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2019年10月20日 01:32:22 | 作者:问医频道 | 来源:新华社
A shift in Beijing’s priorities away from production targets has allowed Chinese oil companies to halt output in maturing oilfields, a previously politically unpalatable decision that leaves them better placed for an eventual recovery in oil prices.北京方面降低对产量指标的注重,使中国石油企业得以停止开采成熟油田。这个以往在政治上行不通的决定将使它们处于更有利的地位,以迎接油价的最终复苏。International majors routinely scale back production from high-cost fields when oil prices fall, but in China, for decades, the government mandate has been to increase domestic supply and ensure energy security.大型国际石油企业经常在油价下跌时缩减高成本油田的产量,但在中国,几十年来政府下达的任务是增加国内供应,确保能源安全。In years past, they were under pressure to produce higher numbers every year, even if they were producing uneconomically. 往年它们承受逐年提高产量的压力,即使这种生产在经济上不划算也在所不惜。Now that pressure is gone, said Laban Yu, head of Asian energy research with Jefferies.现在这种压力消失了,杰富瑞(Jefferies)亚洲能源研究主管Laban Yu表示。In the past week both PetroChina and Sinopec reported declines in oil production for the first half of the year. 过去一周,中石油(PetroChina)和中石化(Sinopec)都报告今年上半年石油产量下降。Sinopec said domestic crude oil output fell 13 per cent versus a 3 per cent drop in its overseas operations, while PetroChina reported a 4 per cent decline in domestic production.中石化表示,国内原油产量下降了13%,而海外产量下降了3%,而中石油报告国内产量下降4%。Both managed to turn a profit in the first half, though PetroChina just barely remained in the black, reporting a 98 per cent plunge in first-half net profit to Rmb531m (m) while revenue fell 16 per cent to Rmb739bn. 两家公司在上半年都实现盈利。尽管中石油勉强保持盈利,上半年净利润暴跌98%,至5.31亿元人民币(合7900万美元),而营收下降16%,至7390亿元人民币。Sinopec, whose refining arm benefits more from low crude prices, said net profit declined 22 per cent to Rmb20bn as revenues fell 37 per cent to Rmb880bn. 中石化——其炼油部门从低油价中获得更多好处——报告净利润下降22%,至200亿元人民币,营收下降37%,至8800亿元人民币。China’s third oil major Cnooc, which had told analysts it would likely cut output by as much as 5 per cent this year, said oil and gas production crept up by less than 1 per cent in the first half and is expected to see crude output fall in the second half of the year. 中国第三家大型石油企业中海油(CNOOC)此前告诉分析师,今年很可能减产高达5%。该公司现在表示,上半年石油和天然气产量微升不到1%,预计今年下半年原油产量将会下降。The company lost Rmb7.74bn in the first half, reversing from a profit of Rmb14.73bn a year ago.该公司在上半年亏损77.4亿元人民币,去年同期实现147.3亿元人民币利润。In the first seven months of the year, Chinese crude oil output dropped 5 per cent compared with the same period of 2015, with production in July falling to levels last seen in late 2011.今年头七个月,中国原油产量同比下降了5%,7月份产量降至2011年末以来未见的水平。That comes as refinery expansions and relaxed regulations on independent teapot refineries importing crude oil has turned China into a net exporter of oil products, easing Beijing’s fears of an oil supply shortage.与此同时,炼油设施扩建和对以进口原油为原料的独立茶壶炼油厂放松监管,使中国成为一个成品油净出口国,也缓解了北京方面对于石油供应短缺的担忧。The language from Sasac has changed, said Thomas Hilboldt, head of energy research for Asia at HS, referring to the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, which is in charge of state-owned companies. 国资委的措辞发生了变化,汇丰(HS)亚洲能源研究主管托马斯#8226;希尔伯特(Thomas Hilboldt)表示。他指的是负责国有企业的国务院国有资产监督管理委员会(SASAC)。The top-down guidance is no longer targeting production thresholds but supply thresholds. 自上而下的指导不再瞄准产量门槛,而是瞄准供应门槛。In simple terms, if all-in oil production costs are to a barrel to get oil out of the ground, and it can be purchased in the marketplace for , then you should just buy crude for , he said简单来说,如果开采石油的全部成本是每桶50美元至60美元,而在市场上用25美元就可以买到,那么你就应该以25美元的价格买入原油,他说。That marks a sea change for China, where increasing production year after year was the top political priority regardless of the cost. 这对中国是一个巨大变化;在中国,逐年提高产量而不计成本曾是最高政治任务。Low oil prices and a supply glut have given oil companies the mandate to shut maturing fields and reduce workforces, even in northeastern provinces and the coal heartland where unemployment is aly a big problem.低油价和供应过剩使石油企业获得了在成熟油田停产和减少劳动力的授权,即便在失业已经是一大问题的东北省份和煤炭腹地也是如此。It’s not likely that the oil companies would close down oilfields on a large scale, but certainly they would use the chance to close down those old oilfields that produce little but cost a lot to operate, said Zhu Chunkai, oil analyst at Chem99.com.石油企业不太可能大规模关闭油田,但可以肯定它们会利用这个机会关闭那些产量很小、但作业成本很高的老油田,卓创资讯(Chem99.com)石油分析师朱春凯表示。Cuts in high-cost production beginning in 2015 helped PetroChina and Sinopec stay profitable, said Mr Yu of Jefferies, adding there was a lot of fat to cut.杰富瑞的Laban Yu表示,2015年启动的削减高成本生产的努力帮助中石油和中石化保持盈利。他补充说,有大量脂肪可以切除。 /201609/464147

If you think skydiving is scary, try doing it from twice the usual height and without a parachute. After two minutes of free-fall, you must position yourself to land on a net less than half the size of a football field, sp out 200 feet above the earth.如果你觉得跳伞很恐怖的话,试想一下,从一般跳伞的两倍高度进行这项活动并且不带降落伞又会如何。在自由下坠两分钟后,你得把自己定位好,以便落到从地面架高200英尺(约合61米)的网子上,它的面积不到半个足球场大。On Saturday, Luke Aikins took that challenge. He was the first person ever to attempt a skydive with neither a parachute nor a wingsuit — and, in a feat broadcast live on Fox, the first ever to complete one.卢克#8231;艾金斯(Luke Aikins)在上周六接受了这项挑战。当天在福斯电视网(Fox)现场直播中,他成为史上首位尝试不带降落伞或穿滑翔衣跳伞并获得成功的人。Mr. Aikins began his dive at an altitude of 25,000 feet, just 4,000 feet short of the summit of Mount Everest. Viewers watched him plummet, legs and arms sp, stomach down. Around 18,000 feet, he removed his oxygen mask and passed it to one of the three parachuted assistants diving with him. He aimed for the center of the net, guided by GPS and lights. Seconds before impact, he flipped onto his back and landed safely in the California desert.艾金斯是从2万5千英尺(7620米)高处往下跳的,只比珠穆朗玛峰(Mount Everest)峰顶低了4千英尺(1219米)。观众看着艾金斯下坠,他的四肢张开、腹部朝下。高度达到约1万8千英尺(5486米)的时候,他取下氧气面罩,递给穿戴降落伞陪他一同行动的三名助手之一。在GPS装置与光线信号的引导下,他瞄准了安全网中心点。撞上安全网几秒前,他翻身让背部朝下,最终在加利福尼亚的沙漠里安全降落。He lay cocooned in the net for a few moments, hands over his face. Then he clambered out, into the arms of his wife, Monica, with whom he has a 4-year-old son.艾金斯被裹在安全网里躺了一阵子,双手掩面。 然后他爬了出来,投入妻子莫妮卡(Monica)的怀抱里;他们育有一个4岁儿子。“We did and cannot thank everyone enough for the support,” Mr. Aikins wrote on Facebook shortly after the jump. “My vision was always proper preparation and that if you train right you can make anything happen. Thank you!!!!”“我们不知道该如何感谢大家的持才好,”艾金斯在完成跳伞不久后在Facebook上写道。“我认为永远都要妥善准备,而且只要训练得当,任何事都有可能成功。谢谢你们!!!!”The stunt, planned for two years, almost did not happen. At first, Mr. Aikins, 42, who has skydived 18,000 times since he was 12 years old, felt the idea was a bit much even for him.这次特技跳伞已经准备了两年时间,计划还几乎泡汤。42岁的艾金斯从12岁就开始跳伞,有18000次跳伞纪录。起初,他觉得这个想法就算对他来说都有些太过火了。“Like any normal, sane person, I said: ‘Thank you, but no thank you. I have a wife and a son, and I’ve got a life to live,’” he told People magazine. “Then, two weeks went by and I kept waking up in the middle of the night thinking, ‘If somebody said you had to do this, how could it be done?’”“就像任何一个神智正常的普通人一样,我说:‘谢谢你的提议,不过还是免了吧。我家有妻小,还想继续过我的人生。’” 艾金斯告诉《人物》杂志(People)。“接下来两周时间里,我老是在半夜醒来,想着:‘如果有人说你非这么做不可,又该怎么去完成它呢?’”Then, just two days ago, S-Aftra, the screen actors’ union, issued a “do not work” order barring its members from taking part in the production unless Mr. Aikins agreed to wear a parachute — something that, Mr. Aikins said in the live broadcast, would actually make the jump more dangerous by adding weight to his body, thus increasing the force of the impact.然后,在仅仅两天前,美国演员工会及美国电视与广播演员联合会(S-Aftra)发出了“禁演令”,要求会员不得参与制作这项计划,除非艾金斯同意带降落伞。艾金斯则在现场直播中表示,降落伞其实会让这次跳伞更危险,因为这会增加他的重量,从而加强撞击力道。As Mr. Aikins’s plane approached the start point of his dive, 25,000 feet above Simi Valley, Calif., he strapped on the parachute but told viewers he would not open it. At the last minute, the union dropped its objection, and Mr. Aikins removed the parachute before jumping from the plane.艾金斯搭乘的飞机飞到近加州西米谷(Simi Valley)上方、2万5千英尺(7620米)高的起跳点的时候,他还是系上了降落伞装备,同时告诉观众他不会打开它。不过S-Aftra工会在最后一刻解除了禁令,于是艾金斯在跳出机身前脱下了降落伞。Mr. Aikins’s publicist, Peter Moran, did not respond to an emailed request for an interview with his client on Saturday evening. But speaking to reporters at the scene, Mr. Aikins was euphoric.艾金斯的公关人员彼得#8231;莫兰(Peter Moran)未回应本报在周六傍晚用电邮发出的访问请求,不过艾金斯在现场接受记者采访的时候显得神采飞扬。“I’m almost levitating — it’s incredible, this thing that just happened,” he told reporters after climbing out of the net, according to E! Online. “The words I want to say, I can’t even get out of my mouth.” “我几乎都要浮起来了── 刚刚发生的事情令人难以置信。”根据E! Online网站的报道,艾金斯爬出安全网后这么告诉记者。“我简直不知道该说什么才好。” /201608/458136

Hospitals in China#39;s biggest cities are reporting an increase in women choosing natural childbirth, reversing a decadeslong trend during the one-child policy in which cesarean sections were favored.近日,我国大城市的医院报告指出,选择自然分娩的女性数量正在增加,扭转了计划生育实施数十年来,剖腹产手术更受青睐的趋势。China#39;s C-section rate is the highest in the world, with cesarean sections used in 47 percent of all births in 2013. The World Health Organization#39;s recommended rate is less than 15 percent.中国的剖腹产率在全世界范围内是最高的,2013年使用剖腹产生育的比例达到了47%。世界卫生组织规定的剖腹产率不应超过15%。Limited to one child, especially in urban areas, women sought C-sections for their convenience and reduced risk to newborns, even though recovery times increased for mothers and surgery presented its own dangers. However, since the second-child policy started in January, women have been considering the risks associated with C-sections more carefully.受限于只能生一个孩子,尤其是城市中的女性因寻求方便及降低风险而选择剖腹产。即使这样做会增加产妇的恢复时间及手术带来的危险。不过自今年1月二孩政策落地以来,女性对剖腹产相关的风险考虑得更为谨慎,剖腹产数量也有所下降。The government introduced new exceptions to the one-child policy in late 2013, although they varied from region to region. Since Jan 1, all couples have been allowed to have a second child, and the number of cesarean sections has dropped.我国政府已经于2013年底实施新的单独二孩政策,尽管全国各地有所不同。从今年1月1日起,所有的夫妇都可以生养二胎,剖宫产的数量已经有所下降。At Sun Yat-sen University#39;s First Affiliated Hospital in Guangzhou, the C-section rate dropped to about 40% during the first 3 months of the year, a reduction of 10% from last year.今年前3个月,广州市中山大学附属第一医院的剖腹产率降至约40%,同比下降了10%。At Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, one of the country#39;s major maternity hospitals, the C-section rate also dropped to about 40 percent last year. A decade ago, the rate was 70 percent.去年,我国著名的产科医院上海市第一妇婴保健院的剖腹产率降至约40%。十年前,这一比率为70%。In Beijing, the C-section rate dropped slightly, from 46.4 percent in 2013 to 46.2 percent in 2014, according to the Beijing Health and Family Planning Commission.据北京市卫生计生委的数据显示,在北京,剖腹产率略有下降,从2013年的46.4%下降到2014年的46.2%。 /201604/437632

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