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2020年02月28日 03:35:38 | 作者:乐视热点 | 来源:新华社
SAN FRANCISCO — Apple said on Wednesday that it would oppose and challenge a federal court order to help the F.B.I. unlock an iPhone used by one of the two attackers who killed 14 people in San Bernardino, Calif., in December.旧金山——苹果公司本周三表示,反对和质疑联邦法院要求其帮助联邦调查局(FBI)解锁一部iPhone的命令。去年12月,两名袭击者在加利福尼亚州圣贝纳迪诺杀害了14人,其中一个袭击者曾使用过这部手机。On Tuesday, in a significant victory for the government, Magistrate Judge Sheri Pym of the Federal District Court for the District of Central California ordered Apple to bypass security functions on an iPhone 5c used by Syed Rizwan Farook, who was killed by the police along with his wife, Tashfeen Malik, after they attacked Mr. Farook’s co-workers at a holiday gathering.本周二,加州中央区联邦地区法院法官谢莉·皮姆(Sheri Pym)命令苹果绕过赛义德·里兹万·法鲁克(Syed Rizwan Farook)用过的iPhone 5C的安全功能。法鲁克和他的妻子塔什芬·马利克(Tashfeen Malik)袭击了他同事举办的节日聚会,之后双双被警方击毙。Judge Pym ordered Apple to build special software that would essentially act as a skeleton key capable of unlocking the phone.皮姆法官命令苹果公司构建专门的软件,充当解锁该手机的万能钥匙。But hours later, in a statement by its chief executive, Timothy D. Cook, Apple announced its refusal to comply. The move sets up a legal showdown between the company, which says it is eager to protect the privacy of its customers, and the law enforcement authorities, who say that new encryption technologies hamper their ability to prevent and solve crime.但数小时后,苹果首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)发表声明,宣布拒绝遵行这道命令,该公司和执法部门之间的法律对抗就此形成。一方面苹果表示要努力保护客户隐私,另一方面,执法部门宣称新的加密技术削弱了他们预防和打击犯罪的能力。In his statement, Mr. Cook called the court order an “unprecedented step” by the federal government. “We oppose this order, which has implications far beyond the legal case at hand,” he wrote.在声明中,库克称法院的这道命令是联邦政府“史无前例的一步”。“我们反对这道命令,因为它牵涉的含义远远超出了眼前这个法律案例的范畴,”他写道。Asked about Apple’s resistance, the Justice Department pointed to a statement by Eileen M. Decker, the ed States attorney for the Central District of California: “We have made a solemn commitment to the victims and their families that we will leave no stone unturned as we gather as much information and evidence as possible. These victims and families deserve nothing less.”当被问及苹果的抗命时,司法部(Justice Department)援引了加利福尼亚中央区联邦检察官艾琳·M·德克尔(Eileen M. Decker)的声明:“我们已经向受害者及其家属作出庄严承诺,我们会想尽一切办法收集尽可能多的信息和据。这是受害者和家属理应获得的对待。”The F.B.I. said that its experts had been unable to access data on Mr. Farook’s iPhone, and that only Apple could bypass its security features. F.B.I. experts have said they risk losing the data permanently after 10 failed attempts to enter the password because of the phone’s security features.联邦调查局说,他们的专家无法获取法鲁克iPhone上的数据,只有苹果才有办法绕过它的安全功能。联邦调查局专家们表示,根据这种手机的安全功能,如果10次尝试输入密码失败,就可能会永久失去手机上的数据。The Justice Department had secured a search warrant for the phone, owned by Mr. Farook’s former employer, the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health, which consented to the search.司法部已拿到了针对这部手机的搜查令,作为机主,法鲁克的前雇主圣贝纳迪诺县公共卫生署同意对其进行检查。Because Apple declined to voluntarily provide, in essence, the “keys” to its encryption technology, federal prosecutors said they saw little choice but to get a judge to compel Apple’s assistance.由于苹果公司拒绝自愿提供手机加密技术的“钥匙”,联邦检察官说,他们别无选择,只能让法官迫使苹果提供援助。Mr. Cook said the order would amount to creating a “back door” to bypass Apple’s strong encryption standards — “something we simply do not have, and something we consider too dangerous to create.”库克说,这道命令相当于要求他们构建一个“后门”,绕过苹果强大的加密系统——“我们根本就没有这样的东西,我们认为构建出这样的东西太过危险。”In 2014, Apple and Google — whose operating systems are used in 96 percent of smartphones worldwide — announced that they had re-engineered their software with “full disk” encryption, and could no longer unlock their own products as a result.2014年,苹果和谷歌——全球96%的智能手机都使用它们的操作系统——宣布,他们已经用“全磁盘”加密方式重新设计了软件,因此自己也无法解锁其产品。That set up a confrontation with police and prosecutors, who want the companies to build, in essence, a master key that can be used to get around the encryption. The technology companies say that creating such a key would have disastrous consequences for privacy.由于警方和检察官希望公司能构建一个可以绕过加密系统的主密钥,双方之间出现了矛盾。技术公司表示,构建这样的密钥会在隐私方面导致灾难性的后果。“The F.B.I. may use different words to describe this tool, but make no mistake: Building a version of iOS that bypasses security in this way would undeniably create a back door,” Mr. Cook wrote. “And while the government may argue that its use would be limited to this case, there is no way to guarantee such control.”“联邦调查局也许用了另一种措辞来形容这个工具,但不要被误导:构建一个采用这种方式绕过安全屏障的iOS版本,无疑就创建了一个后门,”库克写道。“虽然政府可能会宣称只限于在本案中使用这个后门,但是他们没有办法保将来不会失控。”An Apple spokeswoman declined to elaborate on the statement, but the company’s most likely next step is to file an appeal.苹果发言人拒绝对这份声明进行详细解释,但该公司的下一步行动很有可能就是提起上诉。The legal issues are complicated. They involve statutory interpretation, rather than constitutional rights, and they could end up before the Supreme Court.相关的法律问题很复杂。它们涉及到法律解释,而不是宪法权利问题,最后有可能会诉至最高法院。As Apple noted, the F.B.I., instead of asking Congress to pass legislation resolving the encryption fight, has proposed what appears to be a novel ing of the All Writs Act of 1789.就像苹果公司指出的,FBI并没有要求国会通过立法来解决关于加密的分歧,而是对1789年的《所有令状法案》(All Writs Act)提出了一种看起来很新颖的解读。The law lets judges “issue all writs necessary or appropriate in aid of their respective jurisdictions and agreeable to the usages and principles of law.”该法律允许法官“签发所有令状”,只要“有必要,或能为各自辖区提供适当帮助且符合法律的适用和原则”。The government says the law gives broad latitude to judges to require “third parties” to execute court orders. It has cited, among other cases, a 1977 ruling requiring phone companies to help set up a pen register, a device that records all numbers called from a particular phone line.政府表示,这条法律向法官赋予了宽泛的裁量权,可要求“第三方”执行法庭的命令。政府援引的若干案件中包括,1977年的一项判决要求电话公司安装一台拨号记录器(pen register),它可以记录某条电话线路拨叫的所有号码。Apple, in turn, argues that the scope of the act has strict limits. In 2005, a federal magistrate judge rejected the argument that the law could be used to compel a telecommunications provider to allow real-time tracking of a cellphone without a search warrant.而苹果公司则认为,该法案的适用范围有严格的限制。2005年,一位联邦治安法官裁定,不能利用这项法律,在没有搜查令的情况下,迫使电信务提供商允许对一台移动电话进行实时跟踪。Marc J. Zwillinger, a lawyer for Apple, wrote in a letter for a related case in October that the All Writs Act could not be interpreted to “force a company to take possession of a device outside of its possession or control and perform services on that device, particularly where the company does not perform such services as part of its business and there may be alternative means of obtaining the requested information available to the government.”苹果公司律师马克·J·施威林格(Marc J. Zwillinger)去年10月就一宗相关案件发信称,不能通过解读《所有令状法案》,“来迫使一家企业取得一台不归其所有的设备的所有权,或控制该设备并对其进行维护,尤其是此种维护并不属于该公司经营范围,况且政府可能还有其他手段取得其索求的信息。”The government says it does not have those alternative means.政府表示,它并没有其他手段。Mr. Cook’s statement called the government’s demands “chilling.”库克在声明中称,政府的要求让人“感到寒意”。He added: “If the government can use the All Writs Act to make it easier to unlock your iPhone, it would have the power to reach into anyone’s device to capture their data. The government could extend this breach of privacy and demand that Apple build surveillance software to intercept your messages, access your health records or financial data, track your location, or even access your phone’s microphone or camera without your knowledge.”他补充道:“如果政府动用《所有令状法案》让解锁iPhone变得更容易,它就有能力侵入任何人的设备并取得其数据。政府就可以延伸这种侵犯隐私的做法,要求苹果编写监控软件拦截您的信息,访问您的健康记录或金融数据,追踪您的位置,甚至在您不知情的情况下访问您手机的麦克风或摄像头。”The Electronic Frontier Foundation, a nonprofit organization that defends digital rights, said it was siding with Apple.保护数字权利的非营利组织电子前沿基金会(Electronic Frontier Foundation)表示,它持苹果公司。“The government is asking Apple to create a master key so that it can open a single phone,” it said Tuesday evening. “And once that master key is created, we’re certain that our government will ask for it again and again, for other phones, and turn this power against any software or device that has the audacity to offer strong security.”“政府要求苹果创建一个主密钥,好让它能解开一部手机,”该基金会周二晚间表示。“一旦创建了这个密钥,我们可以肯定,政府就会一而再、再而三地要求解开其他的手机,并动用这种权力与任何一种胆敢提供强大安全性能的软件或设备作对。”The San Bernardino case is the most prominent such case, but it is not the first.圣贝纳迪诺案是此类案件中最受关注的一宗,但并不是第一宗。Last October, James Orenstein, a federal magistrate judge in Brooklyn, expressed doubts about whether he could require Apple to disable its latest iPhone security features, citing the failure of Congress to resolve the issue despite the urging of the Justice Department.去年10月,布鲁克林的联邦治安法官詹姆斯·奥伦斯坦(James Orenstein),对于他能否要求苹果禁用最新款iPhone中的安全功能表达了疑虑,其理由是尽管司法部一再催促,但国会未能解决这个问题。The judge said such requests should fall under a different law, the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994, which covers telecommunications and broadband companies.该法官表示,这种请求应由另一项法律管辖,即1994年《通信协助执法法案 》(Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act),该法案涵盖了通信和宽带企业。Congress has been debating whether to amend that act to include technology companies like Apple, Facebook and Google, and Judge Orenstein said he would consider ordering Apple to unlock the phone when and if Congress makes the change. That case is still pending.国会一直在辩论是否对该法案进行修订,将苹果、Facebook、谷歌(Google)这样的科技企业纳入其中。奥伦斯坦表示,如果国会作出这样的修订,届时他会考虑责令苹果解锁手机。相关案件仍在审理当中。Although Apple is portraying its opposition to Judge Pym’s order as a principled defense of privacy, one of its motivations is the preservation of its reputation for robust encryption, at a time of rising concerns about identity theft, cybercrime and electronic surveillance by intelligence agencies and overzealous law enforcement agencies.尽管按照苹果的叙述,该公司反对皮姆法官的命令是根据原则捍卫隐私权,但当前用户对身份窃取、网络犯罪、情报机构的电子监控、执法机构的越界举动愈发感到焦虑,苹果的一个动机也是保护其强劲加密技术的声誉。Apple also says that a master key would amount to a vulnerability that hackers could exploit.苹果还表示,主密钥会构成安全隐患,黑客可能会加以利用。China is watching the dispute closely. Analysts say that the Chinese government does take cues from the ed States when it comes to encryption regulations, and that it would most likely demand that multinational companies provide accommodations similar to those in the ed States.中国正密切关注着这场争端。分析人士表示,在信息加密的监管方面,中国的确会参考美国的做法,极有可能会要求跨国公司提供类似于对美国的配合。Last year, Beijing backed off several proposals that would have mandated that foreign firms provide encryption keys for devices sold in China after heavy pressure from foreign trade groups. Nonetheless, a Chinese antiterrorism law passed in December required foreign firms to hand over technical information and to aid with decryption when the police demand it in terrorism-related cases.去年,北京方面提出了若干项法规,打算要求外国企业交出在中国出售设备的加密密钥。但在外国行业团体极力施压之后,北京做出了让步。尽管如此,中国在去年12月通过的反恐法,还是要求外国企业交出技术信息,并在涉及恐怖主义的案件中,依照警方要求帮助进行解密。While it is still not clear how the law might be carried out, it is possible a push from American law enforcement agencies to unlock iPhones would embolden Beijing to demand the same. China would also most likely push to acquire any technology that would allow it to unlock iPhones. Just after Apple introduced tougher encryption standards in 2014, Apple users in China were targeted by an attack that sought to obtain login information from iCloud users.尽管尚不清楚这项法律会如何实施,但美国执法机构要求解锁iPhone的做法,可能会让北京方面更加大胆,作出同样的要求。中国也极有可能会要求取得解锁iPhone的任何技术。就在苹果2014年推出更强大的加密标准之后,中国的苹果用户就受到了黑客攻击,黑客当时寻求取得iCloud用户的登录信息。 /201602/427241Development of Pottery陶器的发展The existence of pottery was a hallmark of the Neolithic Age in primitive society.陶器的发明是原始社会新石器时代的一个重要标志。Pottery shards of more than i0000 years ago were discovered in the Fairy Cave site in Lishui County of East China’s Jiangsu Province, and shards of sandy red pot-tery dating back 10000 years ago were found in the Nanzhuang Culture site in Xushui County of North China’s Hebei Province.我国已发现距今约10000年新石器时代早期的残陶片。河北徐水县南庄头遗址发现的陶器碎片经鉴定为10800~ 9700年的遗物。The site of the Peiligang CultLrre in Xinzheng of Central China’s Henan Province and the site of the Cishan Culture in Wu’an of Hebei Province are early Neolithic sites found in northern China, dating as far back as 7900 years ago. They wereearlier than Yangshao Culture, and potteries of that period were mostly plain color without decorative designs.河北武安发现的磁山文化和河南新郑发现的裴李岗文化,是黄河中游地区新石器时代的代表,距今7900年以上。它们早于仰韶文化,该文化的陶器以素面无文者居多。The site of the Hemudu Culture in Yuyao County of East China’s Zhejiang Prov-ince is another early Neolithic site that flourished 7000 years ago. Grey pottery, red pottery, charcoal-mixed black pottery, and even an occasional piece of painted pottery were found at all these ancient sites.浙江余姚河姆渡发现的河姆渡文化距今7000年左右,在该文化遗址也出土了大量的陶器。河姆渡文化的陶器为黑陶,造型简单,早期盛行刻画花纹。The site of the Yangshao Culture at Yangshao Village in Mianchi County of Henan Province, and at Banpo Village in Xi’an of North China’s Shaanxi Province,inhabited by people who lived in prosperity in a matriarchal clan society, are more than 6000 years old. Large quantities of fine painted pottery were aly made at that time.在河南渑池仰韶村的新石器时代遗址,和陕西省西安市郊的半坡遗址都发现了大量做工精美,设计精巧的陶。这两个新石器时代遗址都属于母系社会遗址,有6000年以上的历史。With the development of the society, the quality of pottery steadily improved.By the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, a clear-cut division of labor had aly ap-peared among potters. Elegant designs and pictures of flowers and birds were carved on pottery ware during the Warring States Period.Potters in this period intro-duced lead glaze, which made the surface of pottery smooth and fine and added luster to the vessels.随着社会的不断进步,陶器的质量也逐步提高。到了商代和周代,已经出现了专门从事陶器生产的工种。在战国时期,陶器上已经出现了各种优雅的纹饰和花鸟。这时的陶器也开始应用铅釉,使得陶器的表面更为光滑,也有了一定的色泽。In the Western Han Dynasty the art of glazing pottery became widesp.Multi-colored glaze was also introduced in the Han Dynasty. The renowned Tang Dynasty tri-color pottery with lead glaze was the invention of potters who introduced white, yellow, blue, green, brown, and purple glazes and skillfully applied them in combination. The appearance of Tang tri-color glazed pottery marked the entry of pottery art into an era of greater variety and color.到了西汉时期,上釉陶器工艺开始广泛流传起来。多种色的釉料也在汉代开始出现。有一种盛行于唐代的陶器,以黄、褐、绿为基本釉色,后来人们习惯地把这类陶器称为“唐三”。唐三是一神低温釉陶器,在色釉中加入不同的金属氧化物,经过焙烧,便形成浅黄、赭黄、浅绿、深绿、天蓝、褐红、茄紫等多种色,但多以黄、褐、绿三色为主。唐三的出现标志着陶器的种类和色已经开始更加丰富多。 /201512/410746It has become customary to talk of “technology” as if it were a special sector of the economy consisting of the manufacture of sophisticated electronic goods, the creation of software, and the provision of services reliant on information and communications technology.如今人们习惯性地把“技术”说成一个特别的经济部门,包含精密电子产品制造、软件开发、以及提供依赖信息和通信技术的务。This is a ludicrously narrow definition. Every technique human beings have invented, from the stone axe onwards, is “technology”. The ability of humans to invent technologies is their defining characteristic. Furthermore, new general purpose technologies, such as the computer and the internet, have effects that fall far outside the technology sector, narrowly defined.这是一种狭窄得离谱的定义。从石斧开始,人类发明的每一种方法都是“技术”。发明技术的能力是人类的本质特征。此外,计算机和互联网等新型通用技术的影响范围远大于狭义的技术领域。We need to assess contemporary innovations in their broader context. Here are seven points about these changes.我们需要在更大背景下评估当代创新。以下是有关这些变化的7点。First, the penetration of recent innovations in communications technology has been astonishingly rapid. At the end of 2015, there were more than 7bn mobile phone subscriptions, a penetration rate of 97 per cent, up from around 10 per cent in 2000. Penetration of internet access grew from 7 per cent to 43 per cent over the same period. (See chart.)首先,近期的通信技术创新渗透速度快得惊人。2015年末,移动手机订户超过了70亿,渗透率达到97%,远高于2000年的大约10%。同期互联网接入的渗透率从7%升至43%。(见图表)Economically, this has led to the rise of ecommerce, the transformation of industries whose products can be converted into “bits; (music, film and news media, for example) and the rise of the “sharing economy”. Socially, it has altered human interactions. Politically, it has affected relationships between the rulers and the ruled.在经济层面,这导致电子商务崛起、产品能够“比特化”(比如音乐、电影、新闻媒体)的行业发生转变、“共享经济”兴起。在社会层面,这改变了人际交往。在政治层面,这影响了统治者和被统治者之间的关系。Second, a substantial “digital divide” exists. In 2015, 81 per cent of households in the developed world had internet access, the proportion in all developing countries was 34 per cent and the proportion for the least developed countries was a mere 7 per cent.第二,存在一道深深的“数字鸿沟”。2015年,发达国家81%的家庭能够接入互联网,而所有发展中国家的互联网接入比例为34%,最不发达国家的接入比例仅为7%。Information is power. It is not yet clear whether the rapid sp of access will prove more important than the persistent differences in its availability. But there is reason for optimism. The ability to leapfrog poor communication and financial networks has aly transformed some developing countries.信息就是力量。目前还不清楚,互联网接入的迅速普及会不会比互联网可用性方面的持久差异更重要。但我们有理由抱乐观态度。越过糟糕的通信和金融网络、实现跳跃式发展的能力已经转变了一些发展中国家。Third, the arrival of the internet and mobile phones has failed to generate a sustained upturn in the growth of productivity. This is shown best by the US, the leader in the development of the new technologies and, for more than a century, the world’s most productive and innovative large economy.第三,互联网和手机的普及并未带来生产率增速的持续提高。美国就是最好的例。美国是新技术发展的领导者,而且在一个多世纪期间一直是世界上生产率最高、最创新的经济大国。Output per hour worked in the US grew at rate of 3 per cent a year in the 10 years up to 1966, after which the growth rate declined, falling to just 1.2 per cent in the 10 years to the early 1980s. After the launch of the worldwide web, the moving average rose to 2.5 per cent in the 10 years to 2005. But it then fell to just 1 per cent in the decade to 2015.在截至1966年的10年里,美国的每小时工作产出每年增长3%,其后增长率下降,在截至上世纪80年代初的10年里跌至1.2%。在万维网问世后,该增长率在截至2005年的10年里提高到2.5%。然后又在截至2015年的10年里降至1%。A decomposition of the sources of growth in productive capacity underlines the point. Over the 10 years up to and including 2015, the average growth of “total factor productivity” in the US — a measure of innovation — was only 0.3 per cent a year.对生产力增长的来源进行解构突显了这一点。在截至2015年底的10年里,美国的“全要素生产率”(一种衡量创新的指标)平均每年只增长0.3%。We should not be surprised. As Robert Gordon of Northwestern University argues, clean water, modern sewage, electricity, the telephone, the radio, the petroleum industry, the internal combustion engine, the motor car and the aeroplane — all innovations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries — were far more transformative than the information technologies of the past 75 years.我们不应感到惊讶。正如美国西北大学(Northwestern University)的罗伯特戈登(Robert Gordon)所指出的,清洁水、现代下水道、电力、电话、收音机、石油行业、内燃机、汽车以及飞机都是19世纪末到20世纪初问世的创新,它们带来的变革远远大于过去75年期间的信息技术。Some argue, against this, that statisticians are failing to measure output correctly, partly by failing to capture free services, such as search, which generate vast unmeasured surplus value.针对这一点,一些人主张,统计学家未能正确地衡量产出,部分原因是未能把搜索等免费务计算在内,这些务产生了未经测量的巨大剩余价值。Yet it is not at all clear why statisticians should have suddenly lost their ability to measure the impact of new technologies in the early 2000s. Again, most new technologies have also generated vast unmeasured surplus value. Think of the impact of electric light on the ability to study.然而,我们不清楚为何统计学家会在21世纪之初突然失去衡量新技术影响的能力。与上文阐述的道理一样,大多数新技术都会产生未经测量的巨大剩余价值。想想电灯对学习能力的影响吧。Fourth, the new technologies have reinforced tendencies towards greater inequality, in at least three respects. One is the rise of “winner-takes-all” markets in which a few successful people, businesses and products dominate the world economy. Another is the rise of globalisation. A last is the explosion in financial trading and other rent-extracting financial activities.第四,至少在三个方面,新技术加强了不平等扩大的趋势。第一是“赢者通吃”市场的崛起——少数成功人士、企业和产品主导了世界经济。第二是全球化的兴起。第三是金融交易和其它抽租金融活动的爆炸式增长。Some argue that the arrival of robots and artificial intelligence will transform labour markets, rendering even quite sophisticated skills redundant. This could, if true, generate divisions between the owners of the robots and the rest of the population as fundamental as those between landowners and landless labourers.一些人主张,机器人和人工智能的出现将改变劳动力市场,使一些相当复杂的技能变得多余。若果真如此,这可能会使机器人的主人与其他人之间出现根本鸿沟,就像当年的地主和无地劳动者之间的鸿沟那样。Sixth, the rise of global communications, of our reliance on cyberspace, of behemoth technology-enabled corporations and of “big data” raises difficult questions about privacy, national security, the ability to tax and, more broadly about the relationship between governments, corporations and individuals.第六,全球化通信的兴起、我们对网络空间的依赖上升、巨型技术公司的崛起和“大数据”的发展给隐私、国家安全、征税能力,以及更广义的政府、企业和个人之间的关系提出了许多棘手的问题。Finally, the rise of pluralistic interactive media is affecting politics. Wider access to knowledge is a potential boon. But the new technologies can also be used to disseminate lies, hatred and stupidity.最后,多元化的互动媒体的发展正在影响政治。更广泛的获取知识的途径是一个潜在的福音。但新技术也可能被用于散播谎言、仇恨和愚昧。Technologies are tools. They offer opportunities and dangers. What we make of them is, as always, up to us.技术是工具。它们提供机会,也暗藏危险。古往今来,我们如何利用技术始终取决于我们自己。 /201602/424119

I’ve seen things you people wouldn’t believe,” the villain played by Rutger Hauer reminisces at the end of the film Blade Runner after hauling Harrison Ford’s character on to a roof top and sparing his life. “People” is the operative word since Roy Batty is not a person but an android who escapes to earth from a space colony and takes revenge on the Tyrell Corporation, his creator.“我见过的事,你们人不会相信。”在电影《银翼杀手》(Blade Runner)末尾,鲁特格尔樠尔(Rutger Hauer)饰演的反派将哈里森輠祹(Harrison Ford)饰演的角色拉回屋顶,饶了他一命,然后说出了这句话。在这句话里,“人”是最重要的字,因为罗伊巴蒂(Roy Batty)不是人类,他是个机器人。他从太空殖民地逃到地球,向自己的创造者“泰勒公司”(Tyrell Corporation)实施报复。That is what I call a killer robot — a being that can hold an intelligent conversation with you before wiping you out. It was science fiction in 1982, when Blade Runner, based on Philip K Dick’s dystopian fantasy novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? came out. It is now faintly plausible — sufficiently for artificial intelligence researchers to warn this week of the dangers of an autonomous arms race.这才是我认为的“杀手机器人”(killer robot),一个在消灭你之前,能与你进行一场高智商谈话的存在。电影《银翼杀手》改编自菲利普迪克(Philip K. Dick)的反乌托邦奇幻小说《机器人会梦见电子羊吗?》(Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep)。影片上映于1982年,当时它还是一部科幻电影,如今却有点像真的,反正对于人工智能研究人员来说已经足以成真了,前不久他们警告要谨防出现自主式武器军备竞赛的危险。The killer machines feared by those such as Elon Musk, the founder of Tesla Motors, and Stephen Hawking, the theoretical physicist, are crude terminators by comparison with the Nexus replicants in Blade Runner. No one would fall in love with an armed quadcopter that blows up enemy soldiers, as the hero of Blade Runner does with Rachael, the female android who does not realise that she is a replicant.包括特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)创始人埃伦穆斯克(Elon Musk)、理论物理学家斯蒂芬霍金(Stephen Hawking)在内,这些专家们所担心的杀人机器,与《银翼杀手》里的“连锁”(Nexus)复制人相比的话,只是原始级别的终结者。《银翼杀手》里的瑞秋(Rachael)开杀死哈里森輠祹葲敌人时,这位男主公爱上了她——瑞秋是个女机器人,她并不知道自己是复制人。但是当一台配备武器的四轴飞行器干掉敌方士兵时,没人会爱上它。Robots can murder us but they cannot understand us. Autonomous killing machines are becoming reality — Israel aly has its Harpy anti-radar drone, which loiters in the sky before choosing and destroying targets itself. A sentient, sophisticated machine with common sense and the capacity to grasp people’s moods and predict behaviour is still a distant prospect.机器人可以杀死我们,但它们无法理解我们。自主式杀人机器正在成为现实,以色列已经拥有了哈比(Harpy)反雷达无人机,它可以在空中漫无目的地飞行,然后自主选择目标并加以摧毁。但是想创造出一架具备常识,能理解人类情绪,预测人类行为,拥有感知能力的复杂机器,仍是个遥远前景。In theory, it will be created. Artificial intelligence researchers do not see the barrier in principle to robots developing higher reasoning powers, or the kind of physical dexterity that humans possess. The last remaining workers on car assembly lines are people who can attach screws nimbly and reach inside the body shells for electrical wiring in a way that has defeated robots to date.理论上讲,这种机器人是能造出来的。人工智能研究人员看不到任何原则上的障碍,阻止机器人发展出更高水平的推理能力,或是人类那种灵活的身体。汽车装配线上目前仅剩下能够敏捷地拧螺丝的工人,以及一些能够到车身外壳里焊电线的工人,机器人暂时还无法胜过他们。Machines also possess some advantages. They do not have to constrict their processing units to fit into skulls, and they do not need to supply them with oxygen, an energy-hogging technology. Nor are they limited by an evolutionary edict to reproduce, rather than purely to get cleverer.机器还占有一定的优势。它们不必为了适合颅骨大小而压缩处理装置,它们也不需要氧气供应——这是个高度耗能的技术。它们的再造也不受进化法则限制,完全可以变得越来越聪明。But despite rapid advances in machine learning, visual and voice recognition, neural network processing — all the elements that are now transforming the potential of artificial intelligence — androids are not with us. Computers can beat humans easily at chess, but poker at the highest level is beyond them — they would need to see through the other players’ bluffs.但尽管机器在学习、视觉及语音识别、神经网络处理(这些元素都在改变人工智能的潜力)方面发展迅速,机器人还是不能理解人类。计算机可以在国际象棋上轻松击败人类,但它们玩不了最高水平的扑克牌游戏,因为它们得看穿对手的虚张声势。“Computers are becoming better and better at perception tasks,” says Fei-Fei Li, director of Stanford University’s artificial intelligence laboratory. “Algorithms can identify thousands of types of cars while I can only tell three of them. But at the cognitive, empathetic, and emotional level, machines are not even close to humans.”斯坦福大学(Stanford University)人工智能实验室主任李飞飞说:“计算机在感知任务上正变得越来越好。它的算法已经能识别数千种汽车,而我只能认出三种。但在认知、同理心和情感层面,机器还无法接近人类。”I have also experienced something you people would not believe — Google’s self-driving car. The thing that struck me as it toured Mountain View in California recently was that it felt human. It accelerated from junctions confidently, even assertively, closing the gaps with vehicles in front so others could not rush in. We would be safer if all drivers were equally calm and rational.我也经历过一些事,你们这些人不会相信——谷歌的无人驾驶汽车。最近我坐着它游览了加州的山景城,震惊地发现它感觉上就像人类。它自信地,甚至是果断地从交叉路口加速,缩小与前方车辆的距离,让其他车辆无法插入。如果所有司机都能这样冷静和理性,我们的生命会更安全。Inside the car, you can see what it perceives with its sensors and rooftop radar. The outlines of objects around, including pedestrians, buses and other cars, are displayed like hollow, moving shapes on the screen of a laptop held by a Google engineer. The objects are categorised by different colours, so the vehicle knows it should react to them and how far to steer clear.在谷歌无人驾驶汽车里,你可以看到它如何用传感器和车顶雷达进行感知。一位谷歌工程师手持一台笔记本电脑,行人、公交车和其他车辆等周围物体的轮廓呈现为空心的、移动的图形显示在屏幕上。这些物体按照不同颜色分类,因此无人驾驶汽车知道该对它们作出反应,以及该从多远避开。A self-driving vehicle would, in other words, be a perfectly capable killer robot if you attached a missile launcher to its roof, and machine guns to its sides (not that Google would do such a thing, of course). It could cruise through cities, scanning for warm, slow-moving, pink-coloured objects to destroy.换言之,如果你在自动驾驶汽车的车顶安装一个导弹发射器,并且在车身两侧装上机(当然啦,这并不是说谷歌会干这种事),它完全能化身“杀手机器人”。它可以悠闲地穿越城市,扫描搜寻有热度的、缓慢移动的粉红色目标加以摧毁。So it is not scaremongering for scientists to warn of artificial intelligence research being tainted by association with autonomous weapons. The internet itself emerged from research funded by the US Department of Defence in the 1960s, and military and space programmes have the deepest pockets and the keenest interest in developing cutting-edge technology. What would be foolish would be to think the advent of killer robots means that machines are y to take over the world.因此,科学家们警告人工智能研究领域存在与自主武器相结合的情况,并非是危言耸听。互联网本身就发源于美国国防部在上世纪60年代资助的研究课题,而且在开发尖端技术方面,军事和航天计划拥有最雄厚的财力和最强烈的兴趣。要有多蠢,才会认为“杀手机器人”的出现就意味着机器将接管全世界。Destroying things is easier than understanding or creating them. Artificial intelligence — the ability to scan, process and analyse large data sets — is not the same as the capacity to perform most human tasks (known as artificial general intelligence).破坏事物比理解或创造事物更容易。人工智能(扫描、处理和分析大型数据集的能力)并不等同于“强人工智能”(artificial general intelligence),后者才具有执行大多数人类任务的能力。Even those who warn of machines taking jobs that are now performed by humans accept that managerial, professional, and artistic jobs that demand high level reasoning, empathy and creativity are still safe. A robot that scans a set of features to identify a woman, but cannot grasp her mood, or use common sense to solve an unexpected puzzle, remains very limited.一些人警告说机器将抢走目前由人类完成的工作,但就连他们也同意,管理、专业和艺术工作仍然是安全的,因为这些工作需要具备高水平的推理能力、同感能力以及创造能力。机器人的能力仍非常有限,它可以通过扫描一系列特征来识别一个女人,却无法体会她的情绪,也无法运用常理来解决意料之外的难题。“Quite an experience to live in fear, isn’t it? That’s what it’s like to be a slave,” Roy Batty remarks to the human bounty-hunter he has defeated in combat before reaching out and rescuing him from falling to his death. Let us not enslave ourselves yet.罗伊巴蒂已经在对决中战胜了人类赏金猎人,却又在对手坠下屋顶时伸手救了他一命。接着他对赏金猎人说道:“活在恐惧里的滋味不好受吧?这就是当奴隶的感受。”我们千万不要让自己沦为奴隶。 /201508/391134

Yahoo said on Monday that it will push ahead with the spin-off of its stake in Alibaba, the Chinese ecommerce company, by the end of the year, despite signs that US authorities are unhappy about allowing such deals to take place without incurring a tax charge.周一雅虎(Yahoo)表示,将继续推动在年底前剥离其手中持有的阿里巴巴(Alibaba)股份——尽管有迹象表明美国当局并不愿允许公司不缴纳税款就开展这类交易。阿里巴巴是一家中国电子商务公司。The disclosure that the spin-off would go ahead, subject only to an opinion from the company’s tax advisers, sent Yahoo shares up by more than 3 per cent in after-market trading, erasing part of the 5.25 per cent loss they had suffered during normal trading on Monday.根据这一爆料,雅虎将只遵照该公司税务顾问的看法,继续开展剥离交易。消息传来,雅虎股价在盘后交易中上涨逾3%,令周一交易日期间5.25%的亏损幅度收窄了一部分。Doubts about the fate of Yahoo’s long-planned disposal of its Alibaba stake, currently worth some bn, were heightened earlier this month when it revealed that the Internal Revenue Service had declined to issue a letter in advance of the deal confirming that it would be tax-free. The IRS did not indicate which way it would rule, leaving a question over a deal that is central to the bn value of Yahoo itself.本月早些时候,对于雅虎规划已久的阿里巴巴股份处置方案的命运,人们的怀疑大大增加。当时,该公司披露美国国税局(Internal Revenue Service,IRS)拒绝在交易前发出信件,确认此次交易将不会被课税。IRS并未明示将如何裁决,从而为该交易留下了一个问号。对于雅虎270亿美元的市值来说,这次剥离交易是一个核心问题。The IRS went on to issue a public notice this month that it was “concerned” about deals that fit the pattern that Yahoo was planning and was considering issuing new guidance on such deals. US companies have been able to spin off significant shareholdings and other assets free of tax provided they place them in a new company along with ongoing operations.接着,IRS曾在这个月发布一份公告,表示十分“关切”那些与雅虎计划中交易的模式相符的交易,并且在考虑为此类交易发布新的规定。此前,美国企业一直可以将所持有的大量股权及其他资产剥离而不必缴纳税金,条件是它们将这些资产和正在运营的业务一道注入一家新成立公司。However, the IRS also signalled that any change in its guidance about the tax status of spin-offs would not apply retroactively, easing some of the worries among Yahoo investors.不过,IRS也曾表示,对剥离交易税务状况规定的任何变更,都不会溯及既往。这一表态在一定程度上减轻了雅虎投资者的担忧。The mixed signals from US tax authorities left Yahoo facing a number of options, none of which would has been as good for shareholders as a clean, tax-free spin-off.美国税务当局释放的种种矛盾信号,令雅虎面临一系列选择。对股东来说,所有选项都比不上干净而无需缴税的剥离交易。It said on Monday it would continue with the original plan even in the absence of confirmation from the IRS, as long as it received a legal opinion about the tax-free nature of the deal, with the transaction due to take place in the final quarter of this year.周一,雅虎表示即便没有IRS的确认,该公司也会在了解有关该交易是否免税的法律意见后,继续按照最初计划执行,交易定于在今年最后一季度开展。 /201510/401935

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