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2018年01月24日 11:16:33

Xie Qiujun, a 26-year-old woman in Chengdu, Sichuan province, lost both her hands in a fire when she was just 4 years old.来自四川成都的谢秋君,今年26岁,在4岁时,由于一场火灾,她失去了双手。After about 40 surgeries, 10 new ;fingers; were eventually sculpted from her wrist.在40余次分指手术后,她的手腕上“长”出了“新手指”。Despite subsequent challenges, Xie has successfully opened more than 100 fast food restaurants.尽管之后出现了许多困难,谢秋君已经成功地开了百余家快餐店。;I am able to do things just like other people,; Xie insisted, explaining that she never considered herself special.谢秋君坚称:“我能像其他人一样做事情。”并解释称她从不认为自己特殊。However, from all appearances, Xie is quite special.不过,从各种迹象看来,她确实很特殊。She attended school and distinguished herself as a top student; she studied 3-D animation and earned several prizes; she worked in sales and became a champion seller among her 6,000 co-workers. Finally, she chose to start her own business.进入学校读书,她的成绩名列前茅;学习3D动漫,作品屡屡获奖;她从事销售行业,从6千人中脱颖而出,成为销售冠军。最终,她决定自己创业。Xie was born in 1990. Her happy childhood came to a screeching halt after her accident, which cost 10,000 yuan in medical expenses every three days. She almost died several times.谢秋君出生于1990年。她快乐的童年在她发生事故后戛然而止。每三天就要花费10000元的医疗费用。有好几次她几乎殒命。Doctors told her parents to give up, and Xie maintains that it was only her parents#39; love and persistence that made her miraculous recovery possible.医生告知其父母选择放弃,谢秋君认为,是她父母的爱和坚持,才让她有可能奇迹般的恢复。Despite Xie#39;s lack of hands and severe burns, her mother encouraged the young girl to face the public and make friends.尽管谢秋君失去了双手,并且严重烧伤,她的母亲鼓励这位年轻的女孩面对公众,多交朋友。She also taught Xie to do housework so she could live independently. Under her parents#39; patient guidance, Xie developed an exceptionally strong will.她的母亲还教她做家务,这样她才可以独立生活。在她父母的耐心指导下,谢秋君培养了异常坚强的意志。Xie faced another obstacle when she was in high school and failed the university entrance exam.谢秋君面临的另一个困难是她在高中时,高考落榜。However, she remained confident that there was always a way out. And her optimism paid off: she was given a free 3-D animation training course by the Disabled Persons#39; Federation.但是她仍然相信总有一条出路。她的积极乐观得到了回报: 她可以上残联的免费3D动画培训课程。One day, Xie heard a speech about entrepreneurship, which ignited her own dreams. She found a job with a sales company to gain experience.一天,谢秋君听了关于创业的演讲,也是这次演讲点燃了她的梦想。她在一家销售公司找到了一份工作,目的是为了积累经验。Later, in 2014, Xie met her husband. They got to know each other through WeChat, and the young fast food restaurant owner was touched by Xie#39;s passion and spirit. They shared the same entrepreneurship dream.之后,谢秋君在2014年邂逅了她的丈夫。他们通过微信彼此相识,这位年轻的快餐店老板被谢秋君的热情和心灵打动了。他们有着共同的创业梦想。Together, they opened a new fast food restaurant three month later. Now they own more than 100 restaurants.三个月后,他们一起开了一家新的快餐店。如今他们已拥有100多家快餐店。The couple obtained a marriage license this year and is planning a wedding ceremony in 2017.这对夫妻今年领了结婚,并计划于2017年举办婚礼。 /201609/467851内蒙古医学院附属医院祛疤多少钱The first 100 days of Donald Trump’s presidency have brought some good news and some bad news. The good news is that, albeit chaotically, he is governing more as an orthodox post-Reagan Republican than most expected. The bad news is that he is governing more as an orthodox Republican than most expected. This now seems true in all the main policy areas, both domestic and international. It is clearly true in economic policy.唐纳德?特朗普(Donald Trump)就任总统的头100天既带来了一些好消息,也带来一些坏消息。好消息是,尽管有些混乱,但他的执政方式比大多数人预想的更接近一名正统的后里根时代共和党人。而坏消息是,他的执政方式比大多数人预期的更接近一名正统共和党人。如今,在所有主要的政策领域——无论是国内还是国际,似乎都是如此。在经济政策方面,显然更是如此。The idea of rebuilding US infrastructure has faded. The trade protectionism looks halfhearted. But deregulation is still an objective. So is tax reform, with the familiar combination of unfunded giveaways and magical thinking on deficits. Mr Trump’s policies look ever more like Reagan’s, but from a more unfavourable starting point.重建美国基础设施的想法已经消褪。贸易保护主义看起来意兴阑珊。但放宽监管仍是目标之一。税改也一样,伴随如下熟悉的组合:缺乏财力撑的减税大礼包和关于赤字的神奇想法。特朗普的政策看起来越发像里根的政策,只是起点更为不利。In announcing the tax plan, the White House did in an essential respect reinforce experience with this administration. It is hard to think of another government that would announce radical reforms of the tax system in a one-page document as sketchy as this one. It would be laughable if it were not so damaging to the US reputation for competent policymaking. The plan must be dead on arrival in Congress, in large part because it is not alive in the first place.白宫在宣布减税计划时,的确在一个重要方面加深了人们对于本届政府的印象。很难想象会有另一届政府如此粗略地在一页纸的文件中宣布对税制进行彻底改革。要不是这种做法给美国强大政策制定能力的声誉造成了严重损害,我们原本可能会觉得整件事挺可笑的。该计划一到达国会必然流产,很大程度上是因其原本就是“死胎”。The single page released by the White House last week does, however, contain very similar ideas to those announced by candidate Trump. This makes it possible for us to go back to the analysis published by the Tax Policy Center in October. While we have little reason to expect a plan just like this to be enacted, that earlier analysis does help us understand how far the administration’s starting point remains from common sense on fiscal policy.然而,白宫上周发布的一页纸的税改方案,的确包含了与特朗普竞选总统时的口号非常相似的观点。这使得我们可以回头看看去年10月税收政策中心(Tax Policy Center)发布的分析。虽然我们几乎没有理由预期这样一项计划获得通过,但早先的分析确实有助于我们理解,本届政府的财政政策出发点在多大程度上背离了常识。Start with the effects on the fiscal deficit. According to the TPC, the plan would raise the federal deficit (even after allowing for beneficial macro-economic effects) by a little under 3 per cent of gross domestic product for as long as it remains in place. But, according to the International Monetary Fund, the US is aly running a general government structural deficit of 4 per cent of GDP, forecast to rise to just under 6 per cent of GDP in the early 2020s.让我们从该计划对财政赤字的影响开始看。根据税收政策中心的分析,该计划在其实施的全部期间内,将使联邦赤字与国内生产总值(GDP)之比(即使考虑到有利的宏观经济效果)升高略低于3%。但国际货币基金组织(IMF)的数据显示,美国政府总体结构性赤字与GDP之比本已达到4%,预计到本世纪20年代初将升至略低于6%。With the addition of the proposed tax cuts, a structural general government deficit of well over 8 per cent of GDP might emerge in the 2020s. This would cause an explosive rise in debt. That could not be allowed to happen, particularly since US general government net debt is now more than 80 per cent of GDP, up from 45 per cent before the crisis and far lower when Reagan came to office. The structural deficit needs to be reduced, not increased. Yet this fiscal boost is not intended to be temporary and would also occur when unemployment is at 4.5 per cent of the labour force. It would be of the wrong kind, at the wrong time.考虑到提议的减税,到本世纪20年代,政府结构性总体赤字与GDP之比可能达到略低于9%。这将导致债务的爆炸性增长。不能允许这种情况发生,尤其是如今美国政府总净债务与GDP之比已超过80%,高于金融危机前的45%,但远低于里根(Reagan)上台时的水平。结构性赤字需要削减,而非增加。然而按计划,这种财政刺激不是暂时的,即便失业率为4.5%(自然失业率)时,也将施行。这将是在错误时间的一种错误做法。Defenders suggest, in response, that the plan might pay for itself, via increased activity. Given the low unemployment rate, this seems quite unlikely. Yet US Treasury secretary Steven Mnuchin has even suggested that, in combination with other administration policies, tax cuts could raise US trend growth to 3 per cent, from the current trend of slightly below 2 per cent.辩护者回应称,该计划或许可以通过经济活跃度提高来自行买单。由于失业率较低,这似乎极度不可能。但美国财政部长史蒂文?姆努钦(Steven Mnuchin)甚至表示,结合华府的其他政策,减税可将美国的趋势增长率从当前的略低于2%提升至3%。Such a rise in growth would help. But it is very unlikely, for reasons explained by Jason Furman, former chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers. For it to happen, he argues, it would be far from sufficient for the decline in labour force participation to reverse. There would also be a need for a rise in the growth of output per hour from the 1.2 per cent achieved in the last decade to 2.8 per cent. That rate of productivity growth has been extremely rare in the past, over any extended time period. It would be mad for policymakers simply to assume this will happen (See charts.)这样的经济增长率提升会有所帮助。但这种情况出现的可能性非常低,原因如白宫经济顾问委员会(Council of Economic Advisers)主席贾森?弗曼(Jason Furman)所解释的。他认为,劳动力参与率的下降趋势发生逆转,远不足以让这种情况发生。还需要每小时产量增长率从过去十年实现的1.2%提高至2.8%。在历史上,我们很少见到这种生产率增长速度能持续哪怕一小段时间。决策者准是疯了,才会就这么简单地假设这种情况会发生(见图表)。The question then is whether these huge tax cuts could be offset elsewhere. The border tax adjustment to corporation tax now seems to be a dead idea. So the only solution would be huge cuts in spending. To reduce spending by, say, 2.5 per cent of GDP would mean a cut in federal spending of about 12 per cent. But nearly 90 per cent of that spending goes on defence, health, income security, veterans’ benefits, social security and interest. On the assumption that these items will be protected, every other item of federal spending would have to be eliminated. The federal government would, in many areas, vanish.那么,剩下的问题就是,这些大幅度的减税能否在其他领域得到抵偿。对公司税的边境税调节,现在看来已经没戏了。因此唯一的解决方案将是大幅削减出。出削减幅度达到GDP的2.5%(打个比方),将意味着联邦出削减约12%。但将近90%的联邦出都用于国防、医疗、收入保障、退伍军人福利、社会保障和利益。假设这些出项目都不动,其他所有的联邦出项目都将不得不取消。联邦政府在很多领域的作用将消失。The tax proposals also look astoundingly regressive. According to the TPC’s analysis, the top 0.1 of the income distribution might receive an average tax cut approaching 14.2 per cent of after-tax income, while middle-income households would receive an average tax cut of 1.8 per cent. Among the startlingly regressive changes would be repeal of the alternative minimum tax, repeal of estate taxes and huge reductions in corporate tax rates, including on so-called pass-through businesses. To those that have it shall be given. That is the doctrine of Mr Trump. It is also the old Republican trickle-down doctrine in purest form.税改提议的累退性看起来也令人吃惊。根据税收政策中心的分析,处于收入分配最顶层的0.1%的人平均享受的减税幅度,可能接近税后收入的14.2%,而中等收入家庭平均享受1.8%的减税。除各项累退程度令人吃惊的改变之外,提议还包括废除替代性最低税(AMT)、废除遗产税以及大幅削减公司税率(包括对所谓“过渡法人企业”(pass-through business)的减税)。凡有的,还要加给他。这是特朗普的教义。这也是最纯粹的老共和党“涓流”(trickle-down)式教义。Mr Trump won the nomination by promising to be a different sort of Republican. He is not. What he has achieved is to make the “bait and switch” yet more obvious. Post-Reagan Republicans reached out to the base by campaigning on cultural issues, while legislating for the upper 1 per cent. That is “pluto-populism”. Mr Trump added infrastructure spending, trade protectionism and support for Medicare and social security. But he too plans to deliver for the top 1 per cent.特朗普通过发誓做不一样的共和党人而赢得提名。但他不是。他能有今天的位置,将把“先许诺、再掉包”那一套更加直白地展露在世人面前。后里根时代的共和党人通过把竞选重心放在文化问题上触及基层民众,同时在立法时偏向最富有的1%的人。这是“富豪民粹主义”。特朗普提出了如下新鲜元素:增加基础设施出、倡导贸易保护主义、持联邦医疗保险(Medicare,面向老年人的联邦健康保险)和社会保障。但他同样也打算为最富有的1%的人带来好处。Pluto-populism is highly politically effective. But it works by making the base ever angrier and more desperate. That is playing with political fire. The republic may survive Mr Trump. But what comes after?“富豪民粹主义”在政治上非常行之有效。但它行之有效的方式,是让基层民众越来越愤怒和绝望。这是在政治上玩火。一个特朗普可能不会让美利坚合众国倒下。但接下来会有什么? /201705/507753内蒙古自治区第二附属医院减肥瘦身多少钱Paris (AFP) - The end of China#39;s one-child-per-couple limit last year will not provide the population boost sought by Chinese leaders in the near term, according to a study released Friday.巴黎(法新社)——周五公布的一项研究发现,去年中国一胎政策的终结将无法实现中国领导人在短期内增加人口的目标。Any potential benefits the new ;two-child; rule might have for the nation#39;s shrinking workforce and rapidly ageing population will not be felt for at least two decades, the study concluded.这项研究得出结论称,新的二胎政策对该国缩减的劳动力以及快速增加的老龄化人口所可能产生的好处至少不会在未来20年内被感觉到。China is faced with deep demographic challenges thanks to the strict -- and sometimes brutal -- enforcement of its single child policy, introduced in 1979 at the end of the Mao Zedong era.中国真面临严重的人口挑战忙,这主要归咎于毛泽东时代终结的1979年起中国实行了严格有时候甚至是残忍的一胎化政策。The new rules will ;allow most people to have their desired number of children and help address the skewed sex ratio,; said Therese Hesketh, a researcher at University College London and co-author of the study, published in The Lancet.新的政策将“允许大部分人生下自己想要的孩子数量,并帮忙解决扭曲的性别比例,”伦敦大学学院研究员兼该研究的合作者Therese Hesketh如是说,该研究发布在了《柳叶刀》杂志上。The two-child limit will also reduce the number of abortions of unapproved pregnancies, and could eliminate the problem of unregistered children, she said in a statement.二孩政策也将减少非认可怀的堕胎数量,也能消除未注册孩子问题,她在一份声明中说道。;But the effect on population ageing and the shrinking workforce will take longer to be felt.;“但是对人口老龄化以及劳动力人口下降的影响将没有那么快显现。”China has 220 million people 60 or older, accounting for over 16 percent of its total population, the government said in July.中国的60岁及以上人口数量达到了2.2亿,相当于总人口的16%,中国政府7月份说道。The country#39;s workforce is on track to decline by as much as 23 percent by 2050.中国劳动力到2050年将减少23%。 /201610/471528RIO DE JANEIRO — How do Brazilians feel about their big Olympic moment?里约热内卢——巴西人对自己举办奥运的大日子感觉如何?First there is the anger: Rioters pelted the Olympic torch relay with rocks as it approached Rio de Janeiro, while bumper stickers have rearranged the Olympic rings into a four-letter word.首先是愤怒:奥运火炬传递到里约热内卢的途中,暴民向其投掷石块,还出现了把奥运五环重新排列成一个四字母单词的汽车车贴。Then there is the anxiety: With gallows humor amid a crime wave and fears of terrorism, a bingo game is circulating for people to wager on which day during the games an attack will occur.再有是焦虑:一波犯罪潮出现,而且人们担忧发生恐怖袭击,黑色幽默却也应运而生,在一个宾果游戏中,你可以下注在奥运会期间哪一天会发生袭击。And the indifference: The media giant Globo will not even bother to broadcast the Olympics during the coveted Sunday afternoon slot, opting instead for domestic soccer. A sizable number of hotel rooms here remain unreserved, forcing travel agents to slash rates in a desperate attempt to entice Brazilians to come.还有就是冷漠:巴西媒体巨头环球电视台(Globo)甚至没兴趣在周日下午的黄金时间播出奥运会节目,而是选择了巴西足球节目。大量酒店客房仍然无人预定,旅行社不得不降低价格,拼命招揽巴西人光顾。“Just thinking of the Olympics leaves me revolted,” said Ana Caroline Joia da Souza, 21, a street vendor who sells sweets in front of a Rio metro station. “Our politicians want to trick the world into thinking things are great here. Well, let the foreigners see for themselves the filth we live in, the money our leaders steal.”“一想到奥运会我就感到恶心,”21岁的安娜#8226;卡罗琳#8226;乔伊#8226;达索萨(Ana Caroline Joia da Souza)说,她在里约热内卢的一个地铁站前摆摊卖糖果。“政客想瞒骗整个世界,让大家觉得巴西很好很棒。好吧,让外国人自己来看看我们住的这个肮脏地方,看看巴西领导人偷走的钱吧。”It is something of a ritual in countries that host the Olympics to engage in soul-searching on the eve of the games. And Brazil is no exception, unleashing a withering exploration of the country’s political, economic and ethical troubles before the opening ceremony on Friday.东道主国家在奥运会前夕进行反思几乎已成惯例。巴西也不例外,在奥运会本周五开幕之前,该国就其政治、经济和道德方面的问题展开了一波疾风骤雨般的探究。Nearly two-thirds of Brazilians — 63 percent — think hosting the Olympics will hurt the country, according to a recent survey by the polling company Datafolha. Only 16 percent said they were enthusiastic about the games, while 51 percent said they had no interest in them. (The poll, conducted on July 14-15 in interviews with 2,792 people, had a margin of sampling error of plus or minus 2 percentage points.)民意调查公司Datafolha近期举行的一项调查显示,将近三分之二巴西人——具体是63%——认为举办奥运会有损于巴西。只有16%的受访者说自己热切期盼奥运会,51%的人则表示他们对奥运会毫无兴趣。(调查是在7月14日和15日进行的,共有2792名受访者,抽样误差为正负两个百分点)。The grim mood stands in stark contrast to the ebullience shown in 2009 when Rio landed the Olympics. At the time, Brazil was basking in its triumphs — including a growing presence on the world stage, the lifting of millions of poor people into the middle class and the maturing of its young democracy after 21 years of military rule that had ended in 1985.这种沉郁的气氛,与2009年里约热内卢夺得奥运会主办权时的兴奋之情形成了鲜明对比。当时的巴西沉醉在胜利的喜悦中——该国在全球舞台上的存在感日益增强,数以百万计的贫困人口进入了中产阶层,在21年的军人统治于1985年结束后,年轻的民主制度在演进中日益成熟。But, today, the Olympics are competing with both a harrowing recession and Brazil’s other public spectacle: bare-knuckled political dysfunction.但如今,与奥运会争抢人们的注意力的,除了令人饱受煎熬的经济衰退,还有另一出在公众视野里展开的大戏:巴西的肉搏式政治乱局。The country has not one, but two presidents: Dilma Rousseff, who was suspended to face impeachment proceedings that will continue to unfold during the games, and Michel Temer, her interim replacement. Both Rousseff, a leftist, and Temer, who is shifting to the right, are deeply unpopular around the country. In fact, voters are fuming about the entire political establishment.目前巴西的总统不是一个,而是两个:一个是已经停职的迪尔玛#8226;罗塞夫(Dilma Rousseff),她面临的弹劾案将在奥运期间继续展开,另一个是临时顶替她的米歇尔#8226;特梅尔(Michel Temer)。无论是左派的罗塞夫,还是日益右倾的特梅尔,在巴西各地都非常不受欢迎。事实上,选民们对所有政治权贵都极为不满。The runup to the Olympics has been marked by such a long and varied list of fiascos — from protests over forced evictions to complaints about both thefts and plumbing debacles at the new Olympic Village — that the British sports historian David Goldblatt ranks the preparations here among the worst in Olympic history.在里约奥运会开幕之前,出现了一大串各式各样的恶劣问题——从抗议强制驱逐行动,到抱怨新的奥运村发生了盗窃和管道无法使用的事情——英国体育历史学家戴维#8226;戈德布拉特(David Goldblatt)说,这是历史上准备工作最糟糕的奥运会之一。In an effort to bolster security in Rio during the games, the federal government is deploying thousands of troops to patrol the crime-weary city. But critics say that bringing in soldiers from violence-ravaged cities in northeast Brazil could embolden gang activity there and in other parts of the country.里约的犯罪率居高不下,为了提高该市在奥运期间的安全性,联邦政府把数以千计的军人部署到这里进行巡逻。但批评者说,巴西东北部一些城市暴力肆虐,从那里调兵到里约会导致当地和其他区域的帮派变得胆大妄为。Supporters say the traditional Olympic narrative often involves an escalation of tension before the games, only to be replaced by excitement once they are underway. There are also those who say the country needs to stop complaining and start enjoying the spectacle.持者说,在历届奥运会开幕之前,往往都有紧张局势升级的说法,但是开幕之后,大家的情绪就会振奋起来了。还有一些人说,该国民众应该停止抱怨,享受这一盛事。“Everyone wanted the games here when we got them, so all the criticism now is hypocritical,” said Cleide Correa, 72, a real estate broker in Rio de Janeiro. “Of course they spent a lot of money to organize this, but that’s the case in every host country. We need to make the best of the situation now.”“当初我们赢得主办权的时候,每个人都希望在这里举办奥运会,所以现在的批评全都很虚伪,”72岁的里约热内卢房地产经纪人克雷德#8226;科雷亚(Cleide Correa)说。“当然,他们花了很多钱来办奥运,但是每个东道国都不例外。我们需要在现有状况的基础上做到最好。”Eduardo Paes, the mayor of Rio de Janeiro, who has hitched his political fortunes to the games, contends the negative sentiment around the Olympics is largely because of Brazil’s “stray-dog complex,” a term used by the playwright Nelson Rodrigues to describe the inferiority with which Brazilians sometimes view themselves in relation to other countries.里约热内卢市长爱德华多#8226;帕埃斯(Eduardo Paes)已经把自己的政治前途和奥运会连在了一起,他说,围绕奥运会产生的负面情绪主要源自于巴西的“流浪情结”。这个词是剧作家纳尔逊#8226;罗德里格斯(Nelson Rodrigues)提出的,指巴西人在将自己和其他国家做对比的时候存在着一种自卑感。The International Olympic Committee, Paes said, “is noting how we sell ourselves short.” He then argued that blame for the problems at the Olympic Village rested with an Argentina-born Olympic official, and contended that Brazilians were rapidly resolving the issues.帕埃斯说,国际奥委会(International Olympic Committee)“已经注意到我们在妄自菲薄”。他随后表示,奥运村的问题要怪一个在阿根廷出生的奥林匹克官员。他还说,巴西人正迅速解决这些问题。Others say the country’s merciless self-questioning at the moment holds a cathartic value, reflecting a democracy where freedom of expression remains resilient.另外一些人表示,巴西此刻进行无情的自我检讨,可以起到宣泄情绪的作用,还说明在这个民主国家里,人们享有极大的言论自由。In an essay, writer Eliane Brum listed some of the problems that make Brazil seem like a holy mess, including man-made environmental disasters like the bursting of a dam last year in the state of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro’s sewage-infested Guanabara Bay, where sailing teams fear colliding with dead bodies.作家埃莉亚尼#8226;布鲁姆(Eliane Brum)在一篇文章中列出了把巴西看变成一团乱麻的若干问题,其中包括人为造成的环境灾难,比如米纳斯吉拉斯州的一道水坝去年发生了决堤事故,再比如瓜纳巴拉湾被里约的下水道污水严重污染,帆船队担心在那里撞上死尸。Still, Brum said, it would be a joke to submit Brazil “to the judgment of the so-called First World,” given the number of recent problems in those countries and elsewhere.但布鲁姆表示,把巴西交由“所谓的第一世界去评判”会很可笑,因为在那些国家以及世界其他地方,最近也出现了大量问题。Brazil’s malaise has some arguing for realistic expectations.面对巴西的弊病,一些人开始呼吁抛开不切实际的期待。“We’re clearly not about to project an image of a powerful and efficient country,” said Fernando Gabeira, a politician and writer.“我们显然不可能展现强大、高效的国家形象,”政治人物、作家费尔南多#8226;加贝拉(Fernando Gabeira)说。“Maybe we can show how we’re starting to get past our economic, political and moral disaster,” Gabeira said. “We could be like those athletes who manage to finish the marathon with their tongues hanging out, almost fainting. But they make it to the finish line.”“我们或许可以展现的是,我们正着手应对经济、政治和道德灾难,”卡贝拉说。“我们可以像那些设法跑完马拉松的运动员一样,他们伸着舌头,几近晕厥,但他们抵达了终点。” /201608/459028呼和浩特哪里祛痣比较好

内蒙古自治区医院隆胸多少钱玉泉区丰胸医院哪家好呼和浩特市第二医院割双眼皮手术多少钱Yamoussoukro in Ivory Coast is a city with roads wide enough for jumbo jets to land on, a vast presidential palace and a basilica modelled on St Peter’s in Rome. However, while it was named the nation’s capital in 1983, most commercial and administrative activities still take place in another city, Abidjan.在科特迪瓦(Ivory Coast)的亚穆苏克罗市(Yamoussoukro),道路宽得可以降落大型喷气式客机,还有一个巨大的总统府和以罗马圣彼得大教堂为蓝本的长方形基督教堂。然而,尽管该市在1983年被定为国家首都,但如今大部分商业与行政活动仍发生在另一座城市阿比让(Abidjan)。Yamoussoukro’s failure to become the country’s primary urban centre is an example of how grand plans for new cities do not always live up to expectations.亚穆苏克罗市未能成为科特迪瓦的主要都市中心,是兴建新城市的宏伟计划并非总能达到预期的一个例子。From the ghostly eco-cities of China to Malaysia, where Cyberjaya, built as the country’s version of Silicon Valley, has so far failed to thrive, there is plenty of evidence of how difficult it is to create a city from scratch.从缺乏人气的中国“生态城”,到马来西亚以硅谷为蓝本建设、但至今未能蓬勃发展的赛城(Cyberjaya),大量据明,从一张白纸开始兴建一座城市有多么困难。“A lot of them are not filling in as expected,” says Sarah Moser, director of urban studies at Canada’s McGill university, who, with her students, is compiling a new cities database.“很多新城的人气发展不及预期,”加拿大麦吉尔大学(McGill University)城市研究主任莎拉#8226;莫泽(Sarah Moser)说。她正跟自己的学生一起编制一个新城市数据库。On paper, the points for such greenfield developments are strong. Pressure is growing to house rapidly expanding urban populations, particularly in emerging economies. Policymakers in these countries have seized on building high-tech cities as a way of joining the club of wealthier nations. “Since the 1990s, and increasingly in the past 10 years, this has become a staple financial strategy for countries in the ‘global south’,” says Ms Moser. “It’s seen as a way to leapfrog the economy from the production of raw materials and manufacturing into this new, high-tech era.”在理论上,持这些绿地开发的理由十分充足。为快速增长的城市人口安排住房的压力在加大,尤其是在新兴经济体。这些国家的政策制定者把兴建高科技城市作为加入富国俱乐部的一个发力点。“自1990年代以来,尤其是在过去10年里,这已日益成为‘全球南方’(global south,泛指发展中国家——译者注)国家的一项首选金融战略,”莫泽说。“它被视为实现经济跳跃式发展的一条途径,从原材料生产与加工,迈入新的高科技时代。”As cities produce more than 70 per cent of the world’s human-generated carbon emissions, according to UN-Habitat, attempts are also being made to design “green” or “carbon-neutral” cities such as Masdar in Abu Dhabi.联合国人居署(UN-Habitat)数据显示,城市在人类产生的碳排放的世界总量中占到70%以上,因此一些国家还试图设计“绿色”或“碳中性”城市,比如阿布扎比的马斯达尔城(Masdar City)。Yet for Dirk Hebel, assistant professor of architecture and construction at Singapore’s Future Cities Laboratory, Masdar and similar projects borrow too much from older European models.不过,对于新加坡未来城市实验室(Future Cities Laboratory)建筑设计和建造助理教授德克#8226;赫布尔(Dirk Hebel)而言,马斯达尔城和类似项目向欧洲旧模式借鉴的地方还是太多。He says we should not build large-scale cities in defined locations — so drawing on the principles of older cities that needed defensive walls — but plan smaller settlements, some of which may grow, some of which may merge and some of which may stay small.他说,我们不应在指定地点建设大型城市——从而借鉴那些需要城墙守卫的老城市的原则——而应规划更小的定居点,其中有些或许会扩大,有些或许会跟其他定居点合并,也有些或许会保持较小规模。Mr Hebel argues that, while urban planners must still provide infrastructure such as transport systems, health and education services, developments should be more organic. “It should be a system not a single location.”赫布尔辩称,尽管城市规划者仍必须提供交通系统、医疗和教育务等基础设施,但开发项目应该在更大程度上是有机的。“它应该是一个系统,而不是一个单一地点。”Another challenge for new cities is persuading people to move into them.新城市的另一个挑战是说人们去那里落户。“You can populate those cities in China but you need to put [people] in buses and make sure they don’t leave,” says Michele Acuto, director of University College London’s city leadership initiative. He thinks building new cities is a flawed concept. “You could spend exactly the same amount on improving current structures and systems and fostering innovation in existing places.”“你可以让中国的城市住上人,但你需要用大巴来搬迁移民,并确保他们不会离开,”伦敦大学学院(University College London)城市领导项目主管米歇尔#8226;阿库托(Michele Acuto)说。他认为,兴建新城市是个有缺陷的概念。“你可以把兴建新城市的资金投入改进现有结构和系统,并在现有的地区培育创新。”But Ms Moser points to some promising examples, such as Yachay, north of Ecuador’s capital Quito, planned as a centre for scientific, academic, economic and technological research and innovation. Much of its focus has been on sustainability and planting local species to minimise water use.但是,麦吉尔大学的莫泽指出了一些前景光明的例子,比如厄瓜多尔首都基多(Quito)以北的Yachay,这里被规划为一个科学、学术、经济以及技术研究和创新中心。其着重点是可持续发展,包括种植当地物种,以尽量减少用水量。But Ms Moser believes another factor may aid Yachay’s success. Unlike many new cities, it is integrating its existing residents rather than moving them on. Agricultural workers, who may lose jobs once the city expands on to farmland, are being given work in composting plants or raising saplings for the city’s street trees. Others can take courses to give them the skills to open businesses.但莫泽认为,另一个因素或许有助于Yachay的成功。跟许多新城市不同的是,Yachay只是在整合现有居民,而不是强迫他们搬迁。因为城市扩张占用农田而可能失业的农业劳动者,正得到在堆肥厂工作或者为城市的行道树培育幼苗的机会。其他人可以参加培训课程,学到创办企业的技能。How many of the almost 150 brand new cities in her database does Ms Moser think will succeed? “It’s really too soon to tell,” she says.莫泽认为,她的数据库中近150个崭新的城市里,有多少个将取得成功?“现在太早了,还无法判断,”她说。“One of the keys for what makes a successful city is that it needs patient capital,” says Suzanne Gill, a partner at law firm Wedlake Bell, who runs debates aimed at stimulating discussion about long-term sustainable investments. “Some of these [new] cities are like young men in hurry,” she says. “And some will crash and burn.”“让一个城市获得成功的关键之一,是它需要‘耐心的资本’,”卫理贝尔律师事务所(Wedlake Bell)合伙人苏珊娜#8226;吉尔(Suzanne Gill)说。她组织了多场旨在激励人们讨论长期可持续投资项目的辩论会。“这些新城市中有一些就像是匆忙的年轻男子,”她说。“其中一些将遭遇彻底失败。” /201606/448279呼和浩特打瘦腿针

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