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Entrepreneurs Bring Change to World欧美企业家不断创业创新社会受益  Traditionally, entrepreneurs bring innovation and change to the world in their quest to find new ways to turn a profit. Today, modern technology, looser government controls and better access to capital make it even easier for entrepreneurs to succeed.  过去一个世纪里,欧美企业家不断崛起,给西方世界带来创新和改变。如今,更加宽松的政府控制,快速的因特网联结,还有更畅通的资金渠道,帮助许多开发中国家以及前苏联集团的企业家把产品送到市场。The original French word entrepreneur refers to someone who undertakes, who does something. Entrepreneurs assume business risk or bring a new product, service or idea to market. 英文“企业家”这个字,原起于法文,意思是放手去做事的人。企业家要承受生意上的风险,或者把新产品带进市场。Their innovations sometimes change the world. Henry Ford did not invent the automobile, but his assembly line revolutionized manufacturing and made cars affordable for the average worker. 企业家的创新有时可以改变整个世界。亨利.福特并没有发明汽车,但是他的汽车组装线革新了汽车制造业,也让一般人买得起汽车。Bill Gates is perhaps the world's best known entrepreneur. He did not invent personal computers, but his operating system made them easy to use and brought the new technology to millions.  比尔.盖茨可能是全世界最知名的企业家。他并没有发明个人电脑,但是他的电脑操作系统让使用电脑更容易,让几乎所有人都能使用电脑。Journalism professor Wendell Cochran of American University says the Internet, with its capacity to instantaneously convey information around the world, is an extraordinary platform for entrepreneurs. 美利坚大学新闻系教授柯克伦认为,因特网即时将信息传送给任何角落任何人的能力,提供企业家一个绝佳的平台。"Google became a verb almost 24 hours after it became a thing," said Cochran. "So, [the Internet] is incredibly entrepreneurial." 他说:“谷歌从网站名字很快就成为一个代表搜寻的动词,所以,因特网的创造力真是令人难以置信。”Thirteen years ago, San Francisco entrepreneur Craig Newmark created an online bulletin board for the brokerage firm where he worked. Today his Craig's List is a free alternative to the classified ads that have been a major source of earnings for newspapers. 13年前,旧金山企业家克雷格.纽马克为他务的代理公司创立一个网络布告栏。今天他所创办的克雷格清单网站已经取代报纸,成为一个大型的免费分类广告网。分类广告一直是各大报纸的主要收入来源。"Right now we're in about 55 countries, 567 cities across the world," explained Newmark. Some analysts say Craig's List is having the same effect on newspapers that Ford's car had on the horse and wagon.  他说:“现在我们已经扩展到世界55个国家,在567个城市提供务。” 一些分析人士说,克雷格清单对报纸的影响,就如同福特汽车取代马和马车一样。Since the collapse of communism, entrepreneurs have taken off in places where they were once forbidden, including Russia. Yana Yakovleva is the financial director of a Moscow company that manufactures silicone.  在俄罗斯,自从共产主义瓦解,过去被禁止的企业家就如同雨后春笋一般冒出。亚科夫列娃是莫斯科一家专门生产硅胶的公司的财务经理。Despite new freedoms, she says, government bureaucracy still makes it hard to be an entrepreneur. "A bureaucrat scores a point for each court case he initiates or for every company he closes, and this improves his job performance evaluation," she noted.  她说政府的官僚体系仍然让企业家面临重重困难:“政府官员只要起诉一家企业或关闭一家公司,就能得到工作积分,能改善他们自己的工作表现评估。”In Venezuela, currency exchange controls and a leadership hostile to free markets make it difficult to do business. Caracas food distributor Santiago Alvarez complains that government bureaucrats are unhelpful. 在委内瑞拉,外汇控制以及政府领导层对自由市场的仇视,也让做生意极度困难。卡拉卡司的食品配送商阿尔瓦雷斯抱怨,政府官僚体制添了更多麻烦。"Getting all the permits to start a business is a real challenge," explained Alvarez. "You have to face tremendous amounts of bureaucracy from a lot of different entities, in order to get permits and to get financing." “要得到所有许可成立一家公司真是很大的挑战,你要面对许多不同机关的官僚,才能得到许可,得到财务帮助。”But, as always, entrepreneurs are highly motivated and frequently prevail against the odds. They raise funds by borrowing from relatives, tapping into village cooperatives or, getting loans from a bank. And they learn how to cope with onerous bureaucracy to bring their ideas to the marketplace. 但是,企业家总是能够保持高度动力,突破困境,他们通过向亲戚借钱,加入村落合作社,或者从贷款来得到资金,其中一些人还上课学习企业相关课程。200807/44422

Bush Calls for Action on Economic Challenges布什吁国会采取行动振兴经济 President George Bush says the ed States faces difficult economic times - a situation made worse by congressional inaction. 美国总统布什星期二在白宫举行的记者会上说,美国正面临经济困难时期,而国会缺乏行动则使目前的经济困难进一步恶化。President Bush says he does not know whether America's sagging economic performance meets the technical definition of a recession. But he says, without a doubt, conditions are "tough" for Americans struggling with high energy prices, soaring food costs, a plummeting housing market and tight credit."Across our country, many Americans are understandably anxious about issues affecting their pocketbook: from gas and food prices to mortgage and tuition bills," Mr. Bush said.  布什总统说,他不知道美国经济疲软是否满足了经济衰退的严格定义。但是他表示,毫无疑问,目前的状况对于美国人来说确实难以招架,因为他们正面对能源价格暴涨、食品价格飙升、房屋市场狂跌和信贷市场紧缩的局面而苦苦挣扎。布什总统说:“在全国各地,很多美国人都对影响他们钱包的问题忧心忡忡:从汽油和食品价格,到房屋按揭和学杂费,不一而足。”Speaking in the White House Rose Garden, Mr. Bush said his administration has made a series of proposals to shield the American people from the worst effects of the economic turndown and to address long-term energy needs. But, he said Congress has refused to act on the proposals from extending tax cuts to expanding America's oil refinery capacity. 布什总统是在白宫玫瑰园向记者发表这番讲话的。他说,他领导的政府提出了一系列建议来保护美国人民,防止他们受到经济下滑的最恶劣的影响,解决他们长期的能源需求问题,比如,延长减税期限和扩大美国炼油厂的生产能力,然而国会却拒绝就这些建议采取行动。He was particularly critical of congressional resistance to authorizing oil exploration in a national wildlife refuge in Alaska, known as ANWAR. 他特别批评国会反对授权在阿拉斯加州的一个国家野生动植物保护区勘探石油。"Members of Congress have been vocal about foreign governments increasing their oil production, yet Congress has been just as vocal in opposition to efforts to expand our production here at home," Mr. Bush said. "They have repeatedly blocked environmentally safe exploration in ANWAR. The Department of Energy estimates that ANWAR could allow America to produce about a million additional barrels of oil every day."  布什说:“国会议员们口口声声地要求外国政府增加他们的石油产量,可是同时却又口口声声地反对在我们国内扩大石油生产。他们再三阻挠在阿拉斯加州的国家野生动植物保护区勘探石油,尽管这种勘探从环保角度来看是安全的。能源部估计,如果在阿拉斯加州的国家野生动植物保护区勘探石油,那将给美国每天增加大约一百万桶的石油。”Mr. Bush urged congressional leaders of both parties to work together and take concrete steps to address America's economic and energy needs. 布什总统敦促国会民主-共和两党的领导人相互合作,采取具体步骤,满足美国的经济和能源需求。His comments provoked a swift response from congressional Democrats, who control both legislative houses. New York Senator Charles Schumer says the president is out of touch with the American people, and late in leading the charge for action on the economy. 然而布什总统的这番话立即遭到国会民主党人的反驳。美国国会参众两院目前都在民主党的控制之下。来自纽约州的民主党参议员查尔斯.舒默说,布什总统完全脱离了美国人民,尤其是在振兴经济方面行动迟缓。"The president and the White House have repeatedly ignored repeated shots across the bow of our economy: rising foreclosures, falling home prices, withering consumer confidence, and record oil company profits," Schumer said. "None of them are being addressed." 舒默说:“总统和白宫一再忽视我国经济反复发出的信号:丧失抵押住房赎回权的人数增加,房屋价格大幅度下滑,消费者信心日益低落,石油公司的利润破记录地上升。这些问题全都没有得到处理。”On Alaskan oil drilling, Mr. Schumer said it would take years before new crude started flowing, and that the oil generated would have a negligible affect on gasoline prices. 在阿拉斯加的石油勘探问题上,舒默参议员说,新的油田投产需要很多年的时间,而那里生产的石油对于汽油价格的影响将是微乎其微的。The back-and-forth between the White House and Capitol Hill on economic matters came amid a mixed batch of U.S. financial indicators. U.S. consumer confidence now stands at a five-year low, a sign that consumer spending may slow in the months to come. Another report shows U.S. housing prices dropped in February at the fastest rate ever recorded.  就在白宫和国会就经济问题唇舌剑地相互指责的时候,新出炉的经济数据可以说是有好有坏。美国的消费者信心现在下降到五年来的最低水平,暗示在今后的几个月中,消费者出将会走缓。另外一份报告显示,美国的住房价格在2月份以前所未有的幅度下滑。On a more positive note for American consumers, oil prices receded amid reports of falling domestic demand for fossil fuels. 不过,对于美国消费者来说,也有一个积极的迹象:由于有报告说美国国内对化石燃料的需求有所减少,石油价格开始回落。 200804/37043

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