2020年02月27日 02:18:03|来源:国际在线|编辑:平安新闻
Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;Revolution in Egypt;Tahrir Square, one year on;埃及革命;回顾一年前的胜利广场;Cairo: My City, Our Revolution. By Ahdaf Soueif.《开罗:我的城市,我们的革命》,著者:阿达芙·索伊夫。The big themes of history may be written by the victors, but it is the observant bystanders who fill in the details. When Hosni Mubarak was overthrown in Cairo a year ago, among those watching was Ahdaf Soueif, a novelist born in Egypt and mostly resident in London. She missed the first three days as well as some of the postnatal struggles of the new era. As a liberal leftist she is at best a partial victor, given that Islamists took control of the streets after the big battles were won.历史的大文章可能是由胜利者来撰写的,但是它的细节却是那些近距离的旁观者所提供的。当胡斯尼·穆巴拉克在一年前被推翻时,阿达芙·索伊夫就是这样的一个旁观者。她是一个出生于埃及、但大部分时间住在伦敦的小说家。她没有目睹头三天的情景,也没有看到新时代开始后的各种争斗。作为一个左翼自由派人士,她顶多算一个半胜利者,因为在埃及人民获得推翻穆巴拉克的斗争的胜利后,伊斯兰教主义者控制了街头。So her view of the revolution may never dominate the new textbooks now being prepared in Egypt. The bearded men who will most likely dictate what is in them, however, cannot entirely ignore what she recorded during the initial 18 days that felled the tyrant and his cronies. Well- observed details have an unmistakable ring of truth and revisionist historians ignore them at their peril.因此,索伊夫关于埃及革命的观点可能永远不会成为正在埃及重写的教科书的配观点。然而,那些最有可能决定教科书写些什么的人,难以罔顾她所纪录的埃及革命头十八天中发生的那些事情。认真观察到的细节具有无可争辩的真实性,如果历史的修正者罔顾这些事实,他们自己会承担很大的风险。Ms Soueif has collected her notes in a book that above all conveys what it felt like to be in Tahrir Square, to face the police on the Nile bridges, to stumble into makeshift hospitals filled with bloodied youths. She has an eye for ephemera at the edge of a vast stage: that tear-gas canisters become more not less potent when they pass their expiry date, that in July last year a Saudi flag appeared in Tahrir Square, that the soldiers took possession of any US dollar bills they came across as evidence of demonstrators being foreign agents.索伊夫把她的笔记整理成为一本书,在这本书中,她使人身临其境般地感受到开罗胜利广场的氛围、在尼罗桥上与警察的对持、闯进满是受伤的年轻人的临时医院。她很善于捕捉在大场景中那些转瞬即逝的细小情节:过了期的催泪罐功效反而更大;去年七月一面沙特国旗出现在胜利广场上;士兵们没收他们看到的任何美元钞票,以作为据指控抗议者是外国间细。She captures the deep contempt of the youths for the old rulers, ing a teenage acquaintance as saying of the Mubarak men: “Before they open their mouths they’re liars; they breathe lies.”And she records imaginative chants of revolutionaries marching through hard-up districts of the city trying to win allies by warning the residents: “Prices up and no one cares / Next you’ll sell your bed and chairs.”她纪录了年轻人对前统治者们的极度蔑视,如一个十几岁的熟人在谈到穆巴拉克的人时说:“他们没张嘴也在说谎,他们呼吸的就是谎言。”她还纪录了,革命者们在戒备森严的地区一边游行一边唱着歌以争取居民持:“价格飞涨无人管/你马上会变成穷光蛋。”The lifeblood of Cairo visibly quickens during the days and months she chronicles. Her tone can be bombastic, breathless and laden with pathos, just as it was on the city streets. The narrative has a rushed, unfinished quality, much like the revolution itself. She inserts a flash-forward halfway through the account of the 18 days of revolution, in which she picks at what followed, especially the rise of the Islamists. All of it adds to the sense of drama.开罗的生命之血在她所纪录的的那些日子里显而易见地加快了流动。她的语调是爆炸性的、令人难以喘气的、充满痛苦的,正像开罗街道上所发生的事情一样。她的叙述带着一种急迫的、未尽的感觉,正像埃及革命本身。在她对十八天革命的纪录中间,她了一段快进式的片段来讲述在革命之后发生的事,特别是伊斯兰教旨主义的崛起。所有这一切都加强了事件的戏剧性。The most successful passages juxtapose the personal and the political. The narrative of street fighting is interleaved with personal memories of a previous age: here the house of a beloved aunt, there the studio where she acted in a television drama. The er gets a visceral sense of the dislocation the revolutionaries felt in their own city.把个人经历和政治现实对照着来写,是她的书最成功的地方。对街头斗争的叙述与自己对过去的回忆交织在一起:这里是一个可爱的姑母的房子;那里是她曾经参演电视剧的摄影室。读者从中感受到那些革命者们在自己的城市中发自内心的一种失落感。There is little clever analysis in the book, but that hardly matters. In years to come it will be a reminder to liberals—now once again in the opposition following the recent election victory of Egypt’s Islamists—of their most glorious hour. It should serve as a heartening reminder of what they are capable of achieving when united and courageous.书中没有什么精辟的分析,但这并不重要。在今后多年中,它将提醒那些自由主义者们(他们又成了在新近的选举中获胜的埃及伊斯兰教主义者的对立面),他们曾经有过多么辉煌的时刻。这应当是一种振奋人心的提醒:当他们团结起来,鼓足勇气的时候,可以成就什么样的事业。 /201209/198016Most people who hold babies know that the moment babies go to sleep, they seem to gain weight. Of course, a babys weight doesnt really change when they fall asleep, so why does the limp, floppy weight of a sleeping baby seem greater than it actually is?大多数有孩子的人都知道婴儿睡着的那一刻,体重似乎在增加。实际上,婴儿在睡着的时候体重并没有变化,那为什么他们松软无力的身体似乎比实际要重?A sleeping baby in your arms feels heavier because you must constantly adjust your own movements to compensate for their floppiness. Your muscles work harder to carry a child whos asleep, and your brain perceives this increase in work as an increase in the childs weight, though, of course, the weight of the baby stays the same.怀抱着睡梦中的婴儿,感觉他们比平常更重,那是因为你必须不断地调整自己的动作来抱稳他们。为了抱起熟睡中的婴儿,你的肌肉会要更努力地运作,你的大脑则把工作量的增加当成了孩子体重的增加。当然,孩子的体重是保持不变的。To picture this, think about carrying a twenty-pound bag of water. You would continually have to rearrange how you were holding that bag to make up for how the weight shifted due to the water sloshing around.为了更加形象化,想像一下你正抱着一个20英镑的水袋。你要不断地重新安排姿势,才能在水四处流动、重心不断的转移时稳住水袋。In a similar way, you must continually adjust how you are holding or carrying a sleeping baby because they arent able to control their own muscles to maintain a steady posture. Their inability to control their posture and movements makes them floppy, just like that bag of water.同理,在抱着熟睡中的婴儿的时候,你必须不断地调整你的动作,因为婴儿们不能控制自己的肌肉以保持稳定的姿势。因为他们不能控制姿势和动作,这让他们的身体显得很松软,就像一袋水似的。Now, freeze your twenty-pound bag of water. Though it would be cold and slippery, it would feel lighter because it is a solid weight that doesnt require you to constantly make minute adjustments in order to carry it. This is how you perceive the weight of a conscious person.现在,冰冻那20磅重的水袋。尽管它冰凉而湿滑,但还是觉得较轻,因为此时它是固体重量,不需要你不断地进行调整。这就是人们如何感知一个有意识的人的体重。Babies arent the only ones who seem heavier when they go limp. Dogs and cats also seem to gain weight when they go to sleep. And political protesters take advantage of this phenomenon by completely relaxing their muscles when police try to drag them away from a protest.婴儿并不是唯一的在四肢无力时看起来体重在增加的人。和猫睡着时,也会让人觉得他们在增重。政治抗议者充分利用了这种现象,在警察试图将他们从抗议人群中拖走时,他们则完全放松肌肉。原文译文属!201301/222129

Science and technology.科技。Climate change.气候变化。Good news at last?终于来了好消息?The climate may not be as sensitive to carbon dioxide as previously believed.气候对二氧化碳的敏感性可能低于先前的预期。CLIMATE science is famously complicated, but one useful number to keep in mind is ;climate sensitivity;. This measures the amount of warming that can eventually be expected to follow a doubling in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in its most recent summary of the science behind its predictions, published in 2007, estimated that, in present conditions, a doubling of CO2 would cause warming of about 3°C, with uncertainty of about a degree and a half in either direction. But it also says there is a small probability that the true number is much higher. Some recent studies have suggested that it could be as high as 10°C.气候科学的复杂程度众所周知,但把一个指标记在脑中非常好用,那就是;气候敏感性;。该指标表示预计大气中二氧化碳浓度翻倍所能引致的升温量。政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)在其最近一次关于其预测背后的科学性的概要中(发布于2007年)估计,在如今的情况下,二氧化碳浓度翻倍将造成3°C左右的升温,上下误差在1.5度左右。但该概要也声称,真实数据有少许可能还要高得多。一些近期的研究也猜测气温上升可能达到10°C之高。If that were true, disaster beckons. But a paper published in this weeks Science, by Andreas Schmittner of Oregon State University, suggests it is not. In Dr Schmittners analysis, the climate is less sensitive to carbon dioxide than was feared.如果这种猜测属实,灾难说来就来了(直译:灾难朝我们挥手)。但美国俄勒冈州立大学的安德烈亚斯-施密特纳在本周《科学》杂志上刊登的一篇报告认为,情况并非如此。在施密特纳士的分析中,气候并不像先前人们所担忧的那样对二氧化碳那么敏感。Existing studies of climate sensitivity mostly rely on data gathered from weather stations, which go back to roughly 1850. Dr Schmittner takes a different approach. His data come from the peak of the most recent ice age, between 19,000 and 23,000 years ago. His group is not the first to use such data (ice cores, fossils, marine sediments and the like) to probe the climates sensitivity to carbon dioxide. But their paper is the most thorough. Previous attempts had considered only small regions of the globe. He has compiled enough information to make a credible stab at recreating the climate of the entire planet.现有的关于气候敏感性的研究主要基于气象站收集的数据,可以追溯到公元1850年左右。施密特纳士采用了另外一种方法。他的数据来源于最近一次冰河时期的顶峰(介于一万九千到两万三千年前之间)。他的团队不是第一个使用这些数据(冰芯,化石,海洋沉积物诸如此类)来探测气候对二氧化碳的敏感性的团队。但他们的报告是最全面彻底的。过去的研究只考虑了全球的小部分地区。而他汇编了足够的信息,可以确凿地尝试一下重建整个地球的气候模型。The result offers that rarest of things in climate science-a bit of good news. The groups most likely figure for climate sensitivity is 2.3°C, which is more than half a degree lower than the consensus figure, with a 66% probability that it lies between 1.7° and 2.6°C. More importantly, these results suggest an upper limit for climate sensitivity of around 3.2°C.研究的结果给出了气候科学中最为罕见之物——一丁点好消息。该研究组给出最有可能的气候敏感性数字是2.3°C,比公认的数据低了半度多,并且该数字有66%的几率位于1.7°C到2.6°C之间。更重要的是,研究结果指出,气候敏感性的上限在3.2°C左右。Before you take the SUV out for a celebratory spin, though, it is worth bearing in mind that this is only one study, and, like all such, it has its flaws. The computer model used is of only middling sophistication, Dr Schmittner admits. That may be one reason for the narrow range of his teams results. And although the studys geographical coverage is the most comprehensive so far for work of this type, there are still blank areas-notably in Australia, Central Asia, South America and the northern Pacific Ocean. Moreover, some sceptics complain about the way ancient data of this type were used to construct a different but related piece of climate science: the so-called hockey-stick model, which suggests that temperatures have risen suddenly since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It will be interesting to see if such sceptics are willing to be equally sceptical about ancient data when they support their point of view.但是在你把SUV开出去兜风以作庆祝之前,要记住这只是一项研究而已,并且——就如同所有这类研究一样——研究自身也有缺陷。施密特纳士承认,该研究采用的电脑模型的复杂程度一般。这可能也是他的团队实验结果范围较窄的一个原因。而且,尽管这项研究的地理覆盖范围是迄今为止同类中最大的,它仍有空白区域——尤其指澳洲,中亚,南美和北太平洋地区。此外,一些怀疑论者对这些远古数据被用来构建一个不同的但是相关的气候学分:所谓的;曲棍球棒模型;(认为气温自从工业革命以后就突然上升)满腹牢骚。看看当远古数据持这些怀疑论者的观点时,这些人是否还愿意以同等的怀疑态度对待,这一定会非常有趣。 /201208/195752

The curvature, space, the warping of spacetime.扭曲、空间、扭曲的时空。And you just, you scratch your head.你只是,你挠头不解其中奥秘。He has now been struggling for four years to more fully developed his general theory of relativity.他现在对于更完善的广义相对论已经挣扎了四年的时间。His theory of relativity is so complicated that very few people can understand it.他的相对论是如此的复杂以致于很少有人能读懂它。Somebody got to test it.而有人要测试它。Thats not a testable hypothesis. Its not science. Its science fiction.那不是一个可测试的假说。它不是科学。这是科幻小说。Einstein knows he is on the right track towards solving his theory.爱因斯坦知道他是在解决他理论的正确的轨道上。Now he must find a way to prove it. Its 1911.现在他必须找到一个方法来明这一点。而现在是1911年。For 4 frustrating years, Einstein has struggled to perfect his general theory of relativity.令人沮丧的4年,爱因斯坦曾努力完善自己的广义相对论。His theory wont be accepted until he can demonstrate this radical concept.直到他能明这一激进的观念,他的理论才会被接受。Suddenly, he is struck by an idea.突然,他有了一个主意。If he can shine a beam of light through an aera where spaces are curved.如果他能照亮通过一个弯曲空间地区的一束光。Then according to his theory, the beam of light will actually appear to bend.然后按照他的理论,光线会出现弯曲。Light only knows straight lines. Whats bent is space.光只按照直线运动。而什么是弯曲空间?What could have enough gravity to bend light so much? Well, what about the sun?可能有足够的引力弯曲光线?噢,那太阳呢?注:听力文本来源于普特201204/176906

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