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2019年06月17日 07:27:43来源:度晚报

  • Nearly 50% of Americans wear corrective glasses, according to the trade group Vision Council. And most of them are guilty of the biggest crime in lens care: Exhaling onto their lenses, then wiping the fog off with their shirt sleeves. But does this really damage your lenses? Teri Geist, an optometrist in Omaha, Neb., and chairwoman for the American Optometric Association, weighs in.行业组织VisionCouncil提供的数据显示,接近50%的美国人佩戴用于矫正视力的眼镜。他们中的大多数人在眼镜护理过程中都犯过一个最严重的错误:对着镜片哈一口气,然后用衬衫袖子把镜片上的雾擦掉。这真的会对镜片造成损害吗?美国验光学会主席、内布拉斯加州奥马哈市的验光师盖斯特(Teri Geist)对此进行了实验。Simple Solution简单方法Though there are countless products on the market claiming to wipe streaks away, the AOA recommends the most basic of options: kitchen-sink soap. The best way to clean your glasses, says Dr. Geist, is to run them under warm water and put a tiny drop of dishwashing detergent on the tip of your fingers to create a lather on the lens. Then rinse with warm water, and dry with a clean, soft cotton cloth.尽管市场上有无数产品声称可以擦掉眼镜镜片上的污痕,但美国验光学会(American Optometric Association)推荐的是最基本的选择:厨房洗洁精。美国验光学会主席盖斯特(Teri Geist)称,清洁眼镜的最佳方式是将其在温水下冲洗,在指尖滴一小滴洗洁精,在镜片上打出泡沫,然后用温水洗净,并用干净柔软的棉布擦干。#39;Everyone uses their shirt cloth─worst thing!#39; she says. #39;Your shirttail almost certainly carries dust, and that has the potential of scratching your lens.#39;她说:“很多人都用他们的衬衫下摆擦眼镜──这是最糟糕的做法!你的衬衣下摆几乎肯定沾有尘土,这可能会刮坏镜片。”Glass vs. Plastic玻璃镜片与树脂镜片Of the 69.1 million Americans who bought prescription spectacles last year, most purchased plastic lenses; glass has gone out of fashion as safety concerns have arisen. Unlike that hard surface, plastic is soft and can scratch easily.去年,6,910万美国人购买了处方眼镜,其中多数都是树脂镜片;由于对安全的担忧上升,玻璃镜片已经过时。与玻璃镜片坚硬的表面不同,树脂镜片柔软而且容易被刮坏。Once lenses are scraped up, #39;there is no way to buff that scratch out,#39; says Dr. Geist. Attempting to clean glasses when dry only exacerbates the problem, since a wet surface is slicker than a dry one. #39;People breathe on their glasses then grab a Kleenex or paper towel or napkin because they#39;re convenient, but the rough fibers that they#39;re comprised of might leave debris behind,#39; Dr. Geist says. She adds that special microfiber cloths are good for dry touch-ups during the day, but aren#39;t a stand-in for a thorough, soapy cleaning. Neither is your breath.盖斯特士说,一旦镜片有了刮痕,“就没有办法除去”。在镜片干燥时擦眼镜只会加剧问题,因为湿润的表面会比干燥的表面光滑一些。盖斯特士说:“人们在镜片上哈气,然后顺手抓起一张餐巾纸去擦眼镜,但构成餐巾纸的粗糙纤维可能会在镜片上留下碎屑。”她补充说,特殊的超细纤维布适于干擦镜片,但它不能替代彻底的皂液清洁方法。你的哈气也不行。Reflecting on the Problem涂层问题Lenses typically have some form of protective coating and should never come into contact with ammonia, bleach, vinegar or window cleaner. #39;Those chemicals can break down the coating or just strip them,#39; says Dr. Geist. #39;You know those bubbles you sometimes see on your lens? Those are caused by #39;cleansing#39; solutions.#39; Avoid the problem by requesting anti-glare and UV coatings that are embedded within the lens, which can cost about 0 more than regular-coated lenses.镜片通常有某种形式的防护涂层,因此不应接触氨、漂白剂、醋和窗户清洁剂。盖斯特士说:“这些化学物质会破坏或者洗掉涂层。你知道有时在镜片上看到的泡泡印是怎么回事吗?那就是用‘清洁剂’导致的。”要求在镜片中加入防眩光和紫外线涂层可以避免这个问题,这种镜片的价格比普通涂层镜片高出约100美元。Clean Lines清洁产品Natural oils from your hands, eyelashes and face can lead to a lot of buildup each day, reducing lenses#39; effectiveness. Leaving spectacles on a sink or vanity, where hair spray and perfume can fly through the air, adds to the residue. The AOA recommends washing glasses every morning, paying special attention to the frames and earpieces, where hair product and makeup tend to rub off. Whatever you do, don#39;t use the most handy form of water to clean your lenses. #39;Some people use spit, but don#39;t,#39; urges Dr. Geist. Though dirty glasses won#39;t cause an eye infection, saliva #39;is not the best hygiene method, and it just won#39;t work very well,#39; she says. Soap, warm water and a dry cloth are all you need, once a day, to keep glasses optimally clean and functional. #39;I have had patients who say they can#39;t see well, but it turns out it is just the scratches,#39; says Dr. Geist.手、睫毛和面部每天产生的天然油脂可能大量堆积在镜片上,降低镜片的透光性。将眼镜放在水池或卫生间台面等可能残留发胶和香水飞沫的地方会增加残留物。美国验光学会建议每天早上清洗眼镜,尤其应该注意镜框和镜脚等容易擦到护发品和化妆品的地方。无论你做什么,都不要用最现成的“水”来清洁镜片。盖斯特士说:“有些人用唾液,可千万别这么做。”尽管脏镜片不会导致眼部感染,但唾液“不是最卫生的方法,而且它的效果也不好”。你只需要每天用皂液、温水和一块干布,即可保持眼镜清洁好用。盖斯特士说:“我的患者中,有些人说他们看不清,结果只是镜片上有划痕。” /201303/228451。
  • Steve and Yaser first met in their chemistry class at an American university. Yaser was an inter-national student from Jordan. He was excited to get to know an American. He wanted to learn more about American culture. Yaser hoped that he and Steve would become good friends.  At first, Steve seemed very friendly. He always greeted Yaser warmly before class. Sometimes he offered to study with Yaser. He even invited Yaser to eat lunch with him. But after the semester was over, Steve seemed more distant. The two former classmates didn#39;t see each other very much at school. One day Yaser decided to call Steve. Steve didn#39;t seem very interested in talking to him. Yaser was hurt by Steve#39;s change of attitude. ;Steve said we were friends,; Yaser complained. ;And I thought friends were friends forever.;  Yaser is a little confused. He is an outsider to American culture. He doesn#39;t understand the way Americans view friendship. Americans use the word friend in a very general way. They may call both casual acquaintances and close companions ;friends;. Americans have school friends, work friends, sports friends and neighborhood friends. These friendships are based on common interests. When the shared activity ends, the friendship may fade. Now Steve and Yaser are no longer classmates. Their friendship has changed.  In some cultures friendship means a strong life-long bond between two people. In these cultures friendships develop slowly, since they are built to last. American society is one of rapid change. Studies show that one out of five American families moves every year. American friendships develop quickly, and they may change just as quickly.  People from the ed States may at first seem friendly. Americans often chat easily with strangers. They exchange information about their families, hobbies and work. They may smile warmly and say, ;Have a nice day; or ;See you later.; Schoolmates may say, ;Let#39;s get together sometime.; But American friendliness is not always an offer of true friendship.  After an experience like Yaser#39;s, outsiders may consider Americans to be fickle. Learning how Americans view friendship can help non-Americans avoid misunderstandings. It can also help them make friends the American way.  Here are a few tips on making friends with Americans:  1. Visit places Americans enjoy: parties, churches, Western restaurants, parks, sports clubs.  2. Be willing to take the first step. Don#39;t wait for them to approach you. Americans in China may not know you speak English. They may be embarrassed if they can#39;t speak your language.  3. Use small talk to open the conversation. Ask them where they#39;re from, why they came to China, etc. Remember: Be careful to avoid personal questions about age, salary, marital status and appearance.  4. Show an interest in their culture, their country or their job. (Americans like to talk about themselves!)  5. Invite them to join you for dinner or just for coffee or tea. Try to set a specific time. Americans sometimes make general invitations like ;Let#39;s get together sometime.; Often this is just a way to be friendly. It is not always a real invitation.  6. Don#39;t expect too much at first. Maybe they#39;re just being friendly. But maybe they do want to be your good friends. It will take time to tell.  People like Yaser shouldn#39;t give up trying to make American friends. Americans do value strong, life-long friendships, even with non-Americans. When making friends, it helps to have a good dose of cultural understanding.  史帝夫和亚瑟最初是在一所美国大学的化学课上认识的。亚瑟是从约旦来的国际学生。他很兴奋能够认识美国人,他要更多学习美国文化;亚瑟希望他和史帝夫会成为好朋友。  刚开始史帝夫似乎非常友善,上课前他总是热情地和亚瑟打招呼,有时他和亚瑟一起读书;他甚至邀请亚瑟一起共进午餐。但是学期结束后,史帝夫似乎较冷淡了,这两个以前的同学在学校不常碰面了。有一天,亚瑟决定打电话给史帝夫,史帝夫似乎沒有兴趣和他讲话,对于史帝夫态度的改变,亚瑟感到受伤害。「史帝夫曾说我们是朋友,」亚瑟抱怨,「而且我认为一朝是朋友就永远是朋友。」  亚瑟有点困惑了,对于美国文化,他是个局外人(外行)。他不了解美国人对友谊的看法。美国人把「朋友」这个字用得非常广泛,一般的泛泛之交和亲密伙伴都算是朋友。美国人的朋友包含有学校的朋友、工作的朋友、运动的朋友或是街坊邻居。这些友谊都是建立在共同的兴趣上,当共同从事的活动结束时,友谊也可能跟着消失了。现在,史帝夫和亚瑟不再是同学,他们的「友谊」也就改变了。  在一些文化里,友谊意即两人之间一种强烈的,一世之久的情感。在这些文化里,友谊发展得慢,因为要持久。但美国是个急速变化的社会,有些研究发现每年每五个美国家庭之中,就有一个家庭搬家。美国人的友谊建立得快,但也可能改变得快。  从美国来的人可能刚开始看起来很亲切。美国人常能很容易地和陌生人聊天,他们交换关于自己的家庭、兴趣和工作的个人资料,他们可能热情地微笑说「祝你有愉快的一天」或是「待会儿见」,而同学也许会说「我们找一天聚聚」,但是美国人的友善并不意谓真正的友谊。  经过像亚瑟的经历之后,局外人也许会视美国人为善变的。了解美国人如何看待友谊,能够帮助非美国人士避免误会,也能帮助他们以美国人的方式交朋友。  以下是一些和美国人交朋友的秘诀:  1.到一些美国人喜欢去的地方:宴会、教会、西餐厅、公园和健身房。  2.乐意跨出第一步,不要等他们来接近你。在中国的美国人不知道你会不会讲英语。如果他们不会讲你的语言,他们可能觉得不好意思。  3.以闲聊来展开话题,问他们来自哪里,为什么到中国等等。切记:注意避免非常私人的问题,例如年龄、薪水、婚姻状況和长相。  4.对他们的文化、国家或者工作表示兴趣。(美国人喜欢谈论自己)  5.邀请他们和你一起吃饭或喝茶。要讲定时间,否则,美国人有时会用一些一般性的邀请,像「找个时间聚聚吧!」,但这只是表示友善的方法而非真正的邀请。  6.不要一开始就对你们的友谊期待太多,也许他们只是表示友善,但也可能他们真的要做你的好朋友,这需要时间明。  像亚瑟一样的人不应放弃交朋友,美国人还是看重强烈,一生之久的友谊,即使是和非美国人士。交朋友时,对于文化有某种程度的了解将会有所帮助。。
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