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时间:2019年06月16日 04:28:36

日本打算为全国57万台香烟自动售卖机安装新监控系统,可观测购买者脸上皱纹、鱼尾纹和皮肤松弛度,以此界定买烟者是否达到法定年龄。 Cigarette vending machines in Japan may soon start counting wrinkles, crow's feet and skin sags to see if the customer is old enough to smoke. The legal age for smoking in Japan is 20 and as the country's 570,000 tobacco vending machines prepare for a July regulation requiring them to ensure buyers are not underage, a company has developed a system to identify age by studying facial features.By having the customer look into a digital camera attached to the machine, Fujitaka Co's system will compare facial characteristics, such as wrinkles surrounding the eyes, bone structure and skin sags, to the facial data of over 100,000 people, Hajime Yamamoto, a company spokesman said."With face recognition, so long as you've got some change and you are an adult, you can buy cigarettes like before. The problem of minors borrowing (identification) cards to purchase cigarettes could be avoided as well," Yamamoto said.Japan's finance ministry has aly given permission to an age-identifying smart card called "taspo" and a system that can the age from driving licenses.It has yet to approve the facial identification method due to concerns about its accuracy.Yamamoto said the system could correctly identify about 90 percent of the users, with the remaining 10 percent sent to a "grey zone" for "minors that look older, and baby-faced adults," where they would be asked to insert their driving license.Underage smoking has been on a decline in Japan, but a health ministry survey in 2004 showed 13 percent of boys and 4 percent of girls in the third year of high school -- those aged 17 to 18 -- smoked every day. /200805/39040

The crossbow triggers and parts found in EmperorQin#39;s mausoleum.在秦始皇陵中发现的弩的扳机和部件。One of the most astounding archaeologicaldiscoveries of the 20th century is arguably the life-size terra-cotta armyburied alongside China#39;sfirst emperor. Now, scientists have figured out how the bronze triggers for thecrossbows of the 8,000 terra-cotta warriors were manufactured.埋藏在中国首位帝王身边真人大小的兵马俑是二十世纪最惊人的发现之一。现在,科学家已经发现了8000位人佣所持铜弩的扳机是如何被制造出来的了。Teams of craftspeople workedin small groups to produce the bronze pieces in batches for the tomb of ancientEmperor Qin Shi Huang, according to a new study detailed in the March issue ofthe journal Antiquity.一个工匠团队分成小组工作,为秦始皇的陵墓来批量制作铜件。刊登在《古物》杂志三月刊上的一项新的研究对此进行了详细的叙述。Prepared for theafterlife为了来世作准备Historical documents suggest that soon afterEmperor Qin Shi Huang ascended to the throne in 246 B.C., he began work on histomb near Xi#39;an, China. When the tomb was firstunearthed in the 1970s,it revealed thousands of lifelike terra-cotta statues ofartisans, musicians, officials, horses and soldiers. The epic effortconscripted 700,000 laborers, many of whom were convicts or people who were indebt to the empire, said study co-author Xiuzhen Janice Li, an archaeologistwho was at the University College London at the time of the new work and is nowat the Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s MausoleumSite Museumin China.历史文件表明,在秦始皇于公元前246年登上帝位的不长时间之后,他就开始着手在中国的西安建造自己的陵墓。当他的陵墓于上世纪70年代第一次出土时,发掘出了上千个活灵活现的人佣,有工匠,音乐家,官员,马匹和士兵。这项研究的共同作者Xiuzhen Janice Li说当时有70万名劳工被招来进行这项史诗般的工程,其中大部分是囚犯或欠朝廷债的人。Xiuzhen Janice Li曾经是伦敦大学的考古专家,现在工作于中国的秦始皇帝陵物馆。The massive undertaking had an important goal:ensuring the emperor#39;s military power and resources in the afterlife.这项宏伟工程有一个重要的目标:确保皇帝的军事力量和资源跟随他到来世。As part of the huge project, craftspeoplesculpted about 8,000 colorful warriors — likely using real human beings asinspiration — and those warriors wore stone armor and ;wielded;lances, swords and crossbows.作为这项巨大工程的一部分,工匠们塑刻了大约8000个色鲜艳的勇士——他们很可能是以真正的人作为灵感,这些战士们身披石盔,手持长矛,短剑和弩。But it wasn#39;t clear exactly how these ancientweapons were made. The crossbows were made of wood or bamboo that rotted longago, and only the tips and triggers for the bows remained, Li told LiveScience.但是目前还不清楚这些古老的武器究竟是如何被制造出来的。Li告诉《生动科学》(Live Science)说,那时候制造的木制或竹制弩身肯定在很久以前就腐烂了,只留下了这些小物件和扳机。Small workshops小作坊To learn more about how the massive trove wasbuilt, Li and her colleagues visually inspected and measured about 216 of thefive-part crossbow triggers from the mausoleum. The lack of wear on the metal pieces suggeststhe weapons were never used in actual battle, but were instead built solely forthe tomb, the researchers said.为了更加了解这座巨大的宝库,Li和她的同事们观察测量了200多个弩扳机的组件,他们研究发现这些扳机几乎没有磨损,说明它们从没有在战场上被使用过,而是专门为秦始皇陵而制造的。In addition, the team analyzed the spots wheretriggers were found in the tomb, as well as the variation in the size and shapeof the pieces.此外,研究小组分析了发现这些扳机的那个地点,对比了其中碎块的大小样式。The pieces were mostly uniform, suggesting theinterlocking trigger parts were made in the same or nearly-identical molds andproduced in small batches. Each batch of the trigger pieces was likely thenassembled in small cells, or workshops, perhaps headed by anoverseer. That model contrasts with the ;assembly line;hypothesis that some archaeologists thought might have been used.这些零碎的部件几乎是相同的,这表明那些连锁扳机结构的组件是用同一种或几乎相同的模子批量生产出来,他们很可能也在这些小作坊里进行装配,也许由监工负责。考古学家猜测某种类似于“装配线”的模式已经在那个时候被运用了。Mirror of society社会的倒影The organization into small workshops wassimilar to the structure the emperor imposed on the rest of society in ancient China,said study co-author Marcos Martinón-Torres, an archaeologist at the UniversityCollege London.该研究共同撰写人,伦敦大学考古专家Marcos Martinón-Torres提到,在古代中国,这种小作坊的组织结构与皇帝在其他社会领域中推行的很相似。;He abolished any privileges inherited byblood, and the population was divided in small groups that were collectivelyresponsible for their adherence to imperial laws,; Martinón-Torres wrotein an email to Live Science. ;For example, if someone in one of thesegroups committed a crime, all of them were held responsible, unless they reportedthe culprit and allowed them to be punished.;“他废除了宗法制,在法律上对民众实行连坐制度” Martinón-Torres在他写给《生动科学》的电子邮件中说到:“举个例子,如果一组人中一个人犯了罪,其余所有人都要为此承担责任,除非他们举报责任人并让他接受惩罚。”The manufacturing technique used in the workshopalso may have been used by weapon makers for the Emperor of Qin#39;s real armies,though that#39;s just speculation, Martinón-Torres said.Martinón-Torres还提到,这种工作间里的制造技术很有可能被工匠用来为皇帝制造真正的武器,但这只是一个假设。;The cellular workshop model we postulatefor the weapons manufacture in the mausoleum would have also offered usefulflexibility for armies on the move,; he said.这种蜂窝式的工作间模式很可能为行动中的军队带来更高的灵活性,他说。 /201606/451980

I was fortunate to witness the birth of the world wide web up close. Initially, there were only pages of text connected by hyperlinks, but no people. So I formed one of the first internet start-ups, Ubique, with the mission of adding people to the web by developing social networking software which offered instant messaging, chat rooms and collaborative browsing. 我很幸运地近距离见了万维网(world wide web)的诞生。当初,网上只有一些由超链接联接在一起的文本页面,并没有人。所以,我创立了最早的互联网创业型企业之一Ubique,希望开发出提供即时通讯、聊天室和协同浏览功能的社交网络软件,把人接入到网络中去。 Since then, internet civilisation has mushroomed. According to a report published last year by the International Telecommunications Union, there are now 3.2bn internet users worldwide. But what kind of civilisation has it become? Imagine that 300m Twitter users wanted to change its rules of conduct, or that a billion Facebook users wanted to change its management. Is this possible or even thinkable? 自那以来,互联网文明已迅速发展起来。根据国际电信联盟(ITU)去年发布的一份报告,当前全球互联网用户达到32亿人。但互联网文明已变成了何种文明?想象一下,假如3亿推特(Twitter)用户想要改变推特的行为守则,或者10亿Facebook用户想要改变Facebook的管理方式,这是可能、或者退一步说,可以想象的吗? In 20 years, the internet has matured and has reached its equivalent of the Middle Ages. It has large feudal communities, with rulers who control everything and billions of serfs without civil rights. History tells us that the medieval era was followed by the Enlightenment. That great thinker of Enlightenment liberalism, John Stuart Mill, declared that there are three basic freedoms: freedom of thought and speech; freedom of “tastes and pursuits”; and the freedom to unite with others. The first two kinds of freedom are provided by the internet in abundance, at least in free countries. 20年间,互联网就已成熟,进入了相当于中世纪的阶段。互联网上有无数大型封建社区,社区“统治者”控制着一切,还控制着数十亿没有公民权的农奴。历史告诉我们,中世纪之后是启蒙时代。伟大的自由主义启蒙思想家约翰#8226;斯图尔特#8226;密尔(John Stuart Mill)宣称,世界上存在三种基本自由:思想与言论的自由;“趣味和志趣”的自由;以及与他人联合的自由。互联网提供了大量的前两种自由,起码在自由国家是这样。 But today’s internet technology does not support freedom of assembly, and consequently does not support democracy. For how can we practice democracy if people cannot assemble to discuss, take collective action or form political parties? The reason is that the internet currently is a masquerade. We can easily form a group on Google or Facebook, but we cannot know for sure who its members are. Online, people are sometimes not who they say they are. 但是,如今的互联网技术不持集会自由,因而也不持民主。因为,如果不能集会进行讨论、采取一致行动或组建政党,我们如何能践行民主呢?原因在于,目前互联网是一个假面舞会。我们可以轻易在谷歌(Google)或Facebook上组建一个团体,但我们不确定团队成员到底是谁。在网上,人们的实际身份有时跟他们声称的不一致。 Fortunately, help is on the way. The ed Nations and the World Bank are committed to providing digital IDs to every person on the planet by 2030. 幸运的是,援手即将到来。联合国(UN)和世界(World Bank)致力于到2030年为地球上所有人提供数字身份(ID)。 Digital IDs are smart cards that use public key cryptography, contain biometric information and allow easy proof of identity. They are aly being used in many countries, but widesp use of them on the internet will require standardisation and seamless smartphone integration, which are yet to come. 数字ID是智能卡,该卡使用公钥密码,包含生物特征信息,可以轻松地明身份。数字ID已开始在许多国家使用,但要将其广泛地应用到互联网上,将需要进行标准化和无缝的智能手机融合——这一点尚未实现。 In the meantime, we need to ask what kind of democracy could be realised on the internet. A new kind of online democracy is aly emerging, with software such as Liquid Feedback or Adhocracy, which power “proposition development” and decision making. Known as “liquid” or “delegative democracy”, this is a hybrid of existing forms of direct and representative democracy. 另一方面,我们需要问:在互联网上可能实现何种民主?随着Liquid Feedback或Adhocracy等持“提案制定”和决策功能的软件的问世,一种新型网上民主已开始出现。这种民主被称为“流动式”或“代表式”民主,是现有的直接民主和代议制民主的混合体。 It is like direct democracy, in that every vote is decided by the entire membership, directly or via delegation. It resembles representative democracy in that members normally trust delegates to vote on their behalf. But delegates must constantly earn the trust of the other members. 它有些像直接民主,每次选举都由全体成员投票决定,直接或者通过代表投票。它跟代议制民主相似的是,成员们通常委托代表替他们投票。但代表们必须不断地争取其他成员的信任。 Another key question concerns which voting system to use. Systems that allow voters to rank alternatives are generally considered superior. Both delegative democracy and ranked voting require complex software and algorithms, and so previously were not practical. But they are uniquely suited to the internet. 另一个关键的问题关系到使用何种表决制度。允许选民为候选者排序的制度通常被认为是优越的制度。代表式民主和优先选择投票制都要求复杂的软件和算法,所以之前并不可行。但这两者都特别适合用于互联网。 Although today there are only a handful of efforts at internet democracy, I believe that smartphone-y digital IDs will eventually usher in a “Cambrian explosion” of democratic forms. The resulting internet democracy will be far superior to its offline counterpart. Imagine a Facebook-like community that encompasses all of humanity. We may call it “united humanity”, as it will unite people, not nations. It will win hearts and minds by offering people the prospect of genuine participation, both locally and globally, in the democratic process. 尽管如今世界上在互联网民主方面的尝试屈指可数,但我认为,智能手机适用的数字ID将最终带来各种民主形式的“寒武纪大爆发”(Cambrian explosion)。随之而来的互联网民主将比线下民主优越得多。想象一个包含了所有人类的Facebook社区。我们或许会称之为“联合人”(仿照“联合国”——译者注),因为它将把人类、而不是国家联合到一起。它将向人们提供在地区和全球范围内真正参与民主进程的可能性,从而赢得人们全心全意的拥护。 /201604/436633

Xiaomi has sealed a deal to buy some 1,500 patents from Microsoft, a move that will help the Chinese smartphone maker expand exports and earn the US technology giant some badly needed goodwill in Beijing.小米(Xiaomi)与微软(Microsoft)达成一项协议,将向微软购买约1500项专利,此举将帮助这家中国智能手机制造商扩大出口,并为这家美国科技巨头在中国获得一些亟需的商誉。The transaction addresses a key weakness facing Xiaomi, which is seeking to sell its devices in countries outside its home market but has been hindered by its relative lack of intellectual property to fend off lawsuits.这笔交易化解了小米面临的一项主要弱势,该公司希望在本土市场以外的国家销售其产品,但由于相对缺乏知识产权来抵御诉讼,这方面的努力受阻。“In terms of patents we are a young company,” Xiaomi said yesterday, adding that the Microsoft deal was “a big milestone for us. It will help us with operations in new markets.”“从专利的角度来看,我们是一家年轻公司,”小米昨日表示,该公司补充称,与微软的协议“是我们的一项重要里程碑。它将有利于我们在新市场的业务。”The agreement comes on the eve of a visit to Beijing by Microsoft chief executive Satya Nadella. The US company is still the subject of an antitrust investigation in China over the bundling of software, and its offices were raided by Chinese authorities in July 2014.该协议是在微软首席执行官萨蒂亚#8226;纳德拉(Satya Nadella)访华前夕签订的。微软仍因软件捆绑问题在中国面临反垄断调查,2014年7月,中国当局曾突击搜查该公司驻华办事处。The patents deal includes Xiaomi installing Microsoft’s Office and Skype software on its phones. Financial terms were not made public.这项专利协议包括小米将在其手机上安装微软的Office和Skype软件。交易金额没有公开。Xiang Wang, senior vice-president, said Xiaomi was “excited” to be working with Microsoft and the deal demonstrated the Chinese company was “looking to build sustainable, long-term partnerships with global technology leaders”.小米高级副总裁王翔表示,小米对于与微软合作感到“激动”,该协议明,小米“希望与全球科技领军企业建立可持续的长期合作”。Other US tech groups facing setbacks in China have looked to do deals with local champions, partly as a way to win favour with Beijing. Last month Apple invested bn in Didi Chuxing, China’s version of Uber, which some analysts said they believed was at least partly motivated by government relations.其他在中国受挫的美国科技集团也已寻求与中国冠军企业做生意,在一定程度上是为了赢得中国政府的青睐。上月,苹果(Apple)向中国版优步(Uber)滴滴出行(Didi Chuxing)投资10亿美元,一些分析人士表示,他们认为,此举至少在一定程度上受到政府关系的驱使。Xiaomi said it had applied for 5,700 patents over the past two years but declined to give any detail on the number it has been awarded and where. The deal was a drop in the bucket for Microsoft, with its 60,000 patents.小米表示,过去两年该公司已申请5700项专利,但拒绝透露有关获得批准的专利数量以及在何处获批的详细数据。对于拥有6万项专利的微软而言,该协议只是很小的一部分。A lean patent portfolio has hindered Xiaomi’s efforts to ramp up exports. In the smartphone industry, patent litigation is a serious challenge and access to a large number of patents allows companies to reduce their vulnerability to lawsuits by cross-licensing and trading patents.专利组合薄弱迄今阻碍着小米扩大出口的努力。在智能手机领域,专利诉讼是一项严峻挑战,获得大量专利将让公司通过交叉许可和专利交易减少诉讼带来的影响。In India, its largest prospective foreign market, Xiaomi last year faced a patent lawsuit in a Delhi High Court by Swedish telecoms equipment maker Ericsson.在印度,瑞典电信设备制造商爱立信(Ericsson)去年在德里高院(Delhi High Court)起诉小米专利侵权。印度是小米最具潜力的海外市场。The case continues, though Xiaomi won a reprieve in a subsequent ruling barring it only from importing and selling phones containing components linked to the Ericsson dispute.该案仍在审理中,尽管小米在随后的裁决中赢得喘息空间,仅被禁止进口和销售含有与爱立信纠纷相关的部件的手机。Xiaomi currently exports to seven countries outside of China and Hong Kong, including Malaysia, India and Brazil.除了中国内地和香港以外,小米目前还向7个国家销售产品,包括马来西亚、印度和巴西。Expanding exports is part of a strategy to bolster sales, which are sagging in China. Xiaomi was the best-selling smartphone brand in China in 2014 and part of 2015 but has been eclipsed by Shenzhen-based rival Huawei.扩大出口是提升销售的战略的一部分,如今小米在中国销售疲弱。在2014年全年和2015年部分时期,小米曾是中国最畅销的智能手机品牌,但现在已被总部位于深圳的竞争对手华为(Huawei)超越。Xiaomi sold more than 70m phones in 2015, up from 61m the year before but missing both its original target of 100m and a revised goal of 80m.小米在2015年销售了逾7000万部手机,超过了2014年的6100万部,但没有实现最初制定的销售1亿部(后来调整为8000万部)的目标。Microsoft itself has had little success in trying to crack the global smartphone market. It acquired Nokia’s hardware business in 2013 for .2bn but the deal has been disastrous. Microsoft said last month it would take an additional 0m writedown, having aly written down .6bn from its mobile phone operations and laid off 7,800 staff.微软自己在进军全球智能手机市场方面乏善可陈。它在2013年斥资72亿美元收购了诺基亚(Nokia)的硬件业务,但该交易是灾难性的。微软上月表示,将再次减记9.5亿美元,它之前已经对其手机业务减记了76亿美元,并裁掉了7800名员工。Bryan Ma at IT consultancy IDC in Singapore said of the deal: “It’s a win-win, with one side building up its patent collection and the other building up its ecosystem. But this deal alone won’t change either of their fortunes overnight.”新加坡IT咨询公司IDC的马伯远(Bryan Ma)谈到该交易时表示:“这是一笔双赢交易,让一方积累专利数量,另一方打造其生态系统。但单凭该协议不会在一夜之间改变它们的命运。” /201606/447439

The flying bike Scorpion 1, capable of moving at a speed of 100 kilometers per hour, has been developed by the Russian company Hoversurf, the Russian newspaper Izvestia reported.据俄罗斯《消息报》报道,一家叫作Hoversurf的俄罗斯公司研发出了一种名为Scorpion 1的飞行自行车,速度可达100千米/时。In an interview with the Izvestia, Hoversurf founder Alexander Atamanov described the Scorpion 1 as a heavy multi-rotor manned copter.Hoversurf公司的创始人亚历山大·阿塔马诺夫在接受采访时将Scorpion 1描述为一种重型多旋翼载人直升机。At the same time, he said that in the future, more attention will be paid to the use of heavy unmanned aerial vehicles.同时他还表示,在未来,公司将把更多的精力投入到重型无人机的使用上。;We proposed the concept of a flying motorcycle for promotion purposes even though we know that in terms of market prospects it is heavy drones that will be in great demand,; he said.他说道:“我们提出了飞行自行车这个概念,更多是为了促进销售,但是我们知道,在市场前景方面,重型无人机的需求是十分巨大的。”Atamanov added that his company is y to make such a motorcycle if it receives an individual order, but that people are still wary of buying such aircraft.此外,阿塔马诺夫还补充道,该公司已经做好了准备,只要有人下单,哪怕是单独一部,他们也会生产。不过人们似乎对于购买这样的飞行器依然十分谨慎。According to him, the Scorpion 1 is equipped with an engine with batteries allowing the flying bike to remain in the sky for about twenty minutes.据他介绍,配备一部电池的Scorpion 1可以在空中飞行约20分钟。The Scorpion 1 is aly available for pre-order and costs 52,000 dollars (about 3.3 million rubles), according to the company#39;s website.据该公司官网表示,Scorpion 1已经可以接受预订,每部售价5.2万美元(约合330万卢布)。In this regard, Izvestia ed Alexander Grek, chief editor of the Russian edition of the magazinePopular Mechanics, as saying that individuals are still legally barred from buying and using such vehicles as a means of transportation in Russia.关于此事,《消息报》引用《大众机械》俄国版的主编亚历山大·格里克的话称:目前在俄罗斯,法律依然禁止个人购买和使用这样的机器作为交通工具。 /201607/456089


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