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时间:2019年10月16日 17:38:39

One of the startling features of Anglo-American capitalism is that corporate investment remains so low when profits are so high. 英美资本主义当前的一个显著特征是在利润如此之高之际企业投资却保持低位。This lack of investment seems all the more puzzling given that money is cheap, infrastructure needs are glaring, fast-growing consumer markets are opening up all over the developing world, and smart technologies are making it possible to imagine and create new business models.鉴于资金低廉、基础设施需求显而易见、快速增长的消费市场正在发展中世界一个接一个涌现、智能科技让想象和创建新的商业模式成为可能,这种投资匮乏显得格外令人困惑。What is going on?怎么会这样?The most obvious answer is that corporate bosses are still traumatised by the financial crash of 2008 and remain highly risk averse. 最显而易见的是公司老板在2008年金融危机期间受到的创伤仍未痊愈,避险情绪强烈。It is easier to cling to what you have than to bet on something new. 相对于押注新的业务,守成是更容易的选择。Just ask Eli Lilly, the US pharmaceutical company that spent billions of dollars developing an Alzheimer’s drug that has sadly failed its clinical trials.问问美国制药公司礼来(Eli Lilly)吧,该公司曾斥资数十亿美元开发一种治疗阿尔茨海默病的药物,遗憾的是该药未能通过临床测试。A more sophisticated argument runs that there is too little new technology to spark investment. 一种更有水平的观点认为,激发投资的新科技太少。The great discoveries of the past 150 years, such as electricity, flight and the combustion engine, encouraged widesp investment as industries and infrastructures were built. 过去150年的伟大发现(例如电力、飞行和内燃机)鼓励了广泛投资,以打造新的产业和基础设施。But all the low-hanging technological fruit has been eaten.但这些易于摘取的技术成果都已被摘取。Others, though, argue the exact opposite: the latest cornucopia of technologies, such as artificial intelligence and robotics, threatens to destroy many existing businesses and is deterring investment. 然而,还有一些人的观点恰恰相反:最新一代的科技(例如人工智能和机器人)对很多现有业务构成生存威胁,因而在阻碍投资。A fatalism seems to have descended on many corporate boards: why invest when you have no idea whether an insurgent company will emerge from left field to eat your lunch?很多公司董事会似乎已经听天由命:如果你不知道会不会有一家天不怕地不怕的公司突然出现抢走你的午餐,为什么要投资呢?According to a survey by Fujitsu of almost 1,200 senior executives around the world, 52 per cent think their business will not exist in its current form in five years’ time. 根据富士通(Fujitsu)针对全球近1200名高管的一项调查,52%的受访者认为他们的业务在5年后将不会以现有形式存在。Innovation is viewed as a young company’s game.创新被视为年轻公司的游戏。But there is mounting evidence to suggest that the investment drought has also been caused by excessive short-termism and misaligned financial incentives , as many economists have long argued. 然而,越来越多的据似乎表明,就像许多经济学家一直辩称的那样,投资匮乏的原因也包括极度短视以及错位的金钱激励。Why should a chief executive, whose median tenure is less than five years, invest for the long term when they can juice up profits by slashing costs?对于一个任期中值不到5年的首席执行官,与其进行长线投资,何不通过削减成本提高利润?In a forthcoming paper in the Review of Financial Economics, Alex Edmans of London Business School and Vivian Fang of Carlson School of Management present telling evidence showing how chief executives chop research spending just ahead of stock vesting deadlines to drive up the share price.在《金融经济学》(Review of Financial Economics)即将发表的一篇论文中,伦敦商学院(LBS)的阿列克谢.埃德曼斯(Alex Edmans)和卡尔森商学院(Carlson School of Management)的维维安.方(Vivian Fang)提出了有力据表明,首席执行官会在股票行权截止期限前削减研究出,以推升股价。Having studied the record of 1,758 US companies, they conclude that reductions in investment are myopic.在研究过1758家美国公司的记录后,他们得出结论称,减少投资是短视行为。Investment is not an end in itself and should not be made willy nilly, Professor Edmans says. 埃德曼斯教授表示,投资本身并非目的,不应该以犹豫不决的心态作出。After all, the function of stock markets is often to recycle money from mature, cash-rich companies into faster-growing start-ups.毕竟,股市的功能往往是把资金从现金充裕的成熟公司导向增长更快的初创企业。But shareholders could certainly push managers to explore more fruitful long-term investment by extending the duration of stock vesting periods from a standard three years to seven or more. 但股东肯定可以通过将股票行权期从一般的3年延长到7年或更长,来鼓励管理者探索更有成效的长期投资。Rather than obsessing about absolute pay levels, shareholders should focus on the period over which incentives are paid. 股东不应纠结于绝对的薪资水平,而是应关注于付激励的时间跨度。It is not the quantum that matters but the horizon, Prof Edmans says.埃德曼斯教授表示:重要的不是数字,而是时间长度。There may also be a case, he says, for appointing younger CEOs who will live with the consequences of their investment decisions and care more about their reputations over the longer term.他表示,任命较年轻首席执行官也可能是有理由的,他们将面对投资决定的后果,并更多地关注于自己的较长期声誉。Some other economists, though, suggest that far more radical steps are needed to reap the full benefits of the latest technological innovations.然而,还有一些经济学家提出,需要采取更加到位的措施来收获最新科技创新的所有成果。Carlota Perez, a professor at the London School of Economics, argues that an effective way of spurring more investment would be to rewrite our completely wacky tax regimes, which penalise goods rather than bads.伦敦政治经济学院(London School of Economics)教授卡洛塔.佩雷斯(Carlota Perez)认为,促进更多投资的有效方式是改革我们完全古怪的税收制度,目前它惩罚的是好行为而非坏行为。Why do we tax salaries so heavily when we consider employment to be a good thing? Why not shift the burden to energy, materials and transport to stimulate the greening of the economy? Why not tilt the playing field towards longer-term investment by taxing short-term capital gains at punitive rates while cutting them for those made over five years?如果我们认为就业是件好事的话,我们为什么要对薪资课以重税呢?为什么不把税务负担转移到能源、原材料和运输来刺激环保经济呢?为什么不通过对短期资本利得征收重税、同时降低5年期资本利得的税赋,让市场倾向于较长期投资呢?Few governments are likely to be so bold, given how beholden they are to corporate lobbying. 鉴于政府受制于企业游说,几乎没有政府可能会这么大胆。They appear way too susceptible to companies promising to invest more if only corporation tax was cut further and more research grants were forthcoming. 一些公司承诺只有在公司税赋进一步下调并获得更多研究补助时才会扩大投资,政府似乎太容易受到这些公司的影响了。But the benefits of such corporate welfare are to be doubted.但这些公司福利的好处应受到质疑。Maybe it is time to turn recent logic on its head. 或许是时候颠覆近年的逻辑了。If the private sector remains so reluctant to invest then governments should consider taxing companies more heavily and invest directly themselves.如果私营部门仍不愿投资,那么政府应考虑对公司调高税赋,然后自己直接投资。 /201612/484520

The study ranked the cities based on 29 assessment indicators in six areas, including city safety, public service facilities, natural environment, cultural environment, transportation, and pollution level.这份调查对城市的排名基于六大领域的29项指数评估,其中包括:城市安全、公共务设施、自然环境、文化环境、交通,以及污染水平。Qingdao tops the livability index list for its outstanding performance in all the six areas. Kunming#39;s ranking benefits from its pleasant natural environment and characteristic cultural environment. Sanya wins for its air quality and Dalian performs well in city safety and natural environment. Weihai, meanwhile, cracks the top five due to its natural and cultural environment.青岛之所以在宜居指数名单中名列第一,是因为它在六大领域中都很出色。昆明之所以名列前茅归功于它怡人的自然环境以及富于特色的文化环境。三亚以其空气质量致胜,大连的城市安全与自然环境指数较高,而威海以其自然与文化环境跻身前五。The reason Beijing is placed at the bottom of the list lies in its environment pollution, inconvenient transportation and little appreciation of its natural environment by its residents.北京在名单中垫底是由于环境污染,交通不便以及居民对其自然环境的极少珍视。The study also shows that livable index of the 40 surveyed cities are generally low, the average point of which is 59.92, lower than basic residents#39; acceptance point of 60.调查也显示,40个被调查城市的宜居指数总体上较低,平均指数为59.92,低于基本居民可接受的60分。 排名前十的城市分别为:青岛、昆明、三亚、大连、威海、苏州、珠海、厦门、深圳、重庆。 而北京和广州则分别位居倒数第一名和倒数第二名。 /201606/449950

As many Japanese parents and teachers will attest, getting young children to write and memorise hundreds of kanji characters can be a thankless task.让小朋友书写和记忆几百个“日文汉字”是一项艰巨的任务,许多日本家长和老师对此都有同感。But a new series of study books has generated a surge in interest in stroke order, radicals and alternative pronunciations – all thanks to an enduring obsession among children of a certain age: poo.但是,一套全新的练习簿激发了他们对笔画顺序、偏旁以及不同发音的兴趣,而这一切多亏了这个年纪的小朋友情有独钟的“便便”。Scatology-based study in the form of the Unko Kanji Doriru (poo kanji drill) has proved enormously popular among the country#39;s primary school pupils, with their parents#39; blessing, since the series of books appeared in March.如家长所愿,《便便汉字练习簿》系列丛书自3月面世以来已经明,这种用便便学汉字的形式在日本小学生中非常受欢迎。The drills, complete with tips from Professor Poo – an emoji-like turd with glasses and a handlebar moustache – have so far sold 1.83m copies.目前为止,这套练习簿已经销售了183万册,书中做指导的“便便教授”是一个留着八字胡、带着眼镜的表情形象。;I want to make boring study more fun,; the publisher, Shuji Yamamoto, told the Mainichi Shimbun newspaper.“我想让枯燥的学习变得更有意思”,《便便汉字练习簿》书出版商山本修司对《每日新闻报》表说。Yamamoto, a 40-year-old former Lehman Brothers employee who founded his own publishing company seven years ago, said: ;I#39;m an extremely ordinary person. So I know what most ordinary people want. I know what is likely to sell.;现年40岁的山本曾是雷曼兄弟的员工,7年前他创办了自己的出版公司,他说:“我是一个非常普通的人。所以我知道大多数普通人想要什么。我清楚什么可以卖出去。”Written Japanese comprises 2,136 ;regular-use; Chinese-based characters – or kanji – and the hiragana and katakana phonetic scripts. Hiragana is made up of 46 base characters that are often used as particles or to inflect verbs and adjectives. The same number of basic katakana symbols are commonly used to write foreign loan words.日文中包括2136个“常用”的日文汉字、平假名和片假名音标,46个平假名通常用作小品词或修饰动词和形容词。片假名也有46个,通常用于外来词汇中。Japan#39;s children – among the most numerate and literate in the world – are supposed to be able to and write 1,006 kanji after six years of primary school education, starting at age 6. To help them reach that goal, and prepare them for memorising the remaining 1,130 characters before they complete their formal education at 15, the book includes the word ;poo; in every one of its 3,018 sample sentences.日本儿童的计算和读写能力在全球儿童中位居前列,他们从6岁开始接受小学教育,6年后要学会读写1006个日文汉字。为了帮助日本儿童实现这一目标,也为了帮助他们在15岁完成正规教育之前记住剩下的1130个日文汉字,《便便汉字练习簿》中的3018个例句全部包含了“便便”一词。;Adults may raise their eyebrows, but for children, the word #39;poo#39; is magical and makes things fun,; the book#39;s author, Yusaku Furuya, told Kyodo news.该书作者古屋优作对日本共同社表示,“成年人可能不喜欢,但是对孩子们来说,‘便便’是一个神奇的词,它让每句话变得有趣。”While the kanji are arranged thematically to aid memorisation, some of the example sentences border on the surreal. A drill used to teach the kanji for ;meeting; s: ;We are starting a poo meeting now.;书中分主题编排汉字以帮助记忆,但是也有一些例句不符合现实。一道关于汉字“会议”的练习中写道:“我们现在要开一个便便会议。”Hinata Shibasaki, seven, is one of the many children who loathed rote learning at school but are now fully fledged kanji converts. ;It#39;s funny because poo appears everywhere,; he told Kyodo. ;I used to hate studying kanji, but I got hooked on this book.;许多讨厌在学校死记硬背的孩子现在完全成了汉字迷,7岁的柴琦日向就是其中一员。他告诉共同社:“这本书好有趣,因为到处都是便便。我以前讨厌学汉字,但是我被这本书迷住了。” /201706/512973


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