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Happiness, as the Merriam-Webster dictionary defines it, is ;a state of well-being and contentment.; Sure, that#39;s one way to put it. But what does it really mean to feel on top of the world or entirely at peace with oneself? Do you feel immersed in joy? On cloud nine?幸福,正如《韦氏大字典》的定义:“一种健康满足的状态“。当然,这是表述幸福的一种方法。但感觉到欣喜若狂或完全心如止水到底是什么意思?你觉得沉浸在快乐中吗?处在九霄云上呢?We were curious about the deeper, more personal interpretations of the sensation we all know so well. So we asked our Facebook community to tell us how they explain the joyful feeling. See some of our favorite definitions below then let us know in the comments: How do you define happiness?我们很好奇这种对我们都如此了解的感觉的更深层次、更个人的解读。所以我们询问我们的Facebook社区告诉我们他们是如何解释愉悦的感觉。下面能看到我们最喜欢的一些定义,然后在中让我们知道:你如何定义幸福? /201305/240434

China#39;s scandal-tainted dairy industry took another step toward consolidation on Wednesday when its largest milk producer raised bought a bigger stake in the country#39;s biggest dairy farming company.丑闻不断的中国乳制品行业周三进一步走向合并:中国最大的乳制品制造商收购了中国最大牧业公司的更多股份。Milk producer China Mengniu Dairy Co., involved in a 2008 melamine scandal, said it had increased its stake in China Modern Dairy Holdings Ltd. from 1% to 28%. It did so to #39;secure both quality and quantity of raw milk sources,#39; Mengniu Chief Executive Sun Yiping said.中国蒙牛乳业有限公司(China Mengniu Dairy Co.,简称:蒙牛乳业)说,该公司已经把持有的中国现代牧业控股有限公司(China Modern Dairy Holdings Ltd.,简称:现代牧业)的股份从1%增加到了28%。蒙牛乳业的首席执行长孙伊萍说,这样做的目的既是保生牛乳原料的质量,也是为了保数量。蒙牛乳业曾卷入2008年的三聚氰胺丑闻。China#39;s dairy industry, which has seen multiple scandals in recent years, still relies on networks of small farmers, and analysts say consolidation would improve oversight. Even as China#39;s biggest dairy farmer, for example, Modern Dairy#39;s total output accounts for only a fraction of Mengniu#39;s demand. In 2011, it sold 97.5% of its raw milk to Mengniu--less than 7% of Mengniu#39;s needs.最近几年丑闻不断的中国乳制品行业目前仍然依赖小奶农网络,分析人士说,企业间的合并将有助于监管。即使作为中国最大的牧业公司,现代牧业的总产出也仅占蒙牛乳业需求的一小部分。2011年,现代牧业把生产的97.5%的生乳卖给了蒙牛乳业,但这还不到蒙牛乳业需求的7%。In 2008, Mengniu was the most prominent company whose baby formula was discovered to have contained the chemical melamine. In all, six infants died and another 300,000 got sick, prompting the government to seek to overhaul the industry by pushing companies to consolidate.2008年,蒙牛乳业的婴儿配方奶粉被发现含有化学品三聚氰胺,并因此成为关注的焦点。含有三聚氰胺的奶粉共造成六名婴儿死亡,30万婴儿患病,这促使中国政府寻求通过推动企业合并来整顿乳制品行业。Mengniu once again found itself thrust into an unflattering spotlight in 2011, when officials found excess levels of the chemical aflatoxin, a carcinogen, in its milk. The company has made steps to regain trust from consumers. In the aftermath of the 2008 scandal, for example, it set up consumer hot lines and offered apologies to customers.2011年,蒙牛乳业再一次成为不光的关注焦点,有关部门在蒙牛乳业的牛奶里发现了过量的致癌化学物质黄曲霉毒素。蒙牛乳业已经采取一些措施重新赢得消费者的信任。例如,2008年的三聚氰胺丑闻发生后,蒙牛乳业设立了热线,并主动向消费者道歉。Mengniu bought its initial stake in Modern Dairy last year in a move that was expected to help it increase control over the quality of its raw materials. The two companies have a close relationship. Modern Dairy#39;s chairman, Deng Jiuqiang, was a co-founder and former vice president of Mengniu.蒙牛乳业去年首次收购了现代牧业的股份,希望此举能够帮助公司加强对原料质量的控制。蒙牛乳业和现代牧业关系密切。现代牧业的董事长邓九强是蒙牛乳业的联合创始人和前副总裁。In another move expected to help improve the quality of Mengniu#39;s products, Denmark#39;s Arla Foods bought a 6% stake in the company in June, making it Mengniu#39;s second-largest shareholder.丹麦的爱氏晨曦(Arla Foods)去年6月收购了蒙牛乳业6%的股份,成为蒙牛乳业的第二大股东,外界当时预计,此举有助于改善蒙牛乳业的产品质量。 /201305/239271

Dermatologists have been telling patients for years that using sunscreen regularly can protect skin against aging. Now there#39;s research to back that up.皮肤科医生多年来一直告诫患者,经常使用防晒霜能够防止皮肤老化。如今,这种说法有了研究据的持。In a study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, researchers showed that people instructed to apply sunscreen every day showed 24% less skin aging, as measured by lines and coarseness of the skin, than those told to use the cream as they usually do.在《内科学年鉴》(Annals of Internal Medicine)上刊登的一篇论文中,研究人员指出,按指示每天涂抹防晒霜的人皮肤老化程度比被告知只是按照平时习惯使用防晒霜的人低24%。皮肤老化程度是以皮肤的皱纹和粗糙度来衡量的。#39;This is great fodder for us to encourage people to use sunscreen, #39; said Jeffrey Dover, a dermatologist in Chestnut Hill, Mass. #39;I will e this paper every day.#39;马萨诸塞州切斯纳特希尔(Chestnut Hill)的皮肤科医生杰弗瑞#8226;多弗(Jeffrey Dover)说:“这是我们鼓励大家使用防晒霜的绝佳依据。我每天都会引用这篇论文。”Sunscreen has long been touted as a way to stave off photoaging, or changes to the skin caused by sun exposure. But there wasn#39;t hard evidence in humans to support the claim, study authors said. A trial published in 1995 involved 35 people with past skin cancer and found no evidence of sunscreen#39;s protective effect, measured by looking at skin biopsies under a microscope. But larger, randomized trials open to the larger community hadn#39;t been done, for logistical and cost reasons.防晒霜长久以来一直被说成是抑制光老化(由日晒导致的皮肤变化)的方式。但论文作者称,以往的人体试验中并没有持这种说法的有力据。1995年发表的一项试验覆盖了35名曾罹患皮肤癌的人,该试验未发现防晒霜具有保护效果的据(通过显微镜下皮肤活检来衡量)。但受具体操作和费用等因素影响,针对较大群体的大规模随机试验并未进行。This study, part of a long-running skin-cancer-prevention trial, covered 903 adults younger than 55 living in Nambour, Australia, near the country#39;s Sunshine Coast. All study participants were given sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15+. Half were randomly to be instructed to apply the sunscreen daily to exposed areas, reapplying after water immersion, heavy sweating or several hours spent outdoors, while half were told to use it as they normally would.该研究是一项长期性皮肤癌预防试验的组成部分,覆盖了903名55岁以下、居住在澳大利亚楠伯(Nambour)(靠近该国的阳光海岸(Sunshine Coast))的成年人。研究人员给所有试验参加者发放了防晒系数(SPF)为15+的防晒霜。研究者随机选择其中半数的试验对象,要求他们每天在皮肤裸部位涂抹防晒霜,并在被水浸泡、大汗淋漓或在户外待几个小时后补涂防晒霜。另有半数的人被要求按他们自己平时的习惯使用防晒霜。By the end of the study, which was funded by the Australian government, 77% of those told to use sunscreen daily were using it at least three to four days a week, compared with 33% of the control group. (The sunscreen was provided by a sunscreen manufacturer.)这项研究由澳大利亚政府资助。到试验结束时,被要求每天擦防晒霜的受试者中有77%的人一周至少使用三到四天,而控制组则只有33%的人使用(试验中使用的防晒霜是由一家防晒霜生产商提供的)。Researchers took silicone impressions of the backs of participants#39; hands at the beginning of the study and after 4#189; years. Trained assessors then graded the patterns of lines and skin coarseness on the hand impressions on a scale of one to six. The damage seen on the surface of the skin reflects the tissue damage underneath the skin, said Adèle Green, senior scientist and head of cancer and population studies at Queensland Institute of Medical Research in Australia and lead author of the study.研究人员在研究刚开始时以及四年半后对受试者的手背取了硅胶印模。接下来,经过专门训练的评估人员按照从一到六的等级对手部印模的纹路和皮肤粗糙程度进行评分。澳大利亚昆士兰医学研究院(Queensland Institute of Medical Research)高级科学家、癌症和人口学研究负责人、该研究论文第一作者阿黛尔#8226;格林(Ad口le Green)称,皮肤表面的受损情况能够反映出皮下组织的损伤。Participants were under 55 to assure that aging effects were the result of sun exposure, not the natural aging process, Dr. Green said.格林说,为了确保老化效应是由日晒,而不是由自然衰老过程引起的,试验参加者年龄都在55岁以下。The results have a #39;double significance, #39; she said, since the reduced skin damage from UV rays also translates to a lower risk of skin cancer.她说,这些结果有“双重意义”,因为减少紫外线引起的皮肤损伤也会降低皮肤癌风险。Dermatologists said vanity is a strong motivating force when it comes to sunscreen use. That#39;s particularly true for young people, whose sunburns may put them at risk for skin cancer decades later, said James Spencer, a dermatologist in St. Petersburg, Fla. The threat of wrinkles is often a more powerful behavior-changer than the threat of cancer, he said. (Neither Dr. Spencer nor Dr. Dover was affiliated with the study.)皮肤科医生表示,虚荣心是人们使用防晒霜的强大动力。佛罗里达州圣彼得斯堡(St. Petersburg)的皮肤科医生詹姆斯#8226;斯潘塞(James Spencer)表示,对年轻人来说尤其如此,年轻人被晒伤可能会使他们在几十年后面临患皮肤癌风险。他说,与癌症风险相比,产生皱纹的风险通常更能促使人们改变行为(斯宾塞医生和多弗医生均未参与此项研究)。Rules implemented last year by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration say that only sunscreens that are broad-spectrum─protecting against both UVA and UVB rays─and that have an SPF of 15 or higher can claim to reduce the risk of early skin aging and skin cancer. Both types of rays are implicated in photoaging and cancer, Dr. Green said. Products that don#39;t protect against both types of rays or that have an SPF between 2 and 14 can claim only to help prevent sunburn.根据美国食品和药物(U.S. Food and Drug Administration)去年实施的规定,只有广谱防晒霜──能同时防范长波紫外线和中波紫外线─和防晒系数在15或以上的防晒霜才可以声称能够降低皮肤提前老化和皮肤癌风险。格林说,这两种紫外线都与光老化和癌症有关联。不能同时防护这两种紫外线或者防晒系数在2到14之间的防晒霜只能声称有助于防止晒伤。The new rules also say that products claiming water resistance must say how long a user can expect to get that protection while swimming or sweating, either 40 minutes or 80 minutes. And sunscreens can no longer be called #39;sunblocks#39; or be labeled as #39;waterproof#39; or #39;sweatproof.#39;此外,根据新规定,声称具有防水效果的产品必须说明使用者游泳或出汗时防晒效果能保持多久,是40分钟还是80分钟。此外,防晒霜(sunscreen)不能再被称为“日光隔离霜”(sunblock),标签上也不能再单纯使用“防水”(waterproof)或“防汗”(sweatproof)等字眼。Dr. Spencer recommends that people look for water-resistant, broad-spectrum products with an SPF of at least 30. #39;Don#39;t be shy about putting it on, #39; he said. #39;You#39;re not getting the SPF on the bottle if you#39;re putting it on too lightly.#39;斯潘塞建议人们使用防晒指数至少为30的防水广谱产品。他说:“别怕抹防晒霜,如果你抹得太薄,就达不到瓶子上说的防晒指数。”#39;Look for something you like, or you won#39;t use it, #39; Dr. Dover added. #39;And don#39;t have a full tube by the end of the summer.#39;多弗补充称:“要找你喜欢的防晒霜,否则你是不会用的。不要等到夏天结束时还有一整管。”Since experimental evidence has suggested that antioxidants consumed orally, such as beta carotene, can reduce signs of sun-related skin damage, the study also looked at whether a daily 30-milligram beta carotene supplement could protect against skin aging.由于有试验据显示每日口抗氧化剂(如β胡萝卜素)能够减少日晒引起的皮肤损伤痕迹,该研究也考察了每天用30毫克β胡萝卜素补充剂能否减缓皮肤老化。Researchers found no difference between those who took the supplement and those who didn#39;t, though because of the number of study participants, researchers said they couldn#39;t rule out a small effect one way or the other in certain groups of people.研究人员发现,用补充剂者和未用补充剂者并没有区别,不过研究人员表示,考虑到受试者的人数有限,他们不排除β胡萝卜素会对特定人群产生一定的微弱影响。 /201306/245499


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