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2019年09月17日 23:01:25|来源:国际在线|编辑:当当面诊
He might have been called Sherrinford, might have resided at 221 Upper Baker Street, and might not have survived the Reichenbach Falls.他本来可能叫谢林福特(Sherrinford),本可能住在上贝克街221号,本可能死在雷申巴克瀑布。But luckily for his fans, Arthur Conan Doyle changed his mind more than once about his fictional ;consulting detective,; now the subject of a Museum of London exhibition called ;Sherlock Holmes: The Man Who Never Lived And Will Never Die.;对粉丝们来说幸运的是,阿瑟·柯南·道尔(Arthur Conan Doyle)对自己虚构的“顾问侦探”多次改变主意。现在,这位侦探成了伦敦物馆一场展览的主题,展览名为“夏洛克·福尔斯:那个从未活过也永不会死的人”(Sherlock Holmes:The Man Who Never Lived And Will Never Die)。The intrigue begins right at the exhibition’s entrance, with visitors pushing through a door hidden in a wall of fake bookshelves.趣味从展览入口处就开始了——参观者要穿过一扇隐藏在假书架墙上的门。Then they hear the voices of actors like John Gielgud and Simon Callow who portrayed him on the radio, and see clips of actors like Basil Rathbone and Jeremy Brett who played him decades ago on screen.然后他们听见曾在电台为福尔斯配音的约翰·吉尔古德(John Gielgud)和西蒙·卡洛(Simon Callow)的声音,看到几十年前在电影和电视中饰演福尔斯的巴兹尔·拉思伯恩(Basil Rathbone)和杰里米·布雷特(Jeremy Brett)的视频剪辑。The exhibition’s organizers say they are trying to give those who may have discovered Holmes through the latest film or television adaptation a wider cultural context for a true London icon.这场展览的组织者们称,他们努力为那些通过最新电影或改编的电视剧集发现福尔斯的人呈现更广阔的文化背景,以真正了解这位伦敦的标志人物。Capitalizing on interest in the B’s Emmy-winning version starring Benedict Cumberbatch and Martin Freeman, the museum reaches back to 1885 and a sheet of paper upon which Conan Doyle first jotted down some ideas, including possible names and addresses for his stories.该物馆利用人们对获得艾美奖的B电视剧《神探夏洛克》(本尼迪克特·康伯巴奇[Benedict Cumberbatch]和马丁·弗里曼[Martin Freeman]主演)的兴趣,追溯到1885年的一张纸,柯南·道尔在这张纸上匆匆写下一些想法,包括故事的备选名字和地址。;For very keen Sherlockians, this in where it all starts,;the curator, Alex Werner, said in an interview. ;It’s a paper where Conan Doyle is really thinking out the story. He is considering the name Sherrinford Holmes and he doesn’t have Dr. Watson’s name yet.;“对福尔斯迷们来说,这是一切的开端,”策展人亚历克斯·维尔纳(Alex Werner)在采访中说,“柯南·道尔真正思考这个故事就是从这张纸开始的。他在考虑把主人公命名为谢林福特·福尔斯,还没想好华生医生(Dr. Watson)的名字。”And because Conan Doyle considered Edgar Allen Poe as a major influence, the show includes an excerpt from the handwritten manuscript of what is considered the world’s first modern detective story, Poe’s ;The Murders in the Rue Morgue.;柯南·道尔认为埃德加·艾伦·坡(Edgar Allen Poe)对自己影响巨大,所以这场展览包括艾伦·坡《格街谋杀案》(The Murders in the Rue Morgue)的手稿节选。它被认为是世界上第一个现代侦探故事。;We’ve borrowed three pages from the Free Library of Philadelphia,; Mr. Werner said, ;the first time these have been out of the ed States.;“我们从费城自由图书馆(Free Library of Philadelphia)借了三页,”维尔纳说,“这些草稿是首次离开美国。”But the pipe-puffing, opium-dabbling detective and his note-taking sidekick share the spotlight here with a very moody third character, the city of London itself.但是这位抽着烟斗、吸着鸦片的侦探和他做笔记的助手与另一位非常喜怒无常的角色共享这里的聚光灯。它就是伦敦。;The whole world of Sherlock Holmes emanates from the consulting room at 221B Baker Street,; Mr. Werner said. ;He is always returning there; messages are delivered there; it’s the place where he thinks through the problems and solves the mysteries.;“夏洛克·福尔斯的整个世界源于贝克街221B号的咨询室,”维尔纳说,“他总是回到那里;消息被送往那里;他在那里思考难题,破解谜案。”Using photographs and postcards, the display illustrates the mysterious atmosphere of Victorian London described in the Holmes canon of more than 50 short stories and four short novels.这场展览通过照片和明信片展示福尔斯经典作品中描绘的维多利亚时代伦敦的神秘氛围。这些作品包括50多个短篇故事和四本短篇小说。The exhibition ends with a look at the immortality of Holmes: Even the author tried, but failed, to kill him.展览在结尾处探讨了福尔斯的永恒:甚至连作者想杀死他也未能成功。;As soon as Conan Doyle created this character, he was trying to kill him off,; Mr. Werner said. ;For him, it was just a popular story and he wanted to be known for more serious literary works.; But the public wanted more, so Conan Doyle, who had shocked American and British ers by letting Holmes fall to his death at the Reichenbach Falls in Switzerland in 1893, brought him back to life in 1903.“柯南·道尔在创造出这个人物时就想杀死他,”维尔纳说,“对他来说,它只是个通俗故事,他想以更严肃的文学作品闻名。”1893年,柯南·道尔让福尔斯在雷申巴克瀑布摔死,震惊了英美读者。他们想听到更多关于福尔斯的故事,所以作者在1903年让他复活了。The exhibition runs through April 12. Related events include #163;10 (about ) guided walking tours of Conan Doyle’s Victorian London; and ;The Case of the Curious Cocktail,; described as a ;thrilling cocktailmaking hunt through the museum galleries after dark; for #163;36.这场展览将持续到4月12日。相关活动包括柯南·道尔笔下的维多利亚时代伦敦向导徒步游(10英镑,约合15美元);“神秘鸡尾酒案”,它被描述为“天黑后在物馆各展厅里举行的令人毛骨悚然的鸡尾酒制作搜寻活动”(36英镑)。 /201412/349386Towering stilettos may be the height of fashion – but coping with the pain and discomfort they cause can be a tall order, as millions of women will testify.穿上细高跟鞋可谓登上时尚的顶峰了——但数百万女同胞们可以明,要忍受穿上它的疼痛与不适太难了。Now, though, one entrepreneur claims she has finally found the formula for high heels that are as comfortable as trainers.尽管如此,如今一家公司声称他们终于找到了高跟鞋设计的最佳方案,穿上它就和穿运动鞋一样舒适。Dolly Singh, a former executive with a US space transport company, called on experts including a rocket scientist, an astronaut and an orthopaedic surgeon to help her create the ultimate comfy heels using hi-tech plastics.多莉·辛格(Dolly Singh)是一名美国宇航运输公司的前总监。她召集了包括一名火箭科学家、一名宇航员和一名矫形外科医生在内的专家团队,来协助她设计出这双高科技塑料制成的终极舒适的高跟鞋。Ms Singh managed to convince the scientists to tackle it as a #39;serious engineering problem#39; and their first pair of stilettoes is due to go on sale in a few months#39; time.辛格女士成功说这些科学家把其当成一个;严肃的工程问题;。他们研制出来的第一款细高跟鞋将在未来几个月开售。Unlike traditional stilettoes, which are based on a metal foot plate and rod for a heel, the Thesis Couture shoes are made of high-tech plastics and polymers.与金属鞋底、鞋跟的传统高跟鞋不同,这款Thesis Couture高跟鞋是由高科技塑料和高分子聚合物制成的。Designed to distribute the wearer#39;s body weight from heel to toe, aerospace-grade foams in the sole reduce the impact of each step on the foot by up to 50 per cent.该设计将身体的重量从脚跟分散到脚趾,鞋底运用宇航级别的泡沫减少走路给脚带来的一半压力。But such functional fashion does come at a price – up to 600 a pair, to be precise.但是这种功能性的时尚女鞋售价,准确地说来,每双至少600英镑。The first shoes, with heels around three inches high, are expected to go on sale in the autumn.第一款鞋子的鞋跟有3英寸之高,预计在今秋开售。Ms Singh admits they will not have exactly the same feeling as #39;tennis shoes#39;, but believes women will find them dramatically more comfortable.辛格女士承认鞋子不可能穿起来完全像双;网球鞋;,但女士们会发现它们好穿得不敢想象。She said: #39;It#39;s really important for comfortable and sexy to work together.#39;她说:;舒适和性感兼得很重要。;Ms Singh formed Thesis Couture after convincing scientists to treat the #39;fluffy#39; subject as a #39;serious engineering problem#39;.辛格女士在说科学家把;消遣;的东西当作;严肃的工程问题;后造出了这款Thesis Couture鞋。#39;The key was to make it an interesting problem in their language,#39; Ms Singh said.;关键是要化为他们感兴趣的课题,;辛格女士说道。#39;Asking them to design a high heel isn#39;t interesting. But asking them to design a structure that supports a secondary structure, which is dynamic and has a 180-degree range of motion and happens to be a human body? That#39;s interesting.;要是请他们设计一双高跟鞋并不吸引他们。但是要是问他们设计一种撑第二层结构的构造、要灵动、有180度的移动范围,且撑的恰好是个人体结构?那就有意思了。#39;I had to make them see it not as a fluffy problem, but as a serious engineering problem.#39;;我得让他们认为这不是消遣的事,而是个严肃的工程问题。;Her team included British orthopaedic surgeon Andy Goldberg, a virtual reality firm and a #39;fashion technologist#39;.她的团队包括一名英国矫形外科医生安迪·戈德堡(Andy Goldberg)、一个虚拟现实公司,以及一个;时尚设计师;。The shoe#39;s structure will be made in Singapore, with its exterior crafted in Italy and Brazil.鞋子的框架将在新加坡完成,而外壳是在意大利和巴西完成。#39;I#39;ve loved high heels ever since I was young, but as I got older I began to love them less.;我年轻时就爱高跟鞋,但随着年龄增长,我就没那么喜欢穿高跟鞋了。;#39;I found myself in a position where I had two choices: I could either downgrade my shoes and have uglier shoes, or I could keep wearing my really pretty shoes and I would end up with ugly, deformed feet.;我觉得我有两个选择:要么选择矮跟的丑鞋,要么继续穿美美的鞋,然后有一双丑陋变形的脚。;#39;It got to a point that this became an important enough problem in my life where I thought don#39;t complain, do something.;我后来意识到这是我人生中的一个重要问题,不能只抱怨,要有解决方法。;#39;Millions of women for hundreds of years have been wearing the same crappy internal architecture for a long time, so it takes an outside force to prioritise and say actually consumers will reward this and will think it#39;s important if we create it.#39;;数百万女性们几百年来长期穿着一样蹩脚的内部构造,因此需要外力的推动才能让人们重视这个问题。如果我们造出了这样的鞋子,顾客们会真心感激的。;The skeleton of the shoes are due to be manufactured in Singapore and the fashionable outer skin made in Italy and Brazil.鞋子的框架将在新加坡制造,而时尚的外观会在意大利和巴西完成。Initially, 1,500 limited edition pairs will be sold in the autumn for 610, with each numbered and signed by a guest fashion designer.在意大利,1500双限量版高跟鞋将在今年秋天发售,售价为610英镑。每双鞋子都有编号,上面还有一名时尚设计顾问的签名。A few dozen pairs will also be sent to celebrities and VIPs.数十双鞋将会被送到名人和贵宾手中。Ms Singh said, following the launch, the shoes will be marketed at professional women and pairs will cost between 200 and 600 each.辛格女士说,首发之后,鞋子将针对职业女性进行营销。每双售价为200至600英镑。But her ultimate goal is to license the company#39;s technology to other brands.但她的终极目标是让公司的这项技术推广到其它牌子。#39;Five years from now I want every high heel on the face of the Earth to be made the way we make them,#39; Ms Singh said.;五年后,我想让地球上所有高跟鞋都按照我们的方式制造。;辛格女士说道。 /201505/373878Men and women might wax lyrical about looking for someone who is kind, sensitive and funny. But a new study shows that when it comes to finding partners, the ded cliché seems to be true。无论男女都有可能诗意地幻想自己的另一半是一个善良、敏感而幽默的人。但一项最新研究发现:当人们在真正寻找另一半时,现实似乎又一次验了那些可怕的陈词滥调。A study published in the Journal of Evolution and Human behaviour shows what really matters to men is looks - while women want a man with a booming bank balance.The study asked hundreds of young men and women what mattered when choosing a partner. The categories were attractiveness, wealth, ambition, kindness and intelligence。在《进化与人类行为》上刊登的一则调查研究显示:男人择偶的关键是外表,而对于女人来说则更想要一个有钱人。这次调查面对几百个年轻男女发起,询问他们哪些因素可能影响他们对伴侣的选择,结果包括了以下几类:吸引力、财富、事业心、善良和聪明。And results shows men were overwhelmingly swayed by an attractive face and body, while women were hooked on wealth and ambition。调查结果显示,压倒性数量的男人都会被漂亮的脸蛋和身材所吸引,而对于女人来说她们则更关注男人的金钱和事业心。Professor Gad Saad, who co-authored the study with Tripat Gill, said the research seems to highlight how evolution has led us to this #39;irrational#39; decision-making。嘉德·萨阿德教授和特里帕特·吉尔合作完成此项研究,称这一研究正反映了自然演化是如何引领我们做出这种看似“荒谬”的决定的。Mr Saad said: #39;Choosing someone who might be a poor provider or an unloving father would have serious consequences for a woman and for her offspring.#39;萨阿德教授说:“选择一个穷困潦倒的人来养家糊口或者一个缺乏爱心的父亲,势必会对这个女人和她的孩子的生活造成严重的影响。”The survey, carried out at Concordia University in Montral, Quebec, Canada, gave overall descriptions of potential partners, along with positive and negative descriptions。本次调查在加拿大魁北克省蒙特利尔市的肯高迪亚大学进行,调查的内容是对你所期待的伴侣进行全面的描述,包括正面和负面双重描述。It showed that an attractive body and an attractive face were seen as more important to men, while earning potential and ambition were more important to women. Both said kindness and intelligence were equally important to both。调查显示长相和身材迷人对于男人择偶似乎更为重要,而对女人而言她们更在乎男人的收入潜力和事业心。然而无论男女都认为善良、聪明和以上两点同等重要。 /201507/386958

Though I#39;m a woman with children, I should confess that I#39;m not the target mom-er for the latest avalanche of family cookbooks, which bear titles like ;Dinner: A Love Story; or ;The Family Cooks.; This is my shortcoming: Where I ought to have a lively intellectual curiosity about food preparation, I generally have a despairing blank.虽然我是个母亲,但我必须承认自己并非《晚餐:一个爱的故事》(Dinner: A Love Story)或《家庭厨师》(The Family Cooks)最近这一大堆家庭烹饪书的目标读者。这是我的缺点:我本该对烹制食物产生强烈的求知欲,但通常我只感到绝望的木然。;Have you figured out dinner yet?; my daughter Susannah, who#39;s 5, asks me. Figure out. Not ;fix; dinner; not ;make; it. She gets that phrase from me. A vague neural itch sets in around 5 p.m. when I recognize that something must happen, and soon, involving plates and macronutrients. I do not move. Dinner preparation is all mental around these parts: I figure out who#39;s had enough protein or carbs for the day, who can bear eating the other#39;s favorite food, or whether I must figure out two meals; figure out which is more endocrinologically devastating, highly processed soy milk or not-entirely-organic lactose-free cow#39;s milk.“你想好晚饭做什么了吗?”5岁的女儿苏珊娜(Susannah)问我。“想好”。不是去“弄”也不是去“做”晚饭。她是从我这儿学会这个说法的。下午5点左右,我隐隐感到不安,觉得需要赶紧做点什么,这事跟盘子和大量营养素有关,但我没有行动。这个阶段的准备工作都是在头脑中进行:我要想清楚今天谁摄入的蛋白质或碳水化合物已经足够了,谁能忍受吃另一个人最喜欢的食物,还是说我需要搞出两道菜;我还要想清楚,从内分泌角度讲,深加工的豆浆和不完全有机的无乳糖牛奶哪个危害更大。Then comes the real intellectual heavy lifting, revisited like a private, pointless Fermat#39;s Theorem: Why is food such a big part of rearing children? Why me? And why can#39;t I just crack open a half-dozen Clif bars and keep playing with my children?然后才是真正的精神折磨,它像毫无意义的私人费马大定理一样不断纠缠我:为什么养孩子过程中要花这么多时间做吃的?为什么非得我做饭?为什么我就不能撕开几个克利夫能量棒(Clif bar)充饥,然后继续跟孩子们玩呢?Cooking! Aren#39;t we past that? In 1982, Jessica Lange as Julie, the glamorous single working mother in ;Tootsie,” became my ego-ideal when she sexily told Dustin Hoffman#39;s character that she was a ;born defroster.; Lord, how I loved that expression. Women of the #39;80s did not sweat meal prep for their little Amys and Scotts. They defrosted. They took children to diners and bars. They ordered pizza.做饭!我们不是已经不用做饭了吗?1982年,杰西卡·兰格(Jessica Lange)在《窈窕淑男》(Tootsie)中饰演的迷人单身职业母亲朱莉(Julie)成了我的偶像,她性感地对达斯汀·霍夫曼(Dustin Hoffman)饰演的角色说,自己“天生就只用解冻食物就行了”。天哪,我爱死这句话了!80年代的女性不用大汗淋漓地给小孩子做饭。她们只要解冻就行了。她们可以带孩子去小餐馆和酒吧吃饭。她们也可以点披萨外卖。That was ages ago. And I imagined that matters would only improve from there. By the time my son arrived, I vainly believed that I should be able to not just defrost food but conjure it — by means of the web or a 3-D printer or at least a game male, close at hand, whose ego had been serendipitously formed by Emeril or ;Top Chef.” But instead, to my horror, home cooking had made a hideous comeback. Noble food philosophers preached the retro virtues of slow, real food instead of the quickie, frozen stuff that had once spelled liberation to me.那都是很多年前的事了。我以为从那以后情况只会变得更好。到我儿子出生时,我还以为自己应该不仅能解冻食物,还能召唤食物——通过互联网、3D打印机,或至少通过一个尽在咫尺、心甘情愿下厨房的丈夫——艾梅里尔(Emeril)或真人秀节目“顶级大厨”(Top Chef)意外地让他以当奶爸为荣。但可怕的是,家庭烹饪卷土重来。高尚的美食哲学家们鼓吹慢慢做成的真正的食物的好处,把能快速做好的、原本让我看到解放希望的冷冻食物打入了冷宫。And worst of all, as the mother-cookbooks make painfully clear, the daily work of feeding children doesn#39;t fall to the sages. Neither does it, notably, fall to the dads, whom the cookbooks commend for having signature dishes or being grill-masters, but not for punching the clock at breakfast, lunch and dinner. No, cooking belongs, inevitably, to the moms. I#39;ve tried to find outrage among my sister mothers about this reactionary development. But here#39;s the unkindest cut: It turns out that other women — traitorously — now like to cook. They find cooking expressive and fascinating. No one but me wants to be a born defroster anymore. ;I hear you, but I like to cook,; said one feminist the last time I tried my bold association of foodism with rank misogyny.最糟糕的是,就像母亲烹饪书所明示的那样,喂养孩子的日常工作不是圣人们的责任。显然也不是爸爸们的责任,那些烹饪书鼓励爸爸们有几样拿手菜或者擅长烧烤,但是没让他们定点做早餐、午餐和晚餐。做饭必然是妈妈们的事。我想从其他妈妈那里也听到对这种后退的愤怒。但是我被非常不友好地打断了:现在其他女人居然喜欢做饭!她们觉得做饭有意义,也很有趣。只有我还想做“天生的解冻者”。上一次和一位女权主义者交谈时,我大胆尝试把食物嗜好症与可恶的厌女症联系在一起,结果她说,“我明白你的意思了,但我喜欢做饭。”;I like to cook;? What about ;I like not working and having no opinions and being everyone#39;s handmaiden;? Hasn#39;t women#39;s false consciousness about their ;preferences; always been a part of the sexist equation? Or is theirs the true 2014 consciousness — the liking to cook — and I just would have fared better in the heyday of Salisbury steak? (Dr. J. H. Salisbury, wouldn#39;t you know: Civil War-era food faddist and earliest known carb-hater.) Among my newly foodie friends, I couldn#39;t get a witness to my bewilderment. At the same time no MakerBot is going to roll in and cook for my family. I#39;m going to have to find an apron and make real food happen daily for my children, lest they be poisoned by phthalates, dextrose and heavy metals while I#39;m pretending to be Jessica Lange.“我喜欢做饭”?你怎么不说“我喜欢不工作,没有思想,当所有人的女仆”?女人对自己“偏好”的虚假意识不一直是性别歧视者理念的一部分吗?还是说喜欢做饭是她们在2014年的真实感受,而我更适合生活在索尔斯伯利牛肉饼盛行的时代(你不知道J·H·索尔斯伯利士[Dr. J. H. Salisbury]吗?他是内战时期的食疗信徒,是已知的最早憎恨碳水化合物的人)?在我新结识的美食家朋友中,没一个人理解我的困惑。与此同时,也没有3D打印机来为我的家人做饭。我必须去找个围裙,每天给孩子们烹制真正的食物,以免在我把自己假想成杰西卡·兰格时,孩子们被邻苯二甲酸盐、葡萄糖和重金属毒害。Thus we get the mother cookbooks, stuffed like Cornish hens with their whimsical anecdotes and their photos of stylish children helping to cook like cheerfully indentured galley slaves. These books do much more than prep you to opine grandly on nutritional fallacies. They bark out actual marching orders for making meals. The lively food seminar, which only demanded that I and talk, is over; the d hard labor of cooking has begun. Not only are these women (or their trusty co-authors) ace home cooks, they have also figured out dinner once and for all and are extraordinarily self-assured about their axioms. They heard the clarion call of real food a decade ago and resolved (for Empire?) to work tirelessly over hot stoves to save our sons and daughters from the packaged and the processed and the highly destructive myth of low-fat.所以我们就有了这些母亲烹饪书,里面除了康沃尔菜鸡,还有很多奇闻轶事和时髦孩子的照片,那些孩子像苦力一样快乐地帮厨。这些书不仅让你能对营养谬论侃侃而谈,它们还大声发出做饭号令。只要求我阅读和发言的活跃的美食研讨会结束了;可怕的烹饪苦役开始了。这些女人(或者她们值得信任的联合作者们)不仅是一流的家庭厨师,而且已经一劳永逸地想好了晚餐做什么,并且对自己的理念很有信心。她们在十年前听到关于真正食物的感人号召,下定决心(为了帝国?)在热炉灶旁不懈努力,使孩子们免受打包或加工食物以及非常有害的低脂神话的毒害。I find discouragement, typically, on Page 1. In the introduction to “100 Days of Real Food,” Lisa Leake calls my hasty, anxious, food-delivery way of figuring out dinner ;fall[ing] prey to; the lure of convenience. That is indeed what I feel like at dinnertime: prey. Instead of hunting down healthful, real, inconvenient food, dinner-shirkers like myself are menaced, in Leake#39;s dark vision, by such predators as restaurants, takeout, ;cans of cream of mushroom soup; and what she calls ;even the occasional frozen dinner.; That includes virtuous-enough-seeming Amy#39;s Kitchen burritos and Health Is Wealth chicken nuggets. (Die, born defrosters. Your glory days are over.)我往往是看完第一页就读不下去了。在《100天真正的食物》(100 Days of Real Food)的引言中,丽莎·利克(Lisa Leake)说我以匆忙、焦虑以及配送食物式的想法思考晚餐是在图省事。那的确是我在晚餐时间的感受:像个猎物。利克阴暗地认为,像我这样图省事的人不是在追逐健康的、不省事的、真正的食物,而是被餐馆、外卖、“罐装奶油蘑菇汤”以及她所说的“偶尔的冷冻食物晚餐”这样的猎食者吓倒了。还包括貌似健康的艾米厨房(Amy#39;s Kitchen)的墨西哥玉米卷饼以及“健康就是财富”(Health Is Wealth)的鸡块(天生解冻者,你完蛋了,你辉煌的日子结束了)。Leake outlines her own Puritan conversion narrative in which she progressed from a bleak existence, blinded and hobbled by the Standard American Diet (SAD, so sad); through faith healing at the hands of the real-food evangelist Michael Pollan; to a wholehearted embrace of organic living and her own blog-and-cookbook ministry. A version of this conversion informs several of the family cookbooks, and the story never fails to move me. I want to eat these women#39;s dinners, sure. But more than that, I covet their confidence.利克概述了自己改变美食信仰的经历:最初她被标准美国饮食(Standard American Diet,真是悲哀)蒙蔽,活得凄凄惨惨;后来在真正食物传播者迈克尔·波伦(Michael Pollan)的引导下改变了信仰;最后全心全意投入到有机生活和自己的“客加烹饪书”的事业中。有好几本家庭烹饪书都讲述了这样的转变,但这样的故事从未打动过我。我当然想吃这些女人做的晚餐,但我更多的是羡慕她们的信心。;I don#39;t think there is ONE THING MORE IMPORTANT you can do FOR YOUR KIDS THAN HAVE FAMILY DINNER,; is how Ruth Reichl, of Gourmet, is ed (italics and caps not mine) in ;The Family Dinner,; by Laurie David, with recipes by Kirstin Uhrenholdt. Pomposity of this kind abounds in Laurie David books, and ultimately the books#39; apotheosizing of home cooking is more memorable in its aggression than the somewhat meeker recipes (Easy Cheesy Dinner Frittata, Turkey Meat Loaf, Your Favorite Grilled Cheese). No one thing more important for children than family dinner? I might have put ;send them to school; or “hug them occasionally; at the top of that list.“我觉得你能给孩子们做的事情中,最重要的莫过于做一顿家庭晚餐,”劳丽·大卫(Laurie David)在《家庭晚餐》(The Family Dinner,书中的菜谱是希尔斯廷·乌伦豪尔特[Kirstin Uhrenholdt]写的)一书中这样引用《美食家》(Gourmet)的露丝·雷切尔(Ruth Reichl)的话。这样的炫耀在劳丽·大卫的书中随处可见,结果这本书对家庭烹饪的神化比其中略显平庸的菜谱(简易晚餐菜肉馅煎蛋饼、土耳其肉糕和你最喜欢的烤奶酪)更令人难忘。对孩子来说没什么比家庭晚餐更重要吗?我倒是可能会把“送孩子上学”或“偶尔拥抱他们”排在前面。Such bunk continues in ;The Family Cooks,; another production by David and Uhrenholdt, who turns out to be David#39;s private chef. (Aha, the secret to ;The Family Cooks; is . . . the family cook.) This time the book has Katie Couric laying down the law: ;The single most powerful thing anyone can do to protect their health, to live a healthy life and to have a healthy future is to go into their own kitchen and cook food themselves.; As if to blow all these superlatives away, David eventually brings in the master stylist and vegetarian-food thinker Jonathan Safran Foer for the coda to ;The Family Dinner.; Foer#39;s own ;food is everything; aria does not disappoint: ;Every meal,; he writes, ;is a chance to get it right or get it wrong, to approach or withdraw from our ideals. Does anything in our lives matter more than how we set our tables?; I tried hard to connect this question to the Easy Cheesy Dinner Frittata but couldn#39;t. I#39;m telling you: I#39;m not cut out for this.乌伦豪尔特后来成了大卫的私人厨师,她们后来又合著了《家庭厨师》(The Family Cooks,啊哈,《家庭厨师》的秘密是……家庭厨师)。这一次,大卫引用凯蒂·柯丽克(Katie Couric)的话来动员读者:“要想保持健康,过上健康的生活,拥有健康的未来,任何人能做的最有用的事就是走进厨房,自己做饭。”好像是为了避免这些极端的说法,大卫在《家庭晚餐》的结尾部分请来了文体大师、素食思想家乔纳森·萨弗兰·福尔(Jonathan Safran Foer)。福尔“食物即一切”的咏叹调没有令人失望:他写道,“每一餐都可能做好,也可能做砸;有可能更接近或更远离我们的理想。生活中还有比布置餐桌更重要的事吗?”我努力把这个问题与简易菜肉馅煎蛋饼联系在一起,但是没有成功。我告诉你吧:我不是这块料。As the high priestess of family cooking, Jenny Rosenstrach, author of ;Dinner: A Love Story; and “Dinner: The Playbook,; aims to bring about conversions in her ers and not just chronicle her own. In the opening to ;Dinner: A Love Story,; Rosenstrach recounts how a friend broke down in tears admitting that she never once cooked for her children. This is evidently not the first such overwrought disclosure with which Rosenstrach has been entrusted.《晚餐:一个爱的故事》和《晚餐:游戏手册》(Dinner: The Playbook)的作者、家庭烹饪的女祭司珍妮·罗森施特拉赫(Jenny Rosenstrach)不仅记录自己的转变,还想让她的读者们也发生转变。在《晚餐:一个爱的故事》的开头,罗森施特拉赫提到一个朋友承认自己从未给孩子们做过饭时流下了眼泪。这显然不是罗森施特拉赫听到的第一个过于伤感的倾诉故事。;No one has it all together,; Rosenstrach observes, with gentle condescension. The typical mom, she believes, too often sees dinner as ;a referendum on her own self-worth.; Alas, for me, Rosenstrach#39;s path out of guilt is not to drop the guilt but to drop the no-cooking. You must start, as her sobbing friend did, with Rosenstrach#39;s introductory absolution. Don#39;t ;put so much pressure; on yourself, she writes, elsewhere assuring the er, only slightly facetiously, that mothers who don#39;t dine nightly with their children won#39;t necessarily make them ;meth addicts.; So that possibility is out there, too.“谁都不是一下子学会的,”罗森施特拉赫带着几分优越感写道。她认为,有太多母亲视晚餐为“自我价值的全民公决”。天哪,对我来说,罗森施特拉赫的方法非但没能让我不再愧疚,反倒让我再不想做饭了。像那位哭泣的朋友一样,你得先获得罗森施特拉赫的宽恕。她写道,不要给自己“太大压力”,她还在其他地方半开玩笑地安慰读者,就算你不是每天跟孩子们共进晚餐,他们也不一定会变成“瘾君子”。也就是说,他们还是有可能变成瘾君子的。After that thin buck-up speech, you#39;re encouraged to embrace Rosenstrach#39;s strategies for cutting up onions and enlightening picky eaters, along with her recipes for Sweet Barbecue Salmon and Beluga Lentil Soup With Anchovies. That is the way out of wretchedness and into grace. Dinner: Go and Sin No More.在难以令人信的动员讲话之后,罗森施特拉赫鼓励你用她的方法切洋葱,满足挑剔的食客,尝试她的菜谱——甜味烤三文鱼和白鲟凤尾鱼扁豆汤。那就是从悲惨走向恩惠的方式。晚餐:做吧,不要再愧疚了。Figuring I wasn#39;t going to experience a spiritual revelation about the sanctity of family dinners at this late stage, I dropped the conversion-narrative books in favor of some that sound like brass-tacks science. ;Super Nutrition for Babies: The Right Way to Feed Your Baby for Optimal Health,; by Katherine Erlich, M.D., and Kelly Genzlinger, C.N.C., C.M.T.A., with a foreword by David Brownstein, M.D., author of ;Overcoming Thyroid Disorders,; seemed with all those enigmatic letters to fit the bill. As did ;Super Baby Food: Your Complete Guide to What, When and How to Feed Your Baby and Toddler,” by Ruth Yaron. (Dr. Alan Greene calls the original ;Super Baby Food; a ;monumental breakthrough.”)我知道自己不会在这么大年纪对家庭晚餐的神圣产生顿悟,所以我放弃了这些描述思想转变的书,转向一些听起来像基本科学事实的书。《婴儿超级营养:为实现婴儿最佳健康的正确喂养方法》(Super Nutrition for Babies: The Right Way to Feed Your Baby for Optimal Health)似乎具有符合条件的所有神秘字眼。这本书是医学士凯瑟琳·埃尔利赫(Katherine Erlich)和注册营养顾问、注册代谢类型顾问凯利·金兹利杰(Kelly Genzlinger)编著的,《战胜甲状腺功能紊乱》(Overcoming Thyroid Disorders)一书的作者、医学士大卫·布朗斯坦(David Brownstein)为该书撰写了前言。另外还有露丝·亚龙(Ruth Yaron)的《超级婴儿食物:喂养婴幼儿的完全指南》(Super Baby Food: Your Complete Guide to What, When and How to Feed Your Baby and Toddler,艾伦·格林[Alan Greene]士称具有原创性的《超级婴儿食物》是“不朽的突破”)。These books remind me of the extruded foodstuffs in packages festooned with the names of medical doctors that real-food ideologues now counsel against. You can really taste the research. But the books, unlike Clif bars, didn#39;t help me skip any steps. In fact, they introduced many, many new steps, including making yogurt.这些书让我想起了那些遭到排挤的盒装食品,它们上面提到的医学士如今遭到真正食物理论家的批判。但是那些研究结果你真的可以细细l你攻略。但是这些书,不像克利夫能量棒,不能帮我省去任何步骤。实际上,它们还介绍了很多很多新步骤,包括做酸奶。D.I.Y. is Ruth Yaron#39;s way. ;After years of trying to find the easiest, most effective and #39;least dishes to wash#39; method of making yogurt,; Yaron came up with a regime that involves organic soy milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D, dry milk powder, a yogurt thermometer, a ;homemade yogurt towel bag,; yogurt starter, a small sterilized glass baby-food jar, sterilized utensils and about six hours from start to finish. Another hot tip for the new mom making yogurt in her down time: Make sure you don#39;t bake b on the same day, lest the yogurt is invaded by airborne yeast particles. That#39;s interesting. When I discovered my own easy, effective and ;least dishes to wash; method of procuring yogurt — buy it — it took me only 15 minutes, with no worry about yeast invasion. Maybe I#39;m doing something right after all.露丝·亚龙的方法是自己动手做。“多年来,我一直努力寻找最简单、最有效、占用厨具最少的做酸奶的方法”,后来她想出了一个方法,需要用到有机豆奶、钙、维生素D、干奶粉、酸奶温度计、“自制酸奶毛巾袋”、酸奶发酵剂、无菌玻璃婴儿小食品罐和无菌餐具,从头到尾约需六个小时。新妈妈在休息时间做酸奶的另一个可靠小贴士是:一定不要在同一天烤面包,否则酸奶会被空气中的酵母微粒入侵。有意思。我在寻找简便、有效、占用厨具最少的获取酸奶的方法时想到的是购买,只用花15分钟时间,而且完全不用担心酵母入侵。也许我终于有一点做对了。In ;Super Nutrition for Babies,; D.I.Y. is not celebrated for its own sake. Rather it is a paranoid strategy for those who live in terror of the Toxins. The book argues that there is a war on children#39;s health going on, and that the enemy army includes pesticides, pollution, heavy metals, medications, industrial waste, chemicals, bad tap water, dyes, artificial ingredients, preservatives, sugar, refined grains, antibiotics and wrong ratios of macronutrients. As budding foot soldiers for health, mothers are taught to fear food that is Chemical, Removes body#39;s nutrients, is Addictive and Processed. CRAP, in the book#39;s scheme. Everywhere.在《婴儿超级营养》中,自己动手制作是因为考虑到其他因素。那些生活在毒素恐惧中的疑神疑鬼者用它来作为对策。那本书认为儿童健康保卫战正在进行,敌军包括杀虫剂、污染、重金属、药物、工业废料、化学制品、劣质自来水、色素、人工制剂、防腐剂、糖、细粮、抗生素以及大量营养素的错误比例。作为初出茅庐的健康卫士,母亲们被教育要小心含有化学制剂或添加剂、破坏身体营养以及经过深加工的食物。它们无处不在。;Super Nutrition; instructs ers on avoiding diabetes, optimizing immunity and reducing inflammation. There are not too many recipes here, although there are incoherent juxtapositions: Blueberry Breakfast Crepes With Raspberry Syrup, with coconut and ghee, runs up against Yorkshire Marrow Custard, which uses marrow bones and heavy cream. This is for babies, remember. Bone marrow and heavy cream for infants. It doesn#39;t ring right. But I#39;m learning to distrust my intuition. And yours, too.《婴儿超级营养》指导读者们预防糖尿病、增强免疫力、减少炎症。关于这一点书中给出的食谱不是很多,不过有些食谱与此相矛盾,比如,法式蓝莓早餐薄饼,含树莓糖浆、椰汁和酥油;约克郡骨髓蛋奶冻,里面含有骨髓和浓奶油。别忘了这是给婴儿们吃的。让婴儿吃骨髓和浓奶油。这听起来可不怎么对。但是我正学着怀疑自己的直觉以及你们的直觉。Trust no one, least of all yourself — that#39;s the takeaway from these new family cookbooks. These books don#39;t expand on Benjamin Spock#39;s great 1946 injunction to mothers to trust themselves; instead, they#39;re a brisk, homemade, garden-fresh antidote to it. Don#39;t trust hot dogs, don#39;t trust children#39;s preferences. Don#39;t trust the carb-poisoned food pyramid. Don#39;t trust vegetable-fruit mixes, because they#39;re mostly apples, and don#39;t trust apples because they#39;re the dirtiest of the ;Dirty Dozen; fruits. Everything, especially the apples, is trying to sabotage you.不要相信任何人,尤其是你自己——这就是这些新家庭烹饪书的理念。这些书没有详述本杰明·斯波克(Benjamin Spock)1946年给母亲们的伟大忠告:相信自己。相反,这些书简直像是这一忠告的解药——一剂家庭自制的、新鲜采摘的清新解药。不要相信热,不要相信小孩子喜欢吃的东西。不要相信碳水化合物含量太高的食物金字塔。不要相信蔬菜水果混合物,因为里面大多是苹果;不要相信苹果,因为它是“十二种肮脏的”水果中最肮脏的。所有这一切,特别是苹果,正在谋害你的性命。Nothing in these latest family cookbooks, with their conversion narratives, their personal-chef lifestyles, their nervous science and their strained insistence on the supremacy of family dinner has done anything to quiet my brain on the subject of why it#39;s my problem — and that of the world#39;s mothers — to make nightly sense of this ideological convulsion over food. If anything, they fuel the panic; they are the panic.这些最新家庭烹饪书——对思想转变的描述,私人大厨的生活方式,神经兮兮的科学,对家庭晚餐崇高地位的捍卫——一点也没让我的大脑平静下来,它们没有回答我的问题:为什么每天晚上为食物感到精神紧张是我的责任,是全世界母亲们的责任。它们只是让我更恐慌;它们是我的恐慌之源。The silver lining is that when they (and I) stop perseverating on food anxiety, the cookbooks — especially the ones by Rosenstrach, and also ;Bébé Gourmet,; by Jenny Carenco — feature dozens of extraordinary-sounding recipes. Carenco#39;s Baby Beef Bourguignon, with its dry ham and caramelized chestnuts, looks like a dream. And Rosenstrach, especially, never seems to go wrong: Her Buttermilk Oven-Fried Chicken lets you use highly processed, shelf-stable Kellogg#39;s Corn Flake Crumbs along with cayenne and four cups of buttermilk. Also glorious-sounding is her Pork Shoulder Ragu With Pappardelle.庆幸的是,当她们(和我)不再纠结于食物焦虑时,这些烹饪书——尤其是罗森施特拉赫的书以及珍妮·卡伦科(Jenny Carenco)的《贝贝美食家》(Bébé Gourmet)——还是提供了几十个听起来很棒的菜谱。卡伦科的婴儿勃艮第红酒炖牛肉——里面还有干火腿和焦糖栗子——看起来诱人极了。罗森施特拉赫似乎从来都不会出错:她的脱脂牛奶烤鸡肉允许你使用深加工、耐储存的氏(Kellogg#39;s)玉米片以及辣椒和四杯脱脂牛奶。她的猪肘酱宽面听起来也很好。For a time, I stopped trying to figure out dinner and just stared at the recipes, with their line breaks like poetry and the unpretentious photographs, most of which do not seem styled. Just braised pork, being pulled off the bone with a fork on a wooden cutting board. Wow, it looks so delicious. I sure wish some mother would make it for me.有一段时间,我不再努力思考做什么晚餐好,就只是盯着那些食谱,它们的换行符看起来像诗歌,里面的照片也很朴素,大多看起来不是很艺术化。我炖猪肉,在木案板上用叉子把肉从骨头上弄下来。哇唔,它看起来很美味。我当然希望有个妈妈给我做这个吃。 /201411/341288

“A Chinese dinner host will sociated with a Chinese will gain‘face’and give‘face #39;to his host.“举办中餐宴会的主人不会指望客人了解与一道中国菜相关的所有传统。但是客人如果了解这样一些传统的话就会有‘面子’,同时也给了主人‘面子’。”Investigating those traditions is business associates will happily tell not expect a visitor to know all the traditions asmeal. But the visitor who knows some of them his host!”part of the fun of a China visit, where friends or you the whys and wherefores of seemingly orcane rituals. You may even hear different versions of how a particular dining tradition originated!调查这些传统是在中国游览过程中一个充满乐趣的部分,中国的朋友或商业合作人会很高兴告诉你看似不可思议的礼仪的由来与原因。你甚至可能听到有关一个就餐传统由来的不同版本!Foreign visitors will be forgiven for not knowing dining etiquette. For example,they will be good-naturedly offered a knife and fork if their chopstick prowess is not up to par. Just as Chinese food,however,seems to taste better when it is eaten with chopsticks,so the whole meal will be more enjoyable if one knows a little of the ancient traditions and beliefs of a 5 000-year-old culinary heritage.外国游客如果不知道就餐礼仪的话会得到谅解;例如倘若他们用筷子的能力还没有达标的话,人们就会和善地给他们提供刀叉。但是,正因为中国食品似乎用筷子食用味道更好,因此如果知道拥有5 000年历史的饮食传统中的一些古老传统和信仰的话,整个进餐就会变得更加富有乐趣了。Why is a fish never turned over? Why do tea-drinkers surreptitiously tap tables Why will there be a place laid for a guest wha will never come Why is it not improper to slurp you soup but improper to eat a fish heady Why are Chinese dinner tables round and how will you know who is the guest of honors How and why will you say“Cheers!”?为什么鱼从不翻过来呢?为什么喝茶的人要悄悄敲下桌子呢?为什么要为一位不来的客人留下位置呢?为什么喝汤时顺嘴是可以的,但是吃鱼头却是不合适的呢?为什么中国的餐桌是圆的?而你怎样知道哪位客人是贵客呢?你怎样“干杯”?为什么要“干杯”?The guest of honor will usually be seated facing the door of entry, directly opposite the host. The next most honored guest will be seated to the left of the guest of honor. If the host is not certain about the correct order of precedence for his guests,he will seat them on the basis of age.贵客通常要面向进门的地方就座并直接面对主人。其次尊贵的客人要坐在贵客的左边。如果主人对客人正确的优光顺序有怀疑的话,他就会按照年龄的顺序安排他们就座。The host sits near the door, as in Western practice,so that he is nearest to the kitchen. If the meal is held in the host#39;s home,he can then bring each dish to the table more quickly. He will himself serve his guests portions of food,on the tacit understanding that they are far too polite to help themselves.主人坐在门的附近,这与西方的做法一样,这样他就离厨房最近。如果是在主人的家中吃饭的话,他就可以更加迅速地将菜送到桌上。他本人也便于给客人添菜,因为他知道客人过于礼貌而不会自己动手夹菜吃。But for some dishes,especially fish,the host would never do so-for the good reason that the dish would be inedibly cool by the end of the service. In this case,each guest is expected to help himself.但是有些菜主人是不会这样做的,尤其是鱼,因为这道菜烧好之后凉了就不好吃了。这时每位客人就要自己动手夹菜吃。As for meal-time noises, they are considered sounds of culinary appreciation,the slurping of soup also being an acceptable way of cooling it down before it burns the tongue.至于吃饭时的响声,这被认为是在享用美食的声音。喝汤时的顺嘴也是可以接受的,因为这样便可以在舌头被汤烫到之前将汤冷却。Seatingamp;Dining Customs就座与就餐的习俗If a Chinese dinner has been arranged in a restaurant, the host will usually sit nearest the kitchen or service door. Then he will be in the least-favored position sitting where the waiter will stand while serving individual portions of food.Some hosts,however, seat their most junior guests or family members at this slightly awkward spot so that the host can talk more easily to guests on either side of him. It is also becoming more common for hosts to sit next to foreign guests of honor.如果是在餐馆中安排中餐宴会的话,主人通常就会坐在距离厨房或上菜的门最近的地方。这样他就会坐在最不好的座位上—务员在上每道菜时都会站在这个座位旁边。但是有些主人会安排地位最低的客人或家庭成员坐在这个有点尴尬的地方,这样主人就可以更方便与他旁边的客人交谈了。对于主人来说,坐在外国贵客旁边也越来越常见了。Should you find yourself in one of the“junior; seats on either side of the server#39;s position,don#39;t worry. Consider the fact that your fellow diners are either even more“important; or older than you and you are honored to be sitting with them,or perhaps your host has flattered you by deciding you are one of the least statusconscious guests!如果你发现自己坐在务员位置旁边的“下”座上的话,要知道和你一起就餐的人要不就是比你更“重要”,要不就是比你年龄更大,而且你和他们坐在一起是很荣幸的。或者你的主人会恭维你是最不在乎身份的客人。At the beginning of the banquet, the host will make a brief speech to welcome the guest. As the guest of honor, you are expected to make a reciprocal speech expressing appreciation and wishes for friendship,cooperation and prosperity.在宴会开始的时候,主人会进行简短的讲话来欢迎客人。作为贵宾,你要相应做一番讲话以表明你的感谢以及希望达成友谊、合作以及繁荣。Chinese table manners include:中国的餐桌礼仪包括:1. Don#39;t“jump the gun;-always eat after your host.1.不要“抢先行动”—总是得在主人吃过之后再开始吃。2. When the host proposes a“gan bei”,or“bottoms up; be careful if you are not a good drinker. Extra care should be taken when liquor is served. One way of getting away from such a situation is to tell your host“sui yi;,which means ; Cheers一but I will drink only a little.”2.当主人提议“干杯”时,要注意你是否是一个酒量很好的人。如果上的是烧酒的话就要格外注意了。避开这种情况的一种方法就是告诉你的主人“随意”,这意味着“干杯……但我只能喝一点”。3. Don#39;t forget to toast your host, wishing him or her good health,friendship ,appreciation and the like3.不要忘记给主人敬酒并祝愿他(她)身体健康,表示友谊万岁、感谢等等。At the end of the banquet, your host may utter typical Chinese modesties such as“Please forgive us for the inconsiderate entertainment; or,;Sorry for the mediocre food.”Don#39;t take it seriously. Go ahead and express your appreciation.在宴会结束的时候,主人可能会说一些中国人典型的谦虚之词,例如“招待不周,敬请原谅”或“粗茶淡饭,还请包涵”等。不要把这话当真,继续表达你的感谢之情。The Guest Gets the Best给客人吃最好的The guest of honor naturally receives the choicest morsels,and is expected to lead the way when necessary. With a fish course,the fish head would be left for the guest of honor-and it is the most nutritious part the eyes and lips are the valued delicacies offered to the senior lady present.The platter holding the fish will always be laid on the table in such a way that the fish head points towards the guest of honor at family meals,the head faces the head of the family .If visitors find that they are the guest of honor and are unwilling to accept the duties invo Ived,they should always delegate the honor to the person on their left, or politely turn the platter so that the fish head faces the host.很自然,贵客要吃最上等的菜肴并且在必要时要首先吃菜。对于一道鱼来说,鱼头要留给贵客吃—而巨这是最有营养的部分(鱼眼睛和嘴唇都是给在场的老年妇女吃的珍贵美食)。装鱼的盘子放在桌子上的方式总是把鱼头指向贵客(在家庭就餐中,鱼头要向着一家之主),如果客人发现自己是贵客并且不愿接受这种招待的话,他们就总会将贵客的头衔转给坐在左边的人,或者礼貌地转动盘子以便使鱼头朝向主人。In a restaurant,the signs that a meal is ending are quite obvious. A bowl of fruit will be presented,fresh towels will be provided for deaning mouths and hands,and the final pot of tea-a ceremonial farewell greeting-will not be refilled.在饭店就餐时,就餐结束的表示是十分明显的。端上来一盆水果,送上新毛巾来擦拭嘴和手,以及不再(这是送别的仪式)添加茶水。Toothpicks牙签The use of toothpicks at a table is another standard practice. As in most Asian countries,the polite way to deal with lodged fragments of food is to cover one#39;s mouth with one hand while the toothpick is being used with the other.Toothpicks are frequently used between courses as it is believed that the tastes of one course should not be allowed to mar one#39;s enjoyment of the next course.在饭桌上使用牙签是另一种标准的做法。与大多数亚洲国家一样,礼貌地剔除食物残渣的方法就是用一只手掩住嘴,同时用另一只手使用牙签。牙签经常在各道菜之间的间隙使用,因为人们认为一道菜的口味不能影响对下一道菜的享用。What is the proper way to use chopsticks使用筷子的恰当方式The Chopstick is a miracle among the creations of Chinese food culture. The Chinese nation invented chopsticks in the Spring and Autumn Period(770一476).They can perform whatever the fingers perform,and they are exempt from either heat or cold. Furthermore,when using chopsticks,one actually uses more than 30 joints,including the shoulders,arms and fingers .and 50 muscles.筷子是中国饮食文化发明中的一个奇迹。中华民族是在春秋时代(公元前770一公元前476年)发明筷子的。筷子可以起到手指的所有功能,而且还不会被烫到或冻到。此外,当使用筷子的时候,人们实际上使用到30多个关节,这其中包括肩膀、胳膊以及手指,还有50块肌肉。This utensil helps the dinner to really relish his or her food. Eating in China is always associated with chopsticks,acclaimed by many Western scholars as a hallmark of Oriental civilization. The use of chopsticks with ease will add to the enjoyment of the delicacies.How to use them maybe a problem and here are our methods and suggestions that may be helpful.这种器具有助于就餐者真正喜爱自己的食物。在中国,吃饭总是要使用筷子的,西方学者称筷子是东方文明的里程碑。轻松地使用筷子将增加享用美食时的乐趣。如何使用筷子可能是个难题,我们在这里介绍的方法和建议可能十分有益:It is difficult to describe how to use chopsticks. First,place one chopstick on the third finger and clip it with the thumb;then clip the other between the index finger and the middle finger. When picking up food,use the upper chopstick and keep it flexible like a clipper. But,as the saying goes,it is easier said than done,and practice makes perfect. You may wonder if there is any yardstick by which to measure your proficiency of using chopsticks. Well,try peanuts. If you can pick up a peanut,then you are fine; If you can pick up two,then,congratulations!很难说明如何来使用筷子。首先要将一只筷子放在第三根手指上,然后用大拇指夹住它;然后将另一根筷子夹在食指与中指之间。当夹起食物的时候,要使用筷子的上端并且要保持它的灵活性,就像一只夹子一样。但是有一句老话说得好,说起来容易做起来难;还有一句老话叫熟能生巧。你可能想知道有没有什么标准能够衡量使用筷子的熟练程度。那么就试一试花生米吧。如果你能夹起一粒花生米,那么就很好了。如果能夹起两粒花生米,那么就值得恭喜了!It is considerately convenient to have noodles with chopsticks. Then you can wind noodle ths lightly but firmly,to avoid splattering soup or sauces in the bowl. For the first time,some may slide off the sticks,but the slight lapses are inevitable and practice makes perfect. After practice you will become adept at picking up all sorts of morsels from plates.用筷子吃面条是相当方便的。这样你就可以将面条轻轻地、稳稳地绕起来避免碗里的汤或调料溅出来。第一次用筷子的时候,有些人的筷子可能会滑掉,但是小小的失误是不可避免的,而且熟能生巧。经过一番练习之后,你就会十分擅长从盘子里面将各种食物夹起来了。When the dishes are positioned on the table,usually the first to help themselves should be the hosts or the elderly. Do not take too much once,or return your food to the plate. Try to avoid the collision of chopsticks with those of your neighbors since they are longer than forks or knives.当盘子放在桌子上的时候,通常最先夹菜的人应当是主人或长者。一次不要夹得太多,否则就将你的食物放回到盘子里:由于筷子要比叉子或刀子更长,因此尽量避免让你的筷子与坐你旁边人的筷子相碰。Do not drum or tap bowls and plates with chopsticks especially when you are a guest, because people believe that is the humble behavior of beggars when they beg for food不要用筷子敲碗和盘子,尤其是当你是客人时,因为人们认为这是乞丐在要饭时的下贱行为。Never insert chopsticks upright onto the vessels for food,as this will be viewed as an evil presage and will sustain the disapproval of the seniors. The reason is that, it is the unique way to show the esteem and care for the dead. long ago it was a tradition in China to worship their ancestors with offerings of food. However, in consideration that the dead could not use chopsticks smoothly, the living had to insert them at an upright angle.决不要将筷子垂直地插在乘放食物的器皿上,因为这会被认为是一种邪恶的预兆,而且将会引起老人的不满。其原因在于这是一种表达对亡灵的尊敬和关照的特殊方式。很久以前,中国拜祭祖先的传统就是献祭食物。但是考虑到亡灵可能不会灵巧地使用筷子,活人必须将筷子笔直地插着。Avoid sucking the end of a chopstick or keeping it in mouth for a long time. Never point at someone with a chopstick and do not use it to prick food in order to pick it up. These are also regarded as impolite.要避免吮吸筷子的末端,还不能将筷子放在嘴里时间过长。不要用筷子去指着别人,也不要通过用筷子戳在食物上面把食物夹起来。这些也被认为是不礼貌的行为:The handling of rice with chopsticks is also known to present problems, unless the rice has been dampened by juices from main dishes and is therefore more manageable. The socially-acceptable method for eating rice is to bring one#39;s bowl close to one#39;s mouth and quickly scoop the rice into it with one#39;s chopsticks.用筷子来吃米饭也会带来难题,除非用主菜的汤汁将米饭濡湿,因而使米饭更容易用筷子夹起。社会所认可的吃米饭的方法就是将自己的碗凑到嘴边上,然后迅速地用筷子将米饭拨到嘴里。One chopstick craft which a visitor is not advised to try is the deboning of a fish when its top half has been eaten,without turning it over. The careful separation of the fish skeleton from the lower half of the flesh will usually be performed by the host or a waiter.有一种使用筷子的技艺,不过我们不建议游客使用。这就是当一条鱼的上半部分被吃掉时,用筷子去掉鱼的骨头同时不把鱼翻身。通常是由主人或务员来小心地将鱼的骨架与下半部分的肉分开。The reason why a fish will never be turned over is a traditional superstition of South China#39;s fishing families-bad luck would ensue and a fishing boat would capsize if the fish were up-ended.为什么不能把鱼翻身呢?这是华南渔民家庭的一个传统的习俗—如果把鱼翻身的话坏运气就会接踵而至,而且渔船就会翻掉。There are superstitions associated with chopsticks too. If you find an uneven pair at your table setting,it means you are going to miss a boat,plane or train. Dropping chopsticks will inevitably bring bad luck, os will laying them across each other.Crossed chopsticks are,however, permissible in a“dim sum; restaurant.Your waiter will cross them to show that your bill has been settled,or you can dog the same to show the waiter that you have finished and are y to pay the bill.还有许多与筷子有关的习俗。如果你发现桌子上摆的餐具中筷子不成对的话,这就意味着你赶不上船、飞机、或是火车。如果筷子掉下来的话,就会不可避免地遇上坏运气,而且筷子交叉着放也会带来厄运、。但是在点心店里却允许将筷子交叉。务员会将筷子交叉起来,这样就表示你的账单已经结过了;你也可以这样做,这样就告诉务员你已经吃完了并且准备埋单。 /201506/379054

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