating well, getting enough sleep and exercising may just add a few years to your life.微笑能延长你的寿命。韦恩州立大学的一项研究从1952年赛季开始测算棒球运动员头部特写中的笑容,发现笑得最灿烂的那些平均活到了79.9岁,比美国人的平均寿命长了2年。那些拍照时根本不笑的平均活了72.9岁,比笑容灿烂的那些少活了7年。另外,前文引用的克拉夫特和普莱斯曼的研究表明微笑能改善心脏的健康状况,因为微笑能在重压下减缓心率。在吃好睡好做运动的健康体制上再加上微笑,没准还能多活好些年呢。3) You Will Make Someone Else#39;s Day3. 能给别人一天好心情When Mother Teresa said ;Everytime you smile at someone, it is... a gift to that person, a beautiful thing; she was right. One study conducted by Hewlett Packard found that seeing another#39;s smile stimulated the heart and brain more so than eating chocolate, having sex, or receiving money. This was particularly true when viewing the smile of a child. Additionally, research has demonstrated smiling may actually be contagious. Research published in the Scandinavian Journal of Psychology examined mimicry, the tendency to mimic the emotional expressions of those around us, and found that it is actually hard to frown when someone else is smiling.特蕾莎修女曾经说过:“你每次对别人笑都是礼物,是美好的东西。”她是对的。惠普公司进行了一项研究,发现看见别人的微笑对心脏和大脑的刺激胜过吃巧克力、做爱或是收到钱。看到小孩的笑容的时候尤其是这样。另外,研究还发现微笑是会有传染性的。《斯堪的纳维亚心理期刊》上发表了一项研究,检测了人倾向于模仿周围人情感表达的这一特性,发现别人在笑的时候是很难皱起眉头的。4) Your Relationships Will Be Stronger4. 微笑能增进感情People who smile more may have longer and more successful marriages. A 2001 study by Keltner and Harker evaluated women#39;s smiles in yearbook photos and found that those who had more prominent smiles were more satisfied with their marriages at age 52. A similar study published in 2009 found a correlation between smiles in photographs and divorce rates. The larger the smile, the less likely divorce was later in life. Conversely, those with the smallest smiles or no smiles, were five times more likely to be divorced. So what does the smile have to do with marriage? People who smile more tend to be more optimistic, joyful and emotionally stable which lends itself to healthier relationships.爱笑的人的婚姻通常更长久,更成功。2001年,凯尔特纳和哈克在一项研究中评估了年鉴照片中女性的笑容,他们发现笑容比较灿烂的妇女在52岁时对婚姻更满意。2009年有一项类似研究发现照片中的笑容和离婚率有相关性。笑得越是灿烂,日后离婚的可能性就越小,相反,那些笑意浅淡或是根本不笑的,离婚的可能性有五倍那么高。所以微笑和婚姻有什么关系呢?爱笑的人更乐观,快乐,有着稳定的有利于健康的积极情绪。5) Give a Boost to How Others Perceive You5. 让别人对你印象更好People who smile more are generally perceived to be more trustworthy, sincere, sociable and competent than their frowning peers. Additionally, a study by Orbit Complete found that 70 percent of people find women more attractive when they are smiling than when they are wearing makeup.人们通常觉得爱笑的人比爱皱眉头的同事更可靠,真诚,善交际且有竞争力。另外,“Orbit Complete”做过一项研究,发现70%的人觉得女性笑起来的时候比化了妆更有魅力。 /201405/302131

Throughout much of history, the English language has borrowed words from other languages to become the intermixed language that we know today. Yet in recent times it has become more of a lender than a borrower, says Philip Durkin, deputy chief editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, in an article for the B website.纵览历史,英语借用了很多舶来词,演变成了今天我们所熟悉的“大杂烩”语言。然而,《牛津英语大辞典》副主编菲利普?杜尔金在一篇发表在B网站上的文章中表示,近些年来,英语已经由“舶来”转成“输出”。English is actually a mixture of other languages that has evolved over time based on contact with other cultures. Linguists refer to English as a chain of borrowings that was the result of conquests by foreign invaders. Its adoption of words from so many different languages, known as loanwords, has resulted in it being one of most diverse languages on the planet.通过文化交流,英语逐步演变成一种融合了其他语言的大杂烩。语言学家认为,这一连串的舶来行为的原因在于外来者的侵占。英语吸收了各种不同语言的词汇,这些词汇通常被称为“舶来语”,这也使得英语成为世界上最多样化的语言之一。From about 450 AD until the 11th century, various foreigners invaded England, bringing their language with them. Britain adapted its language with each invasion, mixing words to create a blended version of many different languages. The most influential languages were: West Germanic after the invasion in 700 AD; Old Norse from the Scandinavian Viking invaders in the 8th and 9th centuries; and most importantly, French and Latin through the Norman Conquest of England in 1066.从公元450年左右到11世纪,英格兰遭遇了不同外来侵略者的入侵,这些侵略者将本国语言带到了这里。英国吸收了每一个侵略国的语言,将他们的语言与英语混合,创造出了一种多语言融合体。其中,对英语影响最深的语言包括:公元700年入侵者带来的西日耳曼语;8、9世纪斯堪的纳维亚入侵者带来的古挪威语;以及1066年诺曼底征英格兰时所带来的法语和拉丁语。Professor and author Anatoly Liberman describes loanwords as “a result of language contact in a certain place at a certain time”. For example, English started adopting Asian words (such as “jungle” and “yoga”) during the period of colonialism, when it had increased contact with this region.教授兼作家安托里?李伯曼将舶来语描述为“在特定时间、特定地点,因语言交流而产生的结果”。例如:在殖民统治时期,随着英国与亚洲之间的交流日益频繁,英语中融入了许多亚洲词汇(如“丛林”、“瑜伽”)。The continued prevalence of borrowing words across languages demonstrates the close connections different cultures have with one another in our globalized world. The rise of global media, particularly online, and enhanced international communication has led to a greater need for a common language.舶来语的经久不衰说明了在全球化背景下,不同文化之间交流的紧密。全球化传媒,尤其是网络媒体的崛起,以及国际交流的日益加深,提升了人们对通用语言的需求。In their recent book, Globally Speaking: Motives for Adopting English Vocabulary in Other Languages, Judith Rosenhouse and Rotem Kowner hail English as “the lingua franca of the modern world, the common language used for science, international business and for communication”. They report that English is the official language of more than 75 states and territories across the globe and it is the world’s most popular choice of second language.在新书《全球视角:其他语言使用英语舶来词的动机》中,朱迪斯?罗森豪斯和洛特姆?科内尔称英语为“现代世界的通用语,是科学研究、国际商务及交流方面的通用语言”。他们表示,全球超过75个国家和地区将英语作为官方语言;英语是全球最受欢迎的第二语言。The ascendancy of English as a global language has drastically increased the number of words it now lends to other languages. Whether it is a French news reporter using the words “kidnapping” or “leader”; the development of the Chinese word kafei from the English word coffee; or the near widesp use of “Internet”, “computer”, and “meeting” in most parts of the world — it is easy to see the drastic influence English now has on other languages.英语凭借其世界语言的优势,大大增加了向其他语言输出词汇的数量。无论是法国新闻报道中所使用的“kidnapping(绑架)”或“leader(领导)”,还是汉语中从英文“coffee”音译过来的“咖啡”一词,亦或是在全球多数地方普遍使用的“Internet(网络)”、“computer(电脑)”和“meeting(会议)”,英语对其他语言的巨大影响显而易见。In contrast, says Durkin, the number of new borrowed words finding their way into the shared international vocabulary is on a long downward trend. Although English is now borrowing from other languages with a worldwide range, new borrowings into English today tend to cluster much more closely in a few subject areas, especially names of food and drink.杜尔金表示,相比之下,英语中,称得上“国际通用”的舶来词数量却一直呈递减趋势。尽管英语现在仍然大范围地吸收外来语言,但是这些新舶来词往往更集中在少数几个特定的领域,尤以食物和饮料的名字最为明显。Unique vocabulary专有词汇Here are a few examples of untranslatable words from other cultures:以下列举了一些源自不同文化的不可译词:Waldeinsamkeit (German)Waldeinsamkeit(德语)A feeling of solitude, being alone in the woods, and a connectedness to nature. US poet Ralph Waldo Emerson even wrote a whole poem about it.词汇含义:这个词语描绘了一种感觉,一种孤独的感觉,一种独处在树林中并且和大自然产生沟通和共鸣的感觉。美国诗人拉尔夫?瓦尔多?爱默生甚至还写了一首诗来解释这种感觉。Pochemuchka (Russian)Pochemuchka(俄语)Someone who asks a lot of questions. We all know a few people like that.词汇含义:指那些问很多问题的人,准确地说,是那些问了太多问题的人。我们身边都会有一些这样的人。Sobremesa (Spanish)Sobremesa (西班牙语)Spaniards are laid-back and sociable, and this word describes the period of time after a meal when you have food-induced conversations with the people you have shared the meal with.词汇含义:西班牙人悠闲自在、善于交际。这个词语描述的是一段时间。这段时间里,你要与刚刚一起吃完饭的朋友就刚刚吃过的食物展开热烈的讨论。Mangata (Swedish)Mangata(瑞典语)It means the glimmering, road-like reflection that the moon creates on water.词汇含义:这个词指的是月亮倒映在水面上闪闪发光,宛若小路一样的倒影。Depaysement (French)Depaysement(法语)The feeling that comes from not being in one’s home country — of being a foreigner, or an immigrant, of being somewhat displaced from your origin.词汇含义:身处异国他乡的感觉,适用于外国人、移民者以及那些从故乡迁徙的人。 /201404/289920U.S. government data reveals that up to 44% of the U.S. workforce single -- and it may be because of work. Here are four reasons why your job might be keeping you single and what to do about it.美国政府公布的数据显示有接近44%的职场人士是单身,而单身的原因很有可能是工作。以下列举了工作可能造成单身的四点原因以及应对措施:1. ;I don#39;t have time to date.;我没时间去约会。Many people who are single say their jobs don#39;t leave them with enough time to meet Mr. or Mrs. Right. You may have made a conscious decision to make career your No. 1 priority. Or it may be that pursuing your dream job is easier than pursuing your dream partner. Whatever the reason, dedicating too much of your time and energy to your career will cause your dating life to flounder.很多单身的人都说自己的工作忙得没有足够的时间去认识真命天子(天女)。你可能下意识的将工作当成第一优先事项。也可能是因为找到梦想中的工作比找到梦中情人更容易。不管理由如何,如果你在工作中花费太多的时间和精力的话,就会使得你的约会生活毫无进展。Solution: Make dating your work. Approach your social life with the same determination and commitment you apply to your career. You wouldn#39;t expect to get ahead at work if you didn#39;t put in the time. Make an investment in your coupled future by setting dating goals, like committing a certain number of hours a week to dating.解决之道:将约会当成工作。将你在工作中的决心和果断同样应用到你的社交生活中。在工作中如果不花时间的话就无法取得进步。设立约会的目标(比如每周哪些固定的时间去约会),为未来的二人世界投资。2. ;My boss knows I#39;m single and singles me out.;上司因为知道我单身给了我很多工作任务,搞得我一直单身。Singles are often expected to work late, travel for business, and take on last minute assignments because they don#39;t have ;family commitments.; For example, Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell stated last year that the choice of Janet Napolitano as Homeland Security Secretary was an excellentone because she has ;no family and no life; and could devote 19-20 hours a day to the job.上司通常会因为单身的员工没有家庭负担,而期望他们工作到更晚、出差、承担最后一分钟的任务。比如,宾夕法尼亚州的州长Ed Rendell声称,Janet Napolitano作为国家安全部长是一个非常明智的选择,因为她没有家庭生活,每天可以工作19-20小时。Solution: Value your dating commitments. If your boss asks you to work late, you don#39;t always have to say ;yes.; Saying that you aly have plans is an acceptable excuse. It#39;s great to be able to put in the hours to get ahead at work, but make sure that you#39;re not allowing work to get in the way of your other life goals.解决之道:重视约会承诺。如果上司叫你加班,你不必每次都答应。告诉上司你已经有安排了,这个是很正当的拒绝理由。在工作中投入更多的时间让自己遥遥领先固然好,但是要确保你没有让工作挡住了你实现生活目标的道路。3. ;Everyone I know is taken/married/coupled up.;我认识的每个人都名花有主/结婚了。While this may not seem to be a job-related issue, it could be. Statistics show that nearly half of all married couples met at work. So you#39;re at a disadvantage if your work doesn#39;t provide you with opportunities to meet and hang out with other singles.这点看起来和工作无关,但实际上是有关系的。数据显示差不多有一半以上的结婚夫妇是在工作上认识的。所以,如果工作让你无法认识其他单身人士,更没办法和他们约会的话,你就处于不利的地位。Solution: Create your own dating pool. Branch out and try different approaches to meeting other singles. Join a local group/club, attend a different restaurant/bar, or join 40 million Americans using online dating and social networking sites to meet available singles.解决之道:建立自己的交际圈。拓展你的交际圈,试试用不同的方法去认识其他单身人士。加入一家当地的团体或俱乐部,去不同的餐馆/酒吧,或利用在线约会或网上的社交网站去认识不错的单身人士。Going back to school can help you advance your career and give you a chance to interact with like-minded people. Use the free education-decision test to find out if going back to school is the right move for you.重回学校深造不仅可以帮助你事业取得进步,也可以让你有机会结识志同道合的人。利用免费的教育决策测试来看看你是否适合重返学校深造。Unfortunately, some jobs come with certain stereotypes that can make a prospective date run for the hills. For example, being a lawyer or therapist could make you a dating pariah because nobody#39;s idea of a good date is to argue or be psychoanalyzed!很不幸,有些刻板的工作让约会离你远远的。比如,律师或临床医学家的工作可能让你和约会无缘,因为没人会认为好的约会是辩论或被进行精神治疗。Solution: Be yourself, not your job. If you have a job with a poor career dating profile, don#39;t reinforce these prejudgments. Be aware of the stereotypes that go along with your job title and avoid discussing work-related topics until you and your date have a better understanding of each other.解决之道:做你自己,而不是你的工作。如果你本来的工作就会给别人一种不适合约会的形象,那自己就不要再增加这一负面影响了。要注意你工作职位中的那些陈腔滥调,直到你和约会对象有更好的了解之前不要谈和工作相关的事情。 /201403/281245

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