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嘉兴下颌角手术海宁市妇幼保健院做隆胸手术多少钱Business商业报道Religious tourism宗教旅游业Pennies from heaven来自天堂的便士Pilgrimages are a big business—and getting bigger朝拜活动内含巨大商机-而且前景持续变好MECCANS say they do not need agriculture, for God has given them the pilgrimage as their annual crop.这就是那条路,我相信麦加人说他们不需要农业,因为神已将朝圣之行当作他们一年的作物。Millions of Muslims are now setting out to take part in this years haj, a trek to Islams holiest site, in Saudi Arabia.几百万穆斯林现正开始了艰苦跋涉,去沙特阿拉伯的伊斯兰圣地麦加朝圣。The haj, which all Muslims aspire to do at least once in their lifetimes, now brings in 16.5 billion, around 3% of Saudi GDP.所有穆斯林们渴望在他们一生中至少实现一次的麦加朝圣占沙特的GDP约3%,也就是165亿美元。Jerusalem, a holy city for all three Abrahamic religions, also draws crowds of pilgrims, and huge numbers of Shia Muslims visit shrines in Iraq.作为三个亚伯拉罕教圣地的耶路撒冷,也吸引了成群结队的朝圣者,还有大量的什叶派穆斯林去参观位于伊拉克的神龛。The UNs World Tourism Organisation estimates that over 300m people go on pilgrimages each year. Countless others visit shrines or sacred places.联合国世界旅游组织分析每年有超过3亿人进行超生活动。无数的游客直接参观神龛和圣地。 The numbers are increasing because the Middle Easts growing middle class means more tourists, three-quarters of whom travel within the region.因中东中产阶级不断扩大而增加的人数意味着更多的游客,四分之三的游客是宗教式的旅行。Abundant tumult is less likely to deter those travelling for religious reasons than ordinary tourists.相对于普通游客,再多的骚乱也不太可能打消那些为了宗教原因去旅行游客的念头。Shia pilgrims still flock toKarbalaand Najaf inIraq, despite the threat of bombs.什叶派朝圣者不顾炸弹的威胁仍聚集到伊拉克的卡尔巴拉和纳贾夫。The person who sees their holiday as a cultural experience will be put off by bad security, but the believer will not, says Kevin Wright, an observer of new tourist markets.那些被危险吓走的人只是把他们的假期看做一次文化体验,而信仰者们不会信旅游市场观察员Kevin Wright说。Faith-based tourism in the region dates back to Moses leading his people through Sinai with God as their tour guide, jokes Peter Tarlow, a travel consultant who is also a rabbi.宗教里以信念为基础的旅行可追溯到西在上帝的指引下带领他的人民通过西奈半岛,犹太教律法专家顾问Peter Tarlow开玩笑说。In medieval times Venetian traders took Europeans on trips to theHoly Land.Israelhas long promoted religious tourism.在中世纪,商人就把欧洲人带到了前往圣地的路上。Yet most countries have been slow to profit from their religious sites.以色列早就发展了宗教旅游业。现在大多数国家慢慢开始在宗教景点上盈利。One exception is the haj, which has both expanded and gone upmarket.唯一的例外就是麦加朝圣,它既扩大了高端市场也流失了高端市场。Oil wealth and a rising identification with Islam have made it a huge moneymaker.石油财富和对伊斯兰教的同情感的提升都使它成为巨大的赚钱机器。Posh hotel chains have piled into Mecca, including Raffles, which in 2010 opened the spa-equipped Makkah Palace.高档酒店链已经充斥麦加,其中包括Raffles在2010年开了带有温泉浴场的Makkah Palace。Souvenir shops do such a roaring trade that some only bother to open during the haj.纪念品商店也大肆扩展了贸易,甚至游侠只在麦加朝圣时营业。Travel firms in the tourists home countries do nicely too.旅行者家里的旅行电影也做得很精美。InEgypt packages cost up to 80,000 Egyptian pounds, according to Reda Dunia, who runs a travel agency inCairo.根据开罗旅行社Reda Dunia的数据,开罗旅游套餐价格高达80,000欧元。Some pilgrims grumble about the rising cost of performing their religious duty. Airlines and hotels put up their prices during religious holidays.一些朝圣者抱怨旅行宗教职责时花销上涨。Nevertheless, says Mr Dunia, Muslims often save for years for their haj, so most of them are willing to spend money on the experience.航空公司和酒店在宗教节日时上涨他们的价格。而Dunia却说,穆斯林们经常为了麦加朝圣而存几年的钱,因此他们中大多数愿意在这体验上花钱。Some tour operators now offer packages that include leisure pursuits alongside the religion.一些旅行社现在提供包括与宗教擦边的闲暇旅游套餐。This helps to boost the price tag and might also persuade agnostics and atheists to visit holy sites just for the cultural experience.这就助涨了价格标签,也可能会吸引一无所知的人和无神论者为了文化经历去参观圣地。Countries lacking their own religious landmarks are now trying to create them.缺少自己宗教标志的国家正在尝试创造他们。In June Dubais authorities announced plans to build a Holy Koran theme park, with walls depicting stories from the Koran and a garden of plants mentioned in it.六月,迪拜官方宣布计划建立期可兰经圣地主题公园,墙上描绘可兰经里的故事和里面提到的花园里的植物。Dubaiis betting that the pious are as profitable as the shoppers and fun-seekers that it currently attracts.迪拜正豪赌着虔诚信徒们会像消费者和寻欢者们被它吸引的那样为它盈利。 /201310/260491浙江嘉兴激光全身脱毛价格 Dear A Moment of Science,I like to exercise, but I suffer from migraines and worry that getting my sweat on at the gymcould trigger a headache.亲爱的科学一刻:我喜欢运动,但我患有偏头痛,担心去健身房运动到出汗会引发头痛。Am I right to be cautious?我应该这么谨慎吗?Good question.问得好。For some people, exercise can in fact lead to a migraine.对一些人来说,运动其实能导致偏头痛。But most studies have shown that, onaverage, exercise may actually help ward off migraines.但绝大多数研究显示,一般而言,运动可能实际上能帮你远离偏头痛。At the very least, exercise doesnt seemto hurt most migraine sufferers.至少可以肯定,运动并不会对大多数偏头痛患者造成损害。Right,one study done in Sweden put more than ninety migraine prone folks into three groups:one that exercised for around forty minutes three times a week, another that was given a drug toprevent migraines, and a third had regular relaxation sessions.正好,瑞典有一项研究将90名患有偏头痛的人分成3组:一组一周进行3次约40分钟的运动;另一组用药物来防止偏头痛;第三组则进行定时放松活动。After three months, and then anadditional six months of follow up, the study found that migraines were reduced for people in allthree groups.3个月后的研究结果及另外6个月的跟踪调查显示,3组人的偏头痛都有所缓解。Another, smaller study examined more than twenty-five migraine sufferers before, during, andafter working out on stationary bikes.另一项规模较小的研究对25名偏头痛患者在健身车上运动前、运动中和运动后的情况进行了调查。After three months, the subjects all experienced fewerheadaches.3个月后,所有的研究对象发生偏头痛的次数都更少了。So at least according to these studies, exercise appears to be a viable alternative to migrainedrugs.因此,至少就这些研究结论来说,用运动来代替用偏头痛药物似乎是可行的。To be clear, though, this doesnt mean that working out never triggers migraines.尽管如此,需要明确的是,这并不意味着锻炼不会引发偏头痛。Especially if you dont exercise regularly, its probably best to ease into it and see how your headreacts.尤其当你不经常运动时,最好是循序渐进地进行运动,并看看你头部的反应。If working up a sweat doesnt appear to trigger a headache, then you can gradually buildup to higher intensity workouts.如果运动到出汗并未引发头痛,你就可以逐步进行更大强度的锻炼。201404/286357Yael:What would you say your attitude is toward celebrities, Don?雅艾尔:你说你对明星的态度如何,唐?DON:Do you mean whether I like them?唐:你的意思是我是否喜欢他们吗?Yael:I mean are you obsessed?雅艾尔:我的意思是你是痴迷吗?Do you spend hours on the Internet trying to find out what their favorite nail polish color is and whether they believe in hypnosis?你花几个小时在网上只是为了找出他们喜欢的指甲油颜色及他们是否相信催眠?DON:Im fond of The BeeGees, but I dont think they wear nail polish and I could care less what they think about hypnosis.唐:我喜欢BeeGees,但我不会去想他们抹指甲油,而且我对他们看待催眠不怎么关心 。Yael:Okay, do you believe in a just world, that life is fair?雅艾尔:好吧,你相信世界是公平的,生活是公平的吗?D:I cant pick up a newspaper without ing evidence that life is not only unfair, but often cruel.唐:我不能捡起一张报纸不去阅读就表明生活不仅是不公平的,而且往往残酷。Yael:Good. What I mean is that psychologists have found that people who believe in a just world are more likely to worship celebrities, whereas people more critical of society are less likely to obsess over a celebrity.雅艾尔:很好。我的意思是心理学家发现,那些相信公平世界的人更有可能崇拜名人,然而批判社会的人不太可能痴迷名人。People who strongly believe in a just world believe that life is fair, that good things happen to good people and bad things to bad people.那些坚信生活是公平的人认为善有善报,恶有恶报。People who believe in a just world are expressing acceptance of society and its institutions.人们相信公平世界的人表达出对于这个社会以及其所有制度的接受。Since the celebrity system is one of these institutions researchers suggest that it makes sense that those believing in a just world would be satisfied with how celebrities are made and thus more likely to admire and even obsess over them.因为明星也是这个社会体系的一种制度,研究人员表明很容易理解那些信仰公平世界的人对名人感到满意,因此更有可能钦佩甚至对他们痴迷。Vice versa, people who do not believe in a fair world might resist worshipping celebrities,反之,那些不相信公平世界的人可能会抵制崇拜明星,and in fact question or criticize the system that produces them and decides who gets to be a celebrity.事实上质疑或批评这一体系造就他们并且决定谁成为名人。DON:Dont get me started.唐:别从我开始。201309/255334嘉兴有哪些地方可以做埋线

嘉兴激光去雀斑效果嘉兴哪里整形好 Have you ever noticed that while its pretty easy to tell your dog is sick, its much harder to know how your cat or bird are feeling?你有没有注意到发现是否生病很容易,但想知道猫或鸟的感受就比较难了。Well, before you start asking your dog why it cant be more stoic like animals half its size, its probably worth considering each animals place in the food chain.在你问“为什么不能比身材不及它一半的动物更坚强”之前,应该思考一下在食物链中的位置。You see, the lower down the food chain you are, the more important it is for you to hide any sign of illness.要知道,在食物链的位置越低,隐藏疾病的任何征兆就越重要。Obvious illness or pain function as red flags for predators. You may as well wear a sign saying, “Easy meal, guys. Come and get me.”明显的疾病或疼痛对食肉动物来说是危险的信号。就好像你身上有这样的标语“容易到手的午餐,伙计们,快来吃我吧”。Now, even small dogs are genetically programmed to function like predators, which makes sense considering they are close relatives of wolves.现在,即使是很小的也由基因决定了是肉食动物。所以把看作狼的近亲也是有道理的。And birds–you can probably figure out why the only way youd find out your bird is sick is when it dies.至于鸟类,也许能知道它是否生病的唯一途径就是死亡。The situation with cats, as compared to dogs and birds, is much more interesting.而猫的情况与和鸟相比,就更有趣了。On the one hand, cats are predators, but on the other, theyre small enough to be prey.一方面,猫是食肉动物;另一方面,它们身材矮小很容易被捕食。So how can you tell if your smaller pets need medical attention?所以你要怎样判断宠物需要医药治疗呢?For one thing, trust your hunches.首先,相信预感。No one knows your pets like you do, so if you notice even very subtle changes in habits and behavior, you may want to have a vet look them over.没有人比你更了解你的宠物。当你注意到它们生活习惯上尽管是非常微小的变化,也要请兽医对其进行检查。For a cat, other signs of illness might be that it has stopped grooming, is losing weight, vocalizing more or less than usual, or missing the litter box.而猫生病的其它征兆,可能就是精神不振,食欲不佳等症状。 201407/313965嘉兴那家去液毛好

嘉兴腋下脱毛哪家医院好Science and technology科学技术Cancer and the microbiome癌症和微生物组A punch in the gut肠道里的元凶How microbes promote liver cancer in the overweight微生物如何诱发胖人的肝癌OBESITY brings problems—notably heart disease, diabetes and cancer.肥胖产生了问题―尤其是心脏病、糖尿病和癌症。It is not hard to understand its connection with heart disease and diabetes: excess fat clogs arteries and messes around with the metabolism.肥胖与心脏病、肥胖与糖尿病的联系不难理解:多余脂肪堵塞血管,使新陈代谢紊乱。Its link with cancer is less intuitive.但是肥胖与癌症的联系凭直觉就不能理解了。Shin Yoshimoto of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, in Tokyo, and his colleagues suspect this is at least partly because researchers have been looking for that link in the wrong place.位于东京的日本癌症研究基金会的Shin Yoshimoto以及他的同事怀疑,这主要是因为研究人员的研究角度错误。Most work in the field is focused on the cells of the human body.此领域的多数工作只是集中在人身细胞的研究。But researchers should, Dr Yoshimoto believes, be at least as interested in the cells of the microbiome, the collection of 100 trillion bacteria that live in the gut.Shin Yoshimoto认为,研究人员应当留心微生物组,这群生活在肠道的100万亿个细菌群。Mostly, the microbiome is beneficial.微生物组中的大多数都是有益的。It helps with digestion and enables people to extract a lot more calories from their food than would otherwise be possible.它们帮助消化,让人体从食物中分离出更多的能量。Research over the past few years, however, has implicated it in diseases from atherosclerosis to asthma to autism.然而,近几年的研究工作认为,微生物组是造成动脉硬化或孤独症等的病因。Dr Yoshimoto and his colleagues would like to add liver cancer to that list.但是,Yoshimoto以及他的同事则认为微生物组也是肝癌的病因。Their paper making this accusation is published in this weeksNature, and it is a careful, step-by-step analysis of the matter.他们的论文指出指控,发表在本周的《自然》杂志上。本篇文章进行了仔细、逐步的分析。They start from the facts that fat animals have different gut bacteria from thin ones; that some bacteria produce inflammatory molecules as part of their metabolism; and that inflammation promotes cancer.文章开始便列举了事实,肥胖动物的肠道细菌与瘦的不同;某些细菌在新陈代谢过程中产生一种能引起炎症的分子;炎症诱发癌症。They began their experiments by feeding laboratory mice a fatty diet, to make them obese.他们通过实验小鼠进行实验,喂养高脂肪食物,让它们长胖。Such mice, they found, are no more likely to develop cancer than those fed an abstemious diet.他们发现,吃了脂肪含量高的小鼠患癌症的机率不高于饮食有度的小鼠。Obesity alone, then, does not seem to cause tumours. But it might still promote them.因此,单独肥胖一项因素不会引起肿瘤,但是仍然会诱发肿瘤。Their next experiment therefore started by giving the mice a carcinogen known to trigger tumour formation throughout the body.因此,他们下一步的实验就是喂养小鼠能在全身形成肿瘤的致癌物质。One group was then fed standard fare while another got the high-fat diet.一组实验小鼠喂养标准食物,另一组喂养高脂肪食物。After 30 weeks, just 5% of the slim group had developed tumours, not in the liver but in the lungs.30个星期后,体形瘦削的那组只有5%患有肿瘤,不是在肝脏,而是在肺部。In the obese group, every animal had developed liver cancer.体形肥胖的那组,每只小鼠都患上了肝癌。To understand how this happened, the researchers began with the tumours and worked backwards.要了解其中的原因,研究人员先从肿瘤入手,采用了反正法。First, they found that the cancerous liver cells in their mice were generally accompanied by cells that had the symptoms of old age.首先,他们发现,实验小鼠中癌化的肝脏细胞周围的细胞出现了老龄化的症状。Such cells also emit chemical signals which promote inflammation, and thus encourage tumours.这些老化细胞会释放出引发炎症的化学信号,并进一步诱发肿瘤。The researchers suspected that these cells were being made senescent by something produced by gut bacteria.研究人员怀疑,细胞出现老化是由肠道细菌产生的某些物质所致。That suspicion was confirmed when they served some of their mice a cocktail of four antibiotics, to prune the animals microbiomes.研究人员混合了四种抗生素,喂养小鼠时,减少小鼠体内的微生物群。This treatment lowered the number of senescent and cancerous cells, suggesting the microbes were indeed to blame for promoting cancer.此时,他们的怀疑得到了实。这种喂养方法减少了老化和癌化细胞的数量,表明微生物确实是诱发癌症的因素。Dr Yoshimoto and his team then started to focus on which bacteria were causing the problem.接下来,Yoshimoto和他和团队开始研究是何种微生物导致问题。First, they discovered they could get the same cancer-suppressing effect using just vancomycin, an antibiotic that kills only “Gram-positive” bacteria.首先,他们发现,用专杀“革兰氏阳性”细菌的抗生素万古霉素进行实验,也能取得相同的抑癌效果。They also observed, as prior research had suggested, that a fatty diet raised levels of a chemical called deoxycholic acid and that antibiotics lowered it.同时,他们发现,高脂肪饮食会提升化学物质脱氧胆酸的水平,万古霉素会使其降低。Previous research had demonstrated too that DCA damages DNA in a way that promotes senescence.先前的研究也发现,DCA会以一种诱发衰老的方式破坏DNA。Dr Yoshimoto showed that lowering DCA levels in mice did indeed reduce the development of liver cancer.Yoshimoto让人们看到,降低实验小鼠体内DCA的水平确实会减少诱发肝癌的机率。Certain types of gut bacteria, including strains of Clostridium, are known to burp out DCA.某些肠道细菌,包括梭状芽胞杆菌菌株,研究人员进行进一步的工作,包括研究小鼠粪便。And further detective work, including examination of the mices faeces, revealed higher levels of a strain of Clostridium called OUT-1105 in the fat mice than in the thin ones.他们研究发现,肥胖的小鼠粪便中OUT-1105这种梭状芽胞杆菌的水平要高于瘦削小鼠。This strain, Dr Yoshimoto thinks, is the most likely culprit.Yoshimoto认为,这种梭菌很有可能就是罪魁祸首。There is, then, a chain of causation leading from the gut to the liver that promotes tumours in obese mice.之后,他们又发现了一连串的因果现象,说明了肥胖小鼠体内从大肠到肝脏诱发肿瘤的成因。And the chances are good that something similar pertains in Homo sapiens.这提供了好机会,因为这个过程与人体内的过程相似,Humans are not mice, of course.虽然人不是老鼠,But the two species microbiomes often do behave in the same way.但两者的运行机制还是相似的。If cancer does end up being added to the growing list of problems which an upset microbiome can cause, that may stimulate research into ways of tweaking it to stop it causing disease.人体内的微生物组令人烦恼,因为它会导致一些问题,而且由它导致的问题还在不断增加。假如由它导致的癌症防止不了,那么这就会刺激研究对微生物组进行调整,地防止产生疾病。It will also, once again, emphasise the microbiomes role, for both good and ill, as an adjunct part of the human body在此需要再一次地强调微生物组的作用,不论好与坏,毕竟它们都是人体的附属部分 /201311/263730 Books and Arts; Book Review;Political philosophy; Mightier than the sword;文艺;书评;政治哲学;雄文胜武;The collected thoughts on this, that and the other of two clever men;两位智者对于世间百态的思想汇聚;When writers are grand enough, they can produce books by recycling their journalism, lectures, academic papers and other jottings. Sometimes that can seem dated and lazy. Sometimes it is a treat: the assorted pieces come together to create a great mosaic. Neither “Facts are Subversive” by Timothy Garton Ash, an Oxford-based writer and academic, nor “Grays Anatomy” by John Gray, a political philosopher, fall into the first trap (or at least very rarely). They are both good s. But neither quite reaches the goal of the whole being more interesting than the parts.当作者之声名足够显赫时,他们只需将其新闻稿件、讲演录、学术论文以及其他只言片语回炉再加工一番,新书便告完成。有时,这种做法似乎是在偷工减料地翻炒冷饭;有时,它却为读者奉上一场新的盛宴:混杂的碎片化零为整,一幅伟大的镶嵌作品从中诞生。无论是由身处牛津的作家与学者——提西·加顿·阿什所著之《事实方具颠覆性》,还是政治哲学家约翰·格雷的作品——《格雷剖析录》,都未陷入前一种窘境(至少基本上如此),两者皆为优秀的读物;不过,它们也未完全实现令整体胜于部分的目标。Mr Garton Ash is incapable of writing a dull article. Unlike some famous-name writers, he is proud to be a reporter: whatever the subject, he digs diligently. He observes sharply and with a dry donnish wit that deserves greater play. A remarkable wordsmith, at his best he has an echo of one of his great heroes, George Orwell. The pieces range from his first stamping-grounds of Germany and central Europe to the bigger themes he took on later (such as Britains neurotic “dont know, dont trust, dont care” relationship with Europe) and to more exotic places, including Brazil, Iran and Myanmar.加顿·阿什不会撰写那些干涩无趣的文章,与某些知名作家不同,他为身为记者而自豪:无论面对何种主题,他都会勤奋挖掘素材。其一针见血,字里行间所透出之学究式的冷冷嘲讽,让人读来不禁有大材小用之叹。这位非凡的语言大师在其巅峰时期,甚至能在笔下中重现乔治·奥威尔当年的风采,而后者正是加顿·阿什心目中的伟大英雄人物之一。本书收录的零散作品,其范围从他最初频繁涉足的德国与中欧,延伸到他于日后挑战的更大主题(英国与欧洲之间神经质一般的“不知、不信、不顾”关系便为一例),并一直远达更富异域情调的地区,其中包括巴西、伊朗和缅甸。His aim is to chronicle the history of the “nameless decade”, the period that began with the terrorist attacks on America in September 2001 and ended with the election of Barack Obama last year. The subjects encompassed in that time include authoritarian governments, the challenge to liberalism raised by Islam and the corrosive combination of the Bush administrations bungled foreign policy and Europes unthinking anti-Americanism.加顿·阿什旨在为“无名年代”修史,这一时期始于2001年九月美国所受之恐怖袭击,止于去年巴拉克·奥巴马当选。其间所含的主题包括威权主义政府、伊斯兰教向自由主义发起的挑战,以及由布什政府的外交失策与欧洲轻率的反美思潮所构成之恶性结合。But Mr Garton Ashs silver nib wiggles past those constraints. The best essays in the book are timeless. One is a nuanced and convincing piece, both sympathetic and devastating, about Günter Grass, the German novelist, who revealed in his memoirs that he had briefly been in the Waffen SS. Did that taint Mr Grasss books, or his role in public life, or both or neither? Was it the wartime service that was shameful, or its concealment over decades? Mr Garton Ash brings the er sure-footedly through the thickets of Germanys post-war history and through the marshy ground of moral relativism. He points to the real scandal: that Mr Grass was himself so casually splenetic over so many years about other peoples shortcomings, while concealing his own.不过加顿·阿什的妙笔却如行云流水一般无拘无束,书中最佳的作品并不为时代背景所累。其中,关于德国小说家君特·格拉斯的一篇文章细致入微、令人信,字词间既存有恻隐,又不留情面;这位德国作家在其回忆录中透露,当年曾短暂效力于纳粹党卫军。这段历史是令其著作黯然失色?还是使他在公共生活中所扮演的角色沾上污点?或者说两者都未能幸免,抑或皆不受其影响?究竟是战时役一事令其蒙羞,还是日后数十年之隐瞒为人不齿?在加顿·阿什的带领下,读者们步履稳健地穿过了德国战后历史的迷宫,走出了道德相对主义的泥潭,真正的丑行被他指出:这么多年以来,格拉斯在给自己遮羞的同时,却对他人的短处如此随意地表现出义愤填膺之状。Another excellent piece touches on a comparable issue: the list of suspected communist sympathisers that Orwell supplied to the British authorities in 1949. Again, Mr Garton Ash is scrupulously fair, highlighting Orwells sincere (and justifiable) fear of communist infiltration, as well as his fumbling feelings for Celia Kirwan, the British official involved.另一篇杰作则涉及到一个与前例有可比性的话题:奥威尔于1949年向英国当局提交的那份共产主义疑似同情者的名单。加顿·阿什再一次地表现出了一丝不苟的公正态度,在文中强调了奥威尔对共产主义渗透行为的真切恐惧(这种恐惧也非杞人忧天),以及他对希莲·柯雯(涉及此事的英国官员)所抱有的为爱所醉之情。Some of the reworked articles are commendable journalism, but do not quite stand the test of time. Mr Garton Ashs observations from his trip to Iran in 2005 seem a bit whiskery now. It is nostalgic to about the fall of crony capitalism in Ukraine five years ago. But the er is left hankering to know what Mr Garton Ash thinks about the mess that has succeeded it. A fiercer editor might have left out such pieces, and pruned the authors occasional lapses into self-indulgence (using “proleptic” once is fine, twice is tiresome). That may not matter in individual newspaper columns. It jars when collected in a book.在经过重新修订的文章中,有一些是可圈可点的新闻稿件,不过它们并不能完全经受住时间的考验。加顿·阿什从其2005年伊朗之行中得出的观察结论在今天看来已有几分过时;他关于五年前权贵资本主义在乌克兰垮台的文章,如今读来确实令人怀念往昔;但读者们想了解加顿·阿什对于政权更迭之后的乱局有何见解的渴望却未得到满足。换做一位下手更狠的编辑,此类文章大概会被略去,而作者偶然的败笔也会被修剪成随性之举的模样(比如,“预期中”一词若只用一次颇为出,但再用一次便会令人审美疲劳)。对于个别的报纸专栏而言,出现这一问题可能无伤大雅;但汇集成书后,它便显得甚为刺眼。Mr Grays book is darker, grittier and more ambitious. Mr Garton Ash is happy to lambast the Wests specific shortcomings but Mr Gray sets out to unpick the shallow philosophical foundations of the whole edifice, in particular the modern myths about progress and perfectibility. He demolishes the theory that we have reached the “end of history”, the dogmas of secular liberalism, the weaknesses of financial casino capitalism and the limits of energy-intensive economic growth. Such targets deserve his scrutiny and Mr Grays criticisms are cogent. But he tends to overdo it. Again and again (and again) he attacks the people he calls “neoliberals” without pinning down whom (apart from Tony Blair) he is attacking. The er is left feeling a straw man has been dissected.格雷的著作则更富阴郁而强硬的气息,其创作野心也更为远大。加顿·阿什乐于抨击西方存在的具体缺陷,但格雷却着手拆解整个体系的浅薄哲学根基,尤其是关于进步和完美性的现代神话。在他的笔下,人类已达到“历史的终结”之理论,世俗自由主义的教义、金融资本主义(的种种缺陷)以及能源密集型经济增长(的极限)被一一推翻。由格雷对此类问题加以缜密研究,实非牛刀杀鸡之举,而其批判也颇为中肯;不过他却往往走得太远,一次一次(又一次)地,格雷对他所称的“新自由主义者”加以口诛笔伐,然而却几乎从不指明其具体的抨击对象(托尼·布莱尔是一个例外)。这让读者们不禁感到,格雷所剖开的只是一个稻草人而已。The finest pieces in Mr Grays book are satire. One is a Swiftian essay in favour of torture (which some serious-minded lefties took at face value). Even better is a devastating parody of the Marxist approach to linguistics, involving a (fictional) visit by Ludwig Wittgenstein to the Soviet Union, and his relationship with an (invented) Hungarian academic, L. Revai, who idealises the grunts of slave labourers as a proletarian Ursprache.此书中最好的作品当属讽刺文学。一篇持酷刑(某些一本正经的左翼人士便未能辨出其弦外之音)的斯威夫特式随笔可算在其中;而另一篇极佳的戏仿之作更令人叫绝,此文模仿了语言学的马克思主义研究模式,其情节包括路德维希·维特根斯坦对苏联的一次(虚构的)访问,以及他与(作者创造出的)匈牙利学者L·列瓦伊的交往,这位匈牙利学者将奴工的咕哝声理想化,将之提升至无产阶级原始语的高度。In Mr Grays most substantial essay, “An agenda for Green conservatism”, he attempts to rescue conservatism from the ideological excesses of the 1980s. This is a thought-provoking enterprise, deserving a book on its own. But if it became a book, the authors views on such things as the failings of professional monopolies in education and health would benefit from more statistics and fewer assertions—calling, perhaps, for investment in a researcher.而在其最有分量的文章“绿色保守主义之议程”中,格雷试图将保守主义从二十世纪八十年代的意识形态泛滥中拯救出来。这一尝试之举引人深思,话题本身甚至值得以专著加以探讨。但若果真成书,那么作者对诸如教育与健康领域职业垄断的失败等议题所持有的见解,便需从更多的统计数据中获益,而凭空断言在其中所起的作用则应减少——这可能需要在研究者方面的投入。As Mr Garton Ash rightly points out, it is facts, ultimately, that are subversive.正如加顿·阿什恰如其分之言:最终,具有颠覆性的其实还是事实。 /201304/235288秀城区自体脂肪填充多少钱嘉善县鼻头鼻翼缩小多少钱

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