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2019年07月24日 08:09:27 | 作者:平安生活 | 来源:新华社
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations should be an economic powerhouse. Asean’s population of 625m is set to grow by 120m before 2030, adding to an abundant pool of labour that complements bounteous natural resources. Yet the 10-member region punches well below its weight: it accounts for 3 per cent of global gross domestic product but is home to 9 per cent of the world’s population. The underachievement derives in part from political and regulatory diversity that undermines regional competitiveness and inhibits inflows of investment into manufacturing and infrastructure.东南亚国家联盟(ASEAN,简称东盟)应成为一个强大的经济集团。东盟的6.25亿人口将030年之前增.2亿,不但可以扩大本就充裕的劳动力储备,而且该地区还拥有丰富的自然资源。然而,这个10国集团的表现并不尽如人意:东盟拥有世%的人口,却只占全球GDP%。这种不佳表现部分源于成员国在政治和监管方面的多样性,这削弱了区域的竞争力,抑制了对制造业和基础设施的投资。Thus the launch of the Asean Economic Community, due by the end of this year, represents a milestone. The AEC aims to accelerate integration and establish a single market and production base. Hopes for the potential on offer are accentuated by a slowdown that has depressed the region’s GDP growth rate to its lowest level since the 2008/09 financial crisis.因此,计划在今年底之前创立的东盟经济共同Asean Economic Community, AEC)具有里程碑意义。AEC旨在加快区域一体化,建立单一的市场和生产基地。对AEC能带来潜力的期待已因为经济放缓而变得更加迫切,该地区的GDP增速下降至2008/09年金融危机以来的最低水平。On paper, the AEC’s aspirations resemble the early days of the European Economic Community. A blueprint agreed in 2007 envisaged a single market and production base, which included measures to standardise trade tariffs and dismantle non-tariff barriers, plus a free flow of services and investment. It allowed for more liberal migrations of skilled labour and freer interchanges of capital.表面上看,AEC的目标类似于欧洲经济共同European Economic Community)成立之初的愿景。东007年通过的一项蓝图设想了单一的市场和生产基地,其中包括规范贸易关税、消除非关税壁垒的措施,以及务和投资的自由流动。它还允许熟练工人更自由地迁徙以及更自由的资本流通。Of these, only a generally free trade in goods has materialised. Trade in services remains hobbled by formal and informal barriers while free flows of capital and investment are far from realised. A more liberalised market for skilled labour is so far away that officials rarely bother to mention it. This paucity of progress is having an effect. Intra-Asian trade has declined over the past 18 months, having flatlined during the previous two years. Such a record detracts from expectations. Indeed, the main impediment to integration is to be found among Asean’s founding principles.这些目标中,只有商品基本自由贸易已经实现。务贸易仍受困于正式及非正式的壁垒,而资本和投资的自由流动还远未实现。对熟练工人而言,更自由的市场如此遥不可及,连官员们都很少愿意再去提及。这种缺乏进展的局面已经带来影响。在经过两年的零增长之后,过8个月,亚洲内部贸易已经出现下滑。这种表现降低了人们的期望值。实际上,东盟一体化的主要障碍存在于该组织的成立原则之中。Unlike the EU, which relies on intrusive powers to ensure policy alignment among its members, the body shows no willingness to jettison its cherished “Asean way a consensus approach to decision-making that discourages “interferencein the internal affairs of fellow members. Too often this results in a frustrating lack of traction.与依靠干预性权力确保成员间政策均等的欧EU)不同,东盟并不愿意放弃其珍视的“东盟方式Asean Way),而这种要求达成一致的决策方式阻碍了对成员国内部事务的“干预”。由此带来的结果通常是令人沮丧的前进动力不足。In addition, there is a debilitating lack of administrative capacity. The Asean secretariat, which is responsible for forwarding the group’s agendas, has a tiny budget (m in 2014) and a skeleton staff that lacks the power to enforce adherence to regional initiatives. Progress towards AEC, for example, is assessed retrospectively with a “scorecardapproach that avoids direct criticism of member states.此外,东盟还缺乏行政管理能力,这是有害的。负责推进组织议程的东盟秘书处的预算很少014年为1700万美元),秘书处的主要官员也没有让各国执行地区动议的权力。例如,用“计分卡”方式对推动AEC的进展进行回顾性评估,以避免直接批评成员国。These features, however, do not tell the whole story. In spite of Asean’s fuzzy focus on integration, other forces buffeting the region are imparting a more irresistible momentum towards reform. The region is a vital part of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, which ties Asean members into a programme of trade liberalisation with China, India, South Korea, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In addition, Asean states Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam and Brunei are founding members of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a trade agreement with the US.然而,这些特征并不代表全部。尽管东盟自身对一体化态度模糊,冲击该地区的其他势力正带来一种更不可抗拒的改革动力。东盟是“区域全面经济伙伴关系协定Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership)的重要成员,该协定使东盟成员国加入了一项与中国、印度、韩囀?日本、澳大利亚及新西兰的贸易自由化计划中。此外,马来西亚、新加坡、越南及文莱四个东盟国家还是与美国达成的《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定》(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)的创始成员囀?It is likely that, even if Asean continues to fight shy of defining its destiny, the promises that members make beyond the region will drive inexorable progress towards integration. Therefore it makes sense to beef up its secretariat’s powers and take a more intrusive approach towards implementing the AEC.即使东盟依然怯于掌握自己的命运,很有可能的是,其成员国在区域之外所做的承诺将不可避免地推动东盟一体化取得进步。因此,有必要强化东盟秘书处的权力,并采取一种更具干预性的方式来落实AEC。来 /201512/413497

SEOUL (Reuters) - A Korean Air Lines Coexecutive, whose dismay over the way she was served macadamia nuts led to aplane returning to its gate to expel the cabin crew chief, has stepped down as head of in-flight service, the airline said on Tuesday.首尔(路透社)——据一韩国航空公司周二表示,该公司副社长因对乘务员上澳洲坚果的方式感到不快,致飞机飞回登机口将乘务工作负责人赶下飞机,这位副社长已经辞去其在航空公司的职位。Korean Air apologized for Fridays incident at New Yorks John F. Kennedy International Airport in which Heather Cho, a vice president of the airline, took issue with a crew member for substandard service.大韩航空公司就周五发生在纽约肯尼迪国际机场的事件致歉,事件经过是该航空公司副社长赵显娥因务规格与乘务员发生争论。The incident aboard an Airbus A380 jumbojet that had been pushed back from its gate bound for Incheon, near Seoul, provoked outrage in South Korea when it was reported on Monday.发生在空客A380大型喷气式客机上的事件导致这班飞往首尔附近城市仁川市的客机折返,据周一新闻报道,韩国民众对此感到愤怒;I am sorry to our customers and the Korean people that I unintentionally caused social uproar and I ask forgiveness from anyone who has been hurt by me,; a company official, speaking to Reuters by telephone, ed Heather Cho as saying late on Tuesday.该航空公司一名官员于周二晚些时候援引赵显娥的话回应路透社的电话采访,“我就自己无意间引发社会骚动向我们的顾客以及韩国人民致歉,我请求所有受到影响的人员的谅解”;I take responsibility for the incident,; the official ed her as saying.官方原因她的话说,“这件事情的责任在我”。Cho was seated in first-class when she took issue with a flight attendant who handed her macadamia nuts in a bag, not on adish, according to an industry official briefed on the matter, who declined to be identified.一名不愿透露身份的业内人士简要说明了事件,当时,坐在头等舱的赵显娥同递给她袋装澳洲坚果的乘务员发生了争论。Cho ;took issue with the cabin crew chiefs qualifications,; and the plane was returned by the pilot to its gate to expel the crew chief, the airline said.航空公司说,赵显娥“争论起乘务工作负责人的资质”,飞行员将飞机飞回登记口将乘务工作负责人赶下了飞机。The flight arrived in Incheon 11 minutes behind schedule.结果,客机晚点了11分钟才到达仁川市。来 /201412/347796

Commentary on last months Russian-Chinese energy deal to ship 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas annually from East Siberia to China has focused on its benefits for China. Yet Beijing may come to regret the deal, especially when some superior options exist directly under its feet.上个月中俄达成能源协议后,外界的焦点一直是该协议给中国带来的好处。然而北京可能会对这项协议感到后悔,尤其是在又出现了一些更好的选择方案的情况下。根据中俄达成的协议,俄罗斯每年从东西伯利亚向中国出80亿立方米天然气。Granted, northeast China needs gas imports, and other sources such as liquid natural gas would be expensive compared with piped gas from Siberia. And Chinas demand for natural gas is going to grow rapidly in the next couple decades--far faster than can be met with non-Russian sources such as Australia.毫无疑问,中国东北部地区需要进口天然气,并且液化天然气等其他资源价格要高于来自西伯利亚的管道天然气。未0年中国的天然气需求将迅猛增长,如果不从俄罗斯进口,只是依赖澳大利亚等其他国家,可能远远无法得到满足。Even so, the 0 billion Siberian pipeline that China is now obligated to help finance wont be usable for four years. And by 2020 it will meet no more than 10% of the countrys needs.即便如此,中国目前负责融资的规模4,000亿美元的西伯利亚输气管道项目四年内也无法投入使用。到2020年该输气管道的供气量也只占中国需求的10%。The real beneficiaries of the Shanghai deal are Vladimir Putin and his state-owned Gazprom. Gas flowing through the Siberian pipeline will also be available for sale to other Asian countries at a considerable discount to what they pay for liquid natural gas. The deal offers insurance if Europe cuts back on Russian gas imports in the aftermath of the Ukraine crisis. Analysts at Wood MacKenzie liken the deal to finding a new Europe for Gazprom.其实,中俄两国上海能源协议的真正受益方是普京(Vladimir Putin)及其国有企业俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司(Gazprom)。来自西伯利亚输气管道的天然气也可以销售给其他亚洲国家,价格将远低于它们购买的液化天然气。即使欧洲在乌克兰危机后削减俄罗斯天然气进口量,上述协议也为俄罗斯提供了保障。Wood MacKenzie的分析师们把该交易比作是俄罗斯天然气工业股份公司找到了一个“新的欧洲市场”。That should give the Chinese additional pause. The rest of the world is learning that relying on Russia for natural gas can be a very bad idea--almost as bad as depending on oil shipped through the Iran-dominated Straits of Hormuz, as China does now. Yet Chinas energy demands are inexorable. Aly the worlds largest energy consumer, it will see demand surge again in the next two decades, including for natural gas.这将令中国更感踌躇。眼下世界其他国家都逐渐意识到,依靠俄罗斯的天然气可能导致非常不利的结果,差不多像依靠通过伊朗控制的霍尔木兹海Straits of Hormuz)运输石油一样糟糕――而中国目前正是如此。然而中国的能源需求势不可挡。中国已经成为全球最大的能源消费国,而且未来20年中国对天然气等能源的需求将再度猛增。A better idea is for China to crack open shale oil and gas reserves at home, which are enormous. The U.S. Energy Information Administration estimates that Chinese gas reserves could be almost one and a half times those of the ed States. Yet to date China has dug fewer than 200 shale-gas wells, compared to 40,000 dug in the U.S.对中国来说,更好的方案是开发本国巨大的页?油气储量。据美国能源情报 Energy Information Administration,简称:EIA)估计,中国天然气储量几乎是美国的1.5倍。但迄今为止,中国页岩气井数量不00口,而美国有4万口。Why hasnt China seen the kind of shale revolution that has turned the U.S. into the worlds biggest natural gas producer, and will make it the biggest oil producer by 2020?为何中国没有看到使美国成为全球最大天然气生产国的页?革命?而且020年,美国还将成为全球最大石油生产国。Part of the problem is geology. Chinas shale is heavily mixed with clay, unlike the brittle bedrock that surrounds American shale. Chinas is also buried deeper, and some deposits may contain lethal contaminates like hydrogen sulfide.其中一个原因是地质问题。中国页岩掺杂大量粘土,而美国页岩则由比较脆的基岩包裹。中国页岩埋藏较深,有些矿藏还可能含有致命污染物,如硫化氢。Theres also geography. Chinas biggest shale gas fields are in Sichuan province, which is densely populated, unlike North Dakota or West Texas. And Sichuan cant spare the tremendous amount of water that American-style fracking demands.还有地理方面的问题。中国最大页岩气田位于人口稠密的四川省,而不是像美国,位于人口较少的北达科他或西德克萨斯。四川也没有那么多水供美式压裂法之用。But the biggest problem is the Chinese government. The countrys major energy companies are state-owned and naturally get most contracts whether they have the expertise or not. There is little opportunity for homegrown startups to introduce innovation that would address the technical obstacles. And given Chinas legal system, there are no guarantees that an individual investor in such projects would get his money back.但最大的问题还在于中国政府。中国大型能源企业都是国有企业,无论是否具备相应能力都自然能获得最多的项目合同。民间初创企业没有什么机会为解决技术难题进行创新。另外,从中国的法律制度来看,个人投资者对这种项目的投资不能保能收回成本。So even though China has set a 2015 target for shale gas extraction of 6.5 billion cubic meters--a tiny fraction of what the U.S. extracts every year--it seems unlikely they will come close to meeting it. At one gas site auction in late 2012, not one of the 16 companies bidding had ever drilled a gas well.因此,虽然中国制定了015年页岩气产量达到每年65亿立方米的目标(仅相当于美国每年页?气产量的很小一部分),但这一目标不太可能得以实现。在2012年底招标的一个页岩气区块,参与竞标的16家企业中没有一家具备钻探页岩气井的经验。There is one place where China could find the expertise to open its gas potential: the ed States. China has aly turned to giants such as Shell for help--and joint ventured with companies such as FTS International with experience in fracking--but only U.S. companies are truly poised to solve Chinas issues.如果说中国可以从一个国家找到开采页岩气储备所需的技术,这个国家就是美国。中国已求助于壳Shell)等巨头,并与具有压裂经验的FTS International等企业组建了合资公司,但只有美国企业真正做好了帮助中国解决问题的准备。Houston-based eCorp, for example, has developed a technology for fracking shale wells with liquid propane instead of water mixed with chemicals. Unlike conventional fracking, the process produces no waste because the propane goes into the pipeline along with the gas.例如,总部位于休斯顿的eCorp已开发了一项用液态丙烷取代混有化学剂的水来压裂页岩井的技术。和常规的压裂不同,这一工序不会产生废弃物,因为丙烷会随着页?气一起进入管道。But for China to tap sufficient foreign expertise would require some rethinking--namely to begin viewing foreign entrepreneurs not as profiteers but as partners. Such a change might also encourage Beijing to see the U.S. less as a geopolitical and economic rival, and more as a potential partner in solving its biggest energy needs.但中国对大量采用国外技术还存有一些顾虑,因为这意味着不能再将国外企业视为牟取暴利者,而是当做合作伙伴。这种转变或许还会促使北京更多地将美国视为解决本国巨大能源需求的潜在合作伙伴,而非地缘政治和经济竞争对手。Chinas long-term economic and energy security are at stake. Betting on help from the U.S. seems far wiser than relying on a Siberian pipeline with Vladimir Putins hand on the spigot.中国的长期经济和能源安全危如累卵,求助美国似乎比依赖由普京掌控龙头的西伯利亚输气管道似乎要靠谱得多。来 /201406/307950

LE BOURGET, France With the sudden bang of a gavel Saturday night, representatives of 195 nations reached a landmark accord that will, for the first time, commit nearly every country to lowering planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions to help stave off the most drastic effects of climate change.法国勒布尔热——周六晚上,随着小木槌砰的一声响,来95个国家的代表们达成了一项里程碑式的协议。这项协议将第一次实现几乎每个国家都承诺降低让全球变暖的温室气体的排放,以避免出现气候变化带来的最严重的后果。The deal, which was met with an eruption of cheers and ovations from thousands of delegates gathered from around the world, represents a historic breakthrough on an issue that has foiled decades of international efforts to address climate change.协议的签署引发数千名来自世界各地的代表热烈欢呼和鼓掌。它代表着国际社会举数十年之力未能应对的气候变化问题取得了历史性的突破。Traditionally, such pacts have required developed economies, such as the ed States, to take action to lower greenhouse gas emissions, but they have exempted developing countries, such as China and India, from such action.过去签署的此类协议一般要求美国等发达经济体采取行动来削减温室气体排放,但没有对中囀?印度等发展中国家提出要求。The accord, which U.N. diplomats have been working toward for nine years, changes that dynamic by requiring action in some form from every country, rich or poor.联合国外交官员过去九年一直在竭力促成的这项协议改变了这一状况,转而要求每个国家,不论贫富,都要采取一些行动。“This is truly a historic moment,the U.N. secretary-general, Ban Ki-moon, said in an interview. “For the first time, we have a truly universal agreement on climate change, one of the most crucial problems on earth.”“这真是一个历史性的时刻,”联合国秘书长潘基文(Ban Ki-moon)在接受采访时说。“在地球上最重要的问题之一,即气候变化问题上,我们第一次达成了一项真正具有普适意义的协议。”President Barack Obama, who regards tackling climate change as a central element of his legacy, spoke of the deal in a televised address from the White House. “This agreement sends a powerful signal that the world is fully committed to a low-carbon future,he said. “Weve shown that the world has both the will and the ability to take on this challenge.”美国总统贝拉克·奥巴马将应对气候变化问题作为自己政治遗产的一个核心部分,协议达成后他在白宫发表了电视讲话。“这份协议释放出一个强有力的信号,显示出全世界决心共同创造一个低碳的未来,”他说。“我们已经明,这个世界不仅有意愿,也有能力承担起这项挑战。”The new deal will not, on its own, solve global warming. At best, scientists who have analyzed it say, it will cut global greenhouse gas emissions by about half enough as is necessary to stave off an increase in atmospheric temperatures of 2 degrees Celsius or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit. That is the point at which, scientific studies have concluded, the world will be locked into a future of devastating consequences, including rising sea levels, severe droughts and flooding, widesp food and water shortages and more destructive storms.新协议本身不会解决全球变暖问题。就此进行分析的科学家们表示,在最理想的情况下,它会使全球温室气体排放有所降低,但规模为避免气温上摄氏度所需的削减量的大约一半。多项科学研究已经得出结论,全球气温上升2摄氏度的话,世界就将陷入一个有各种灾难性后果的未来,其中包括海平面上升、严重干旱和洪灾、普遍的粮食和水资源短缺,以及更多破坏性的风暴。But the Paris deal could represent the moment at which, because of a shift in global economic policy, the inexorable rise in planet-warming carbon emissions that started during the Industrial Revolution began to level out and eventually decline.但巴黎协议或许代表着一个特殊时刻:随着全球经济政策发生转向,自工业革命以来温室气体排放似乎不可阻挡的增长趋势开始得到遏制,趋向稳定,并最终下降。来 /201512/415989

As a former prime minister of Australia, I understand something of the political costs leaders must bear in aiming to reconcile the long-term interests of the planet with short-term national interests.作为澳大利亚前总理,我深知要调和地球的长期利益和短期的国家利益之间的冲突,领导人必须付出某种政治代价。After attending the Copenhagen summit on climate change, I was attacked back home for either doing too much or too little in trying to bring about a binding global agreement.在参加了年的哥本哈根气候变化峰会之后,我在国内受到了攻击,因为人们觉得我在努力促成一份有约束力的全球协议时,做得太多或太少。We all failed at Copenhagen, though not for want of effort from many of us. The ed Nations conference in Paris this December is the next opportunity for leaders of the world’s biggest economies to show real leadership in the slow-motion drama that is anthropogenic climate change.我们在哥本哈根都是输家,但这不是因为我们许多人缺乏行动。今2月在巴黎召开的联合国气候大会,为世界最大经济体的领导人提供了又一次机会,让他们可以在人为气候变化的慢动作剧目中,展示真正的领导力。The ed States and China, the world’s biggest polluters, began tackling climate change together when they announced an agreement last November to curb carbon emissions. The ed States promised to double the speed at which it will reduce carbon emissions, aiming for a 26-to-28 percent reduction by 2025 from 2005 levels, while China pledged to peak emissions by around 2030.世界上最大的两个污染排放国——美国和中国——已经开始携手应对气候变化问题,并于去年11月宣布了一份限制碳排放的协议。美国承诺把降低碳排放的步伐加快一倍,打算025年使碳排放水平比2005年减6%8%,而中国则承诺030年左右使碳排放达到峰值。Meanwhile, India and China issued a joint statement on climate change earlier this month that included a pledge to submit plans on their own carbon targets before the Paris conference.与此同时,印度和中国本月早些时候发表了一份有关气候变化的联合声明,其中包括在巴黎会议之前提交它们自己的碳排放目标的承诺。Five years ago, such joint announcements by the ed States, China and India were seen as inconceivable. Now climate science makes them unavoidable.五年前,美国、中国和印度达成的这些联合声明会令人难以置信。如今,气候科学的现实让它们别无选择。The mathematical reality is that these three countries the ed States, China and India together with the European Union, will in large part shape the future of the planet.数学方面的现实是,这三个国家——美囀?中国和印度——加上欧盟国家,很大程度上将决定地球的未来。Between 1850 and 2012, the ed States and Europe produced 45 percent of greenhouse gases currently in the atmosphere, compared to 18 percent from China and India, according to the nonprofit organization Climate Analytics. Based on current practices, it is projected that by 2020, China alone will produce 24 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, India 7 percent, the ed States 13 percent and the European Union 8 percent. Climate change action by China and India is now critical.根据非营利组织气候分Climate Analytics)的数据,1850012年,美国和欧洲制造了目前大气5%的温室气体,相比之下,中国和印度产生的温室气体占8%。根据目前的情况,预计到2020年,单是中国就将产生24%的全球温室气体排放,印度7%,美3%,欧盟国%。中国和印度的气候变化行动如今至关重要。But China and India fear that radical action on greenhouse gas emissions will significantly reduce economic growth in a time when poverty reduction remains a national priority. We in the West cannot simply wave this problem away as if it is not our concern as well.不过,中国和印度担心,在减贫仍然是国家首要任务的当下,温室气体排放方面的激进行动将使经济增速大大放缓。我们西方国家不能对这个问题撒手不管,因为这也是我们的担忧。Still, India and China will face even greater problems if carbon emissions continue to increase.而且,如果碳排放继续增长的话,印度和中国将面临更加严峻的问题。India will be one of the states hardest hit by climate change, with increased coastal flooding and melting Himalayan glaciers. Rising global temperatures would make water security an even greater problem in India-Pakistan relations. William Cline, a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, has estimated that a modest increase in average global temperatures would cut agricultural output in India by 38 percent.随着沿海地区洪灾的增多,以及喜马拉雅冰川不断融化,印度将成为受气候变化影响最严重的国家之一。不断上升的全球气温将使水安全成为印巴关系中更加严峻的问题。华盛顿彼得森国际经济研究所(Peterson Institute for International Economics)的高级研究员威廉·克莱William R. Cline) 估计,全球平均气温的小幅上升会使印度的农业产出下8%。The stakes are as great for China. Earlier this year, the head of China’s national weather service warned that climate change would have “huge impactson the country, including reduced crop yields, ecological harm and unstable river flows. A 2011 government report anticipated a 5-to-20 percent drop in grain output resulting from climate change by 2050. Never mind the crisis the Chinese leadership aly faces from unsustainable levels of air pollution in the country’s major cities.中国同样利益攸关。今年早些时候,中国国家气象局负责人警告称,气候变化对国家“影响巨大”,会导致粮食产量下降,生态退化,以及河流径流量不稳定011年的一份政府报告预计,050年,气候变化导致的粮食减产将达%0%。除此之外,中国领导层还面临着大城市不可持续的空气污染水平所带来的危机。While the ed Statestotal emissions are now considerably less than China’s, America’s per-capita emissions are three times that of China and 10 times India’s. If the ed States wants to persuade China and India to shift to a low-carbon development path, it must make a determined effort to reduce the carbon intensity of its own economy by becoming more energy efficient and switching to low-carbon energy sources. Shale gas is one part of this equation.尽管美国的总排放量目前远远低于中国,人均排放量却是中国倍、印度的10倍。如果美国想要说中国和印度改走低碳发展道路,就必须通过提高能效和转而使用低碳能源,坚决降低自身经济的碳排放强度。页岩气是这个方程式的一部分。Success in Paris this December will require a three-part approach.今年12月的巴黎大会要想取得成功,需要一个具有三个组成部分的对策。First, the ed States and China must rapidly increase collaboration on climate change both within and beyond the framework of the Paris conference. This means concerted action from environmental and energy regulators, and effective pricing for the heaviest polluters to purchase carbon permits and for what consumers pay for energy. The sort of large-scale investments needed in renewable energy, less carbon-intensive energy, energy efficiency and technological innovation will only happen if there are significant and sustained price and regulatory signals from government, coupled with innovations in the market. China’s air pollution crisis should be a core focus of bilateral policy, regulatory and technological effort not least because it affects us all.首先,美国和中国必须迅速扩大在气候变化问题上的合作,在巴黎会议的框架内外都是如此。这意味着环境和能源监管机构的协同行动,以及针对最严重污染者购买碳排放许可、消费者购买能源的有效定价机制。只有政府释放重要、持续的价格和监管信号,加上市场的创新,可再生能源、碳排放量较低的能源、能效和技术创新所需的大规模投资才会出现。中国的空气污染危机应该是双边政策、监管和技术行动的核心焦点——其中的一个重要原因是,它与我们每一个人都有关。Second, effective trilateral collaboration between the ed States, China and India is critical. Although India has been a smaller emitter in relative terms until now, India will pass China’s population in the next decade, and it has barely begun its own industrial revolution. Delhi aly has air pollution levels comparable to Beijing. The same type of climate change collaboration on regulation, pricing, technology and investment is needed in this triangular relationship. In this context, we cannot ignore the fact that coal, absent a quantum technological shift, is likely to remain the major fuel for energy generation in China and India through to mid-century. Investment must continue to focus on clean-coal technologies and shale-gas conversion.第二,美囀?中国和印度的有效三方合作至关重要。尽管印度迄今为止的碳排放量一直相对较少,印度人口将在未来10年超过中国,而且它基本上还没有开始自己的工业革命。德里的空气污染水平已经与北京不相上下。这个三角关系必须在监管、定价、技术和投资等领域开展同样类型的气候变化合作。在此背景下,我们不能忽视的一个事实是,如果没有巨大的技术变革,煤炭直到本世纪中叶都将会是中国和印度能源生产的主要燃料。投资的重点必须继续放在清洁煤炭技术和页?气转换上。Third, any climate change agreement in Paris must ensure that countries actually implement the emissions cuts they commit to. The final accord must agree to a regular review mechanism, full transparency of data and an ability to supplement the Paris agreement with further climate-change action as necessary. Much of the world seems oblivious to international treaty law, but it does respond to concrete environmental action based on that law.第三,在巴黎达成的任何气候变化协议,都必须确保各国兑现其减排承诺。最终的协议必须包括经常性的审核机制、充分的数据透明度,以及通过更多必要的气候变化行动为巴黎协议提供补充的能力。世界上的很多国家似乎忘记了国际公约法的存在,但他们一定会响应基于这部法律的具体的环境行动。Forging an agreement in Paris will take bold leadership. The people of the world, particularly the young, now look increasingly to the leaders of these great powers to protect our planet before it’s too late for us all.在巴黎达成协议将需要相关方面大胆地运用自己的领导力。全世界的人们现在越来越指望大国领导人保护我们的地球,年轻人尤其如此,以免我们所有人都追悔莫及。来 /201505/377485

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