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来源:120知识    发布时间:2019年11月21日 03:01:44    编辑:admin         

Shopping and Hummingbirds购物和蜂鸟Did you know, Don, that your shopping habits maybe similar to a hummingbirds?东,你知道也许你的购物习惯和蜂鸟的相似吗?Are you going to tell me that hummingbirds are also sold on flash colors and miracle diamonds?你是想告诉我蜂鸟也钟爱又大又亮的钻石吗?No. But it turns out that hummingbirds do make shopping decisions as irrational as those of many humans. You see, supermarkets can get about a third of shoppers to switch from one brand to a second brand by introducing a third brand designed to draw attention to the target brand.不是,事实上,和人类一样,蜂鸟也会非理性购物。你知道,超市会通过介绍第三品牌来将大约1/3顾客对一种品牌的关注转移到其它目标品牌。Wait! So when this decoy brand shows up on the shelf, suddenly shoppers find themselves more attracted to a brand they had previouslyignored.等等!所以 “诱饵”品牌上架了,也许顾客以前忽视某个目标品牌,会变得更关注该品牌。You got it, and while scientists arent surprised that humans shop irrationally, they are surprised to find that hummingbirds shop similarly. Hummingbirds require a lot of energy, and on top of eating quite frequently they prefer flowers containing either sweeter or larger volumes of nectar because they provide more energy. But that didnt stop researchers from luring the birds toward less choice flowers. Similar to the supermarket strategy, a fake flowerbed was set up in order to divert the hummingbirds attention from their flowerbed of choice to a previouslyignored bed of flowers that would provide less energy. And it worked. The birds gave up high nectar concentrations for lower ones, all because of the introduction of more options.就是这样!科学家一点都不惊讶人类的非理性购物,倒是蜂鸟类似的消费习惯让他们大吃一惊。蜂鸟需要补充很多能量,所以在选择食物时,通常会选择花蜜蜜甜多汁的花朵。但是,科学家依然成功地引诱蜂鸟选择平时很少选择的花朵。和超市的策略一样,用假花转移蜂鸟注意力,让蜂鸟选择花床提供更少能量的花朵。蜂鸟果真没有选择花蜜更甜的花朵,反而选择了花蜜更少的,这都归功于多选择性。Seems like a kind of cool trick you asked me.真是骗人的鬼把戏。Not really. This technique could actually prove beneficial in conservation efforts to protect certain species of flowers, making them more attractive to pollinators such as hummingbirds.可别这样说,这种方法有利于保护一些花种,可以帮助它们吸引比如蜂鸟等的传粉者。 /201302/226120。

He did an early drawing.梵高年轻的时候也作了一些画,There is about 12 of his early drawings left, and theres one, of what a strange architectural feature, it looks like a capital of a, of a church, or bank or something,大概留下了12幅。其中有这样一幅画,描绘的是一个奇怪的建筑结构,看起来像是教堂的柱顶,又像是长梗或者是其他什么。and no one really knew where it was, and I certainly didnt know where it was.Then you come here and realize that actually-its a capital, the top of the Town Hall in Zundert across the road.没有人知道它是什么,我当然也不知道。但是当你来到这里后,你就会意识到这是马路对面津德尔特市政厅的屋顶。He must have sat there in his bedroom, looked straight out of the window, and seen this pilaster in front of him.梵高一定曾坐在卧室里向外看,然后看到了这个柱顶。So what it actually is-its the first of the drawings that Vincent did of the view from his bedroom window.因此,这实际上是梵高第一次画卧室外的景色。This funny little pilaster and its a habit that he kept up all his life.多有趣的小柱顶啊!在梵高的一生中他一直保持这个画窗外风景的习惯。Every room he had been staying, he will draw what outside of it, and he began here as everything did.在他居住过的任何房间,他都会画出窗外的景色。这里便是这个习惯开始的地方,也是他人生开始的地方。注:听力文本来源于普特201206/187749。

Science and Technology Monitor Caught in a BEAR hug科技 观察家 落入BEAR怀抱Robotics: A newly designed robot can recover casualties from battlefields, and might also be able to make itself useful to soldiers in other ways机器人技术:一种新型机器人能够从战场上救回伤员,或许还能以其他方式为士兵务KILLING a soldier removes one enemy from the fray. Wounding him removes three: the victim and the two who have to carry him from the battlefield. T杀一名士兵会使冲突中减少一个敌人,而伤一名士兵却会减少三个敌人:伤兵及运送伤兵撤离战场的两名士兵。hat cynical calculation lies behind the design of many weapons that are intended to incapacitate rather than annihilate.许多武器在设计时就运用了这种乖张的算计思维,它们的目的不是消灭敌人而是使敌人丧失作战能力。But robotics may change the equation.不过,机器人技术或许能改变这种格局。The Battlefield Extraction-Assist Robot, or BEAR for short, is, in the words of Gary Gilbert of the ed States Armys Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Centre (TATRC),在美国陆军远程医疗与先进技术研究中心(TATRC)工作的加里?吉尔伯特(Gary Gilbert)说:战场协助撤离机器人(Battlefield Extraction-Assist Robot,简称BEAR)是;a highly agile and powerful mobile robot capable of lifting and carrying a combat casualty from a hazardous area across uneven terrain;.;一种极其敏捷且功能强大的移动式机器人,它能够抱起并运送战场上的伤员,穿越崎岖不平的地带将其带离险境。;When it is not saving lives, it can perform difficult and repetitive tasks, such as loading and unloading ammunition.不在战场上拯救生命时,它还可以执行棘手及重复单调的任务,如装缷弹药。The current prototype BEAR is a small, tracked vehicle with two hydraulic arms and a set of cameras that provide a view of its surroundings to its operator via a wireless link.现在这款BEAR的原型是一种小型的履带车,具有两个液压臂和一组摄像机,可以将其周围环境的图像以无线链接方式传送给它的操作者,It has been developed by TATRC in collaboration with Vecna Technologies, a company based in Maryland that invented the robot.它由TATR与Vecna Technologies公司合作开发,该公司位于马里兰州,首款BEAR就是该公司发明的。Daniel Theobald, BEARs inventor and Vecnas boss, says versatility is at the heart of the robots design.BEAR的发明者兼Vecna老板丹尼尔?西奥尔德(Daniel Theobald)说多功能性是该机器人的设计核心。;It would be completely impractical if you had robots with a sole duty to rescue soldiers, because they would spend most of their time unused,; he says.;如果只让机器人执行拯救士兵这一种任务,那太不实用了,因为它们大部分时间都将处于无用状态,;他说,;The whole idea from the start was to design a general-purpose robot.;;从一开始,整个设计理念就是设计出一种多用途机器人。;The BEARs operator can control the robot in two ways.BEAR的操作者可以通过两种方式控制机器人。One, a joystick, can be embedded into the grip of a rifle and manoeuvred by the soldiers fingertip when he is holding his weapon to his shoulder.一种是操纵杆,它可以嵌入步的把中,当士兵将步扛在肩上时,可以用指尖操纵此操纵杆。The advantage of this is that he does not need to put his gun down to rescue his comrades.这样设计的好处是士兵无需丢下就可以救他的战友。The other means of control, a special glove designed by AnthroTronix, another Maryland firm, can sense the wearers hand movements and direct the BEAR accordingly.另一种控制方式是使用马里兰州另外一家公司AnthroTronix设计的专用手套。该手套可以感知佩带者的手部运动,以此指挥BEAR做相应的运动。If, for example, the gloved hand moves to the left, the robot will follow.举例来说,如果戴着手套的手向左移动,机器人也会跟着向左移动。If the hand moves backwards, the robot will slow down or stop.如果戴着手套的手向后移动,机器人就会降低移动速度或者停止移动。If the gloves wearer closes his fist, the robot takes that as an instruction to grip an object with its arms.如果带手套的人握紧拳头,机器人就会认为该指令是让它用手臂抓住某个物体。Over the past year BEAR has been tested at the armys Infantry Centre Manoeuvre Battle Laboratory in Fort Benning, Georgia. It has shown that it can travel at around 12mph (19kph) across a flat surface.过去一年里,BEAR在位于佐治亚州本宁堡的陆军步兵中心机动作战实验室里接受测试,结果显示它能以每小时12英里(即每小时19公里)左右的速度通过平坦路面。It can also move over soil, sand and gravel, through trees and inside buildings, albeit at lower speeds.此外,它还能在泥地、沙地和砾石路面上移动,能穿越树林及建筑物内部,尽管速度要低一些。Several more years of tests are planned (this is the army, after all), but Dr Gilbert is optimistic that BEAR will come through them.按计划,BEAR还要再接受几年的测试(毕竟这是在部队),不过吉尔伯特士非常乐观,他相信BEAR能通过所有测试。If it does, soldiers will be able to get on with their primary job of killing the enemy, without having to worry so much about what the enemy has done to their friends.如果事实果真如此,士兵们就能够专心执行杀敌这个首要任务,而无需太担心敌人对他们的战友下了什么毒手。 /201212/217294。

A little apartment and most his thinking was done in his study,一间小公寓,他在书房中搞起了大部分研究,sometimes he cant quite visualize the curving of space,有时他不太会想象弯曲的空间,and what he does is he takes out his violin.面对这种情境,他会拿出他的小提琴。He said that Mozarts music captured the harmonies of the universe.他称莫扎特的音乐甚至连宇宙间的协调也能俘获。Playing the violin will help him think.拉小提琴有助于他的思考。Einstein had this prodigious ability to sit and think.爱因斯坦就有这令人惊异的坐下思考的能力。It was called seats flash, people who knew him said yeah,它被称为座位思考法,认识他的人会说:是啊,this is remarkable seats flash where he can concentrated on the problem for hours, for days, even years.这是著名的座位思考法,这能让他专注于那个问题好几个小时,几天,甚至一年。In his office, lots of mathematic manuscripts with equations all over,在他的办公室里,许多数学手稿的等式全部被终结,and he sit in there thinking, walking around, standing,deep in thought.他坐在那里思考,四处踱步,时而站起,时而陷入沉思。Hes doing pure mathematics in his mind.他在自己的脑海里思考纯粹的数学。Science is done by the seat of your pens.科学是由你宝座的钢笔揭开谜底。We have leaps of object, we have years of wondering in the wilderness,我们可以飞向目标,我们在旷野中驰骋已有多年,we have frustration, we have pulling our hairs out.我们经历过挫折,我们一笑了之。That is really the power of genius.这是真正的天才的力量。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/180306。

A colossal iceberg is born. This single block of ice, many hundreds of meters across, would toss the biggest mankind buildings. Every year, tens of thousands of icebergs are spooned by Greenlands glaciers and the number is steady increasing as the climate continues the warm. The breakup of the bergs fails the base of the Arctic with exquisite ice sculptures. It also releases great volume of cold fresh water into the sea. Greenlands melt water influences the course of the ocean currents which in turn has an effect on the weather around the world.巨大的冰山形成。这单一的冰有数百米宽,甚至和最大的人类建筑相媲美。每年成千上万的冰山由格陵兰的冰川及持续稳步变暖的气候形成。冰川融化分裂,在北极四处可见精湛的天然冰雕。大量的冷水被融化流进大海。格陵兰岛融水影响洋流,反过来作用于世界的天气。The Arctic is closer to home than many of us realize. It can conclude the northern most parts of the three continents on which most of us live, Europa, Asia and North America.北极比许多人所意识到的离家更近。它可以终结北部的大部分地区,即三个大洲,我们大多数人生活的欧洲、亚洲和北美洲。The first barren land we reach our journey south is a bleak treeless wilderness known as tundra. Each spring, animals travel up from the south to be y for the rich grazing that will be unveiled by the spring melt. To the calibo, the timing is critical. Arriving earlier and winter storm could kill you.Delay too long and you may fail to lay down the fat needed to survive the polar winter.我们的旅程到达第一个不毛之地,南边是一个荒凉没有植被被称为苔原的旷野。每年春天,动物从南方旅行等待春天的到来。时间至关重要的。早些时候到达,冬季风暴可能会要了你的命。拖得太久,你就不能储存需要在极地冬季生存的脂肪。注:听力文本来源于普特201201/168602。

Garota de Ipanema, Girl from Ipanema, had been written by Jobim and Vinicius in 1962 as they sat in this bar of Copacabana, watching the girls walk by.在1962年当若宾和维尼坐在科帕卡巴纳海滩的酒吧,看女孩子走过后,他们脑中就有了来自伊帕内玛的女孩的加罗塔·伊帕内玛这首歌曲。They wrote that song just because they saw the same girl passing by the bar, going towards the beach every day.他们写这首歌只是因为他们看到每一天相同的女孩经过酒吧,走向海滩。And they were like, oh my god, check it out.而且他们对此着迷,感觉就像是我的上帝,看啊。Check the way she walks, check how charming she is when she crosses the roads.看看她的走路方式, 她穿过马路时候是多么迷人。And I don’t know if today these people still can have that naive or romantic way of approaching words and songs in the way that they used to do 40, 60 years back.我不知道今天这些人是否仍然可以按照40,60年前人们经常表达的天真或者浪漫歌曲辞藻。Girl from Ipanema would become a massive hit in the States in July 1964 when it was sung in English by Joao Gilberto’s then wife, Astrud.来自伊帕内玛的女孩 这首歌曲1964年7月用英语演唱时成为一首大热门单曲,而且其演唱者是若宾?吉尔托当时的妻子阿斯塔德。 注:听力文本来源于普特201301/221302。