成都第二医院评价大河知识

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月22日 13:38:58
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“Have you ever noticed when you’re driving,” the comedian George Carlin commented, “that anybody driving slower than you is an idiot, and anyone going faster than you is a maniac?” “你开车的时候有没有注意到,”喜剧演员乔治#8226;卡林(George Carlin)道,“任何开得比你慢的人都是笨蛋,任何开得比你快的人都是疯子?” True enough. But when you think for a moment about Carlin’s quip, how could it be otherwise? You’ve made a decision about the appropriate speed for the driving conditions, so by definition everybody else is driving at a speed that you regard as inappropriate. 的确如此。但如果你想一想卡林的俏皮话,你就会发现,还可能是什么其他结果吗?你根据行车条件决定了合适的行车速度,因此从定义上说,在你看来其他任何人的驾驶速度都是不合适的。 If I am driving at 70 and pass a car doing 60, perhaps my view should be, “Hmm, the average opinion on this road is that the right speed is 65.” Almost nobody actually thinks like this, however. Why not? 如果我以每小时70公里的速度开车超过了一辆以每小时60公里的速度行驶的汽车,可能我应该这么想,“嗯,对于这条路上的合理车速,平均的看法是每小时65公里。”然而,几乎没人会真的这么想。为什么呢? Lee Ross, a psychologist at Stanford University and co-author of a new book, The Wisest One in the Room, describes the problem as “naive realism”. By this he means the seductive sense that we’re seeing the world as it truly is, without bias or error. This is such a powerful illusion that whenever we meet someone whose views conflict with our own, we instinctively believe we’ve met someone who is deluded, rather than realising that perhaps we’re the ones who could learn something. 斯坦福大学(Stanford University)心理学家、新书《房间里最聪明的人》( The Wisest One in the Room)的合著者之一李#8226;罗斯(Lee Ross),将这个问题描述成“天真的现实主义”。他指的是一种诱人的观念:我们看到的是世界真正的模样,既没有偏见,也没有谬误。这是一种非常强大的错觉,以至于一旦我们遇到了观点与我们相左的人,我们会本能地认为对方受到了误导,而不是意识到或许我们自己才是能够从中学到点什么的人。 The truth is that we all have biases that shape what we see. One early demonstration of this was a 1954 study of the way people perceived a college-football game between Dartmouth and Princeton. The researchers, Albert Hastorf and Hadley Cantril, showed a recording of the game to Dartmouth students and to Princeton students, and found that their perceptions of it varied so wildly that it is hard to believe they actually saw the same footage: the Princeton students, for example, counted twice as many fouls by Dartmouth as the Dartmouth students did. 真相是,我们都有偏见,这些偏见决定了我们所看到的景象。一个较早的例子是1954年的一项研究,内容是有关人们如何看达特茅斯学院(Dartmouth College)和普林斯顿大学(Princeton University)之间的一场大学橄榄球赛。研究者艾伯特#8226;哈斯托夫(Albert Hastorf)和哈德利#8226;坎特里尔(Hadley Cantril)向达特茅斯学院和普林斯顿大学的学生展示了一段比赛录像,发现他们对比赛的认知相差极大,让人难以相信他们看到的实际上是同一段录像。比如,普林斯顿的学生记下的达特茅斯学院的橄榄球队员的犯规次数是达特茅斯学院学生的两倍。 A more recent investigation by a team including Dan Kahan of Yale showed students footage of a demonstration and spun a yarn about what it was about. Some students were told it was an anti-abortion protest in front of an abortion clinic; others were told it was a protest outside an army recruitment office against the military’s (then) policy of “don’t ask, don’t tell”. 后来,一个包括耶鲁大学(Yale University)的丹#8226;卡亨(Dan Kahan)在内的小组进行了一项调查,调查人员向学生们展示了一段游行的视频片段,并且编造了一些有关这次游行的说法。一些学生被告知,这是一次在堕胎诊所前进行的反堕胎抗议游行;其他人则被告知,这是一次在征兵办公室外、针对美国军队(当时)的“不问,不说”政策的抗议游行。 Despite looking at exactly the same footage, the experimental subjects drew sharply different conclusions about how aggressive the protesters were being. Liberal students were relaxed about the behaviour of people they thought were gay-rights protesters but worried about what the pro-life protesters were doing; conservative students took the opposite view. This was despite the fact that the researchers were asking not about the general acceptability of the protest but about specifics: did the protesters scream at bystanders? Did they block access to the building? 尽管看的是完全一样的片段,实验对象对抗议者的激进程度得出了截然不同的结论。持自由主义观点的学生并不担心他们眼中捍卫同性恋权利的抗议者的行为,但他们担心那些反堕胎抗议者的行为;持保守主义观点的学生的看法则与之相反。尽管事实上,研究人员提出的并不是抗议活动总体上能否被接受的问题,而是有关抗议活动的一些细节的问题:抗议者是否向旁观者大叫?抗议者是否堵住了建筑物的出入口? We see what we want to see. We also tend to think the worst of the “idiots” and “maniacs” who think or act differently. One study by Emily Pronin and others asked people to fill in a survey about various political issues. The researchers then redistributed the surveys, so that each participant was shown the survey responses of someone else. Then the participants were asked to describe their own reasoning and speculate about the reasoning of the other person. 我们只会看到自己想看的东西。我们还倾向于把那些和我们的想法和行动不一致的“笨蛋”和“疯子”往最坏了想。叶米利#8226;普罗宁(Emily Pronin)等人进行的一项研究要求人们填写一份有关各种政治问题的调查问卷。然后研究人员重新分发这些问卷,这样每一位参与者都会看到另外一个人的回答。之后研究人员会要求参与者描述他们回答这些问题的思路,并猜测另一个人的思路是怎样的。 People tended to say that they were influenced by rational reasons such as “attention to fact”, and that people who agreed with them had similar motives. Those who disagreed were thought to be seeking “peer approval”, or acting out of “political correctness”. I pay attention to facts but you’re a slave to the approval of your peers. I weigh up the pros and cons but you’re in the pocket of the lobbyists. 受调查者通常会说,他们受到了一些理性上的原因的影响,比如“关注事实”,那些和他们意见一致的人也是出于同样的动机。他们认为,那些和他们意见不一致的人是在寻求“同辈的认可”,或者是出于“政治正确”的考虑。我关注事实,而你却为了同辈的认可而屈从。我衡量利弊,而你却被游说分子玩弄于股掌之上。 Even when we take a tolerant view of those who disagree with us, our empathy only goes so far. For example, we might allow that someone takes a different view because of their cultural upbringing — but we would tend to feel that they might learn the error of their ways, rather than that we will learn the error of ours. 即使我们对那些与我们意见不一致的人持宽容的看法,我们的同理心也只到这里为止。比如,我们或许会允许某人因为他们的文化背景持不同的观点——但我们往往会认为,他们或许能够认识到自己观点的错误,而不是我们会认识到自己的观点的错误。 Pity the B’s attempts to deliver objective and neutral coverage of a politicised issue such as the British referendum on leaving the EU. Eurosceptics will perceive a pro-Brussels slant, Europhiles will see the opposite. Both sides will assume corruption, knavery or stupidity is at play. That is always possible, of course, but it is also possible that passionate advocates simply don’t recognise objectivity when they see it. 可怜英国广播公司(B)还试图对英国全民公投决定是否退欧这样的政治话题进行客观中立的报道。疑欧派会认为这些报道倾向于布鲁塞尔,而亲欧派则会抱相反的看法。双方都会认为腐败、欺诈或者愚蠢在作怪。当然,这总是有可能的,但也有可能这些澎湃的持者在看到客观性的时候根本不认为那是客观。 But then how could the situation be otherwise? If any media outlet criticises a political position that you personally admire, there is a contradiction to be resolved, and an easy way to explain the disagreement is to conclude either that the media are biased, or that you are. You can guess which choice people instinctively make. Small wonder that careful studies of media bias in the US show that most newspapers and radio or TV stations don’t try to persuade their ers and viewers; instead, they pander to the biases of their audience. 然而事情还能是什么其他样子吗?如果任何媒体批评一种你个人欣赏的政治立场,那么就有一个矛盾要解决了。要解释这一分歧,一个简单的方法是得出结论:要么是媒体有偏见,要么是你有偏见。你可以猜一猜人们在本能之下会做出什么选择。难怪对美国媒体偏见的严谨的研究表明,大多数报纸、电台或者电视台不会试图说他们的读者、听众和观众;相反,它们会迎合受众的偏见。 It is hard to combat naive realism because the illusion that we see the world objectively is such a powerful one. At least I’ve not had to worry about it too much myself. Fortunately, my own perspective is based on a careful analysis of the facts, and my political views reflect a cool assessment of reality rather than self-interest, groupthink or cultural bias. Of course, there are people to the left of my position. They’re idiots. And the people on my right? Maniacs. 要对抗“天真的现实主义”很难,因为“我们客观地看待世界”这个错觉非常强大。至少,我自己还未曾太过担心这一点。幸运的是,我自己的观点是基于对事实的仔细分析,我的政治观点反映的是对事实的冷静评估,而不是出于自利、集体思维或者文化偏见。当然,会有人比我的立场更左,他们是笨蛋。比我右的人呢?疯子。 /201604/436868

The case for prenuptual agreements may have just gotten stronger: According to a new survey by credit-tracking company Experian, 16 percent of newlyweds admit they are hiding a financial account from their spouse. 婚前协议的案例与日俱增。信用监测公司益睿的一项最新调查显示,16%的新婚夫妇承认,他们瞒着另一半,偷偷藏着自己的小金库。Of those with secret accounts, about 60 percent were men and 40 percent women. Men and women also differed in how much spending they said they#39;d be comfortable keeping from a spouse. While female respondents said they#39;d quietly cough up 3 on average, male survey-takers were willing to spend ,259 without mentioning it to their better halves. 这些藏有小金库的人中,60%是男性,40%为女性。而对配偶隐瞒多少开销会让其心安理得,男性和女性也大有不同。女性调查对象表示,她们通常会小心翼翼地跟丈夫少汇报383美元,而男性调查对象面对其心爱的妻子时,认为少报1259美元,仍可以瞒天过海。Overall, nearly a third of people admitted to being relatively clueless about their husband#39;s or wife#39;s finances before tying the knot. About two in five respondents said they didn#39;t know their spouse#39;s credit score, while about 30 percent were unaware of their partner#39;s long-term financial goals or student loan debt. And a quarter didn#39;t even know their spouse#39;s annual income. 总体而言,将近三分之一的人都坦言在结婚前对另一半的经济情况几乎一无所知。调查对象里有40%的人,表示他们不知道其配偶的信用评分,而30%的人对其配偶的长期经济目标或学生时期贷款债务情况毫不知情。更有25%的人甚至不知道配偶的年收入。;Obviously, some people do have things they want to hide,; said Indianapolis-based financial planner Meredith Carbrey. ;But a lot of couples just don#39;t make the time to sit down and talk finances, or one person is hesitant out of fear their partner will judge them.; 美国印第安纳波利斯的理财规划师梅雷迪斯-卡布雷说:“显然,还是有部分人想隐藏自己的小秘密,不过大多数夫妻都不愿花点时间,坐下来聊一聊他们的经济情况,又或者夫妻中有一方害怕坦诚相告之后,会被配偶另眼相看。”Skipping that hard talk about money before getting hitched seems to have consequences. While newlyweds said their biggest financial goal was saving to buy a residence, about a third complained that their spouse#39;s credit score has affected their ability to get a home loan. And nearly 20 percent have actually needed a co-signer for major purchases since walking down the aisle. 婚前对财务问题避而不谈会造成不良后果。新婚夫妇常说他们最大的经济目标就是存钱买房,但几乎有三分之一的人都抱怨他们配偶的信用评分影响了他们办理住房贷款。而且将近20%的已婚夫妇在购置大件商品时需要双方共同签字署名。Credit headaches are only one financial problem the survey revealed. While about 40 percent of respondents said credit scores are currently a source of marital strife, about a quarter cited budgeting and 20 percent blamed debt repayment. One in three newlyweds said their spouse#39;s spending habits are different than what they expected. 令人头疼的信用评分其实只是该项调查反映的问题之一。40%的受访者表示现在信用评分常常是他们夫妻吵架的导火索,约25%的受访者因家庭预算问题争吵不休,另有20%的受访者因偿还债务而怨念重重。三分之一的新婚夫妇表示,配偶的消费习惯与他们预先的期待完全不一样。When you are worried about your spouse or fiance#39;s finances, it can be emotionally challenging to broach the topic. But there are ways to get your partner to open up without seeming too critical. Meeting with a financial planner or other professional can help by adding an unbiased third party to the equation, said Carbrey. 当你为配偶或未婚夫(妻)的经济情况感到担忧时,打开天窗说亮话,未免有伤感情。不过总有方法既可以让你的另一半坦然开口,又能局势看起来不至于太僵。卡布雷表示,理财规划师或其他相关方面专家就可以充当中立的第三方,不偏不倚地帮助夫妇解决问题。;That can be a good moment to find out about assets and liabilities, and whether they have too much debt,; she said. 卡布雷说:“这是摸清另一半的资产和负债情况,并探明其是否身负巨额债务的最好时机。Other occasions, such as renting an apartment together, can give you the opportunity to find out your partner#39;s credit score, Carbrey said. 而合租公寓等场合也是你了解另一半信用评分的良机,卡布雷说。As it turns out, people don#39;t always practice what they preach. When asked what qualities they prioritize in a spouse, 80 percent of newlyweds said they cared about credit scores, while 92 percent of survey respondents said financial responsibility. 事实明,并非人人都能言行一致。当被问及最看重配偶的哪些品质时,80%的新婚夫妇表示他们最在意信用评分,而92%的受访者则在意对方是否具备承担经济责任的能力。All the more reason to open up a dialogue with your husband or wife early on, said Carbrey. If it makes sense, one solution can be delegating money-related responsibilities to whichever partner is thriftier. 卡布雷认为,这更说明了,经济问题越早和另一半说清越好。如果双方可以谈拢,那么有一种方案就是把财政大权交给相对节俭的一方。Just be careful to make sure both you and your partner know where important documents are kept, in case of an emergency. 有一点要注意,为了以防万一,一定要确保夫妻双方都清楚重要件藏在何处。 /201605/444159

  With all of the hype that goes into promoting weight-loss pills, diet programs, and the miraculous benefits of bone broth, it can be easy to let weight-loss myths get in the way of what you actually need to know to drop unwanted pounds. To help trim the fat, people who have lost 50lbs or more shared the weight-loss advice that helped them reach their goals.宣传减肥药、节食餐,还有骨汤神奇效果的广告满天飞,你很容易就迷失在减肥的神话故事里,而没有去了解减掉赘肉需要真正做些什么。为了帮更多的人减重,一些成功减掉50磅(约23公斤)或更多的人分享了他们实现目标的经验和建议。Don#39;t expect a miracle不要期待奇迹It probably took you a lifetime to reach the size you are now, and that means it might take years to become the healthiest version of yourself, says Alicia Marie, a holistic enthusiast who has dropped more than 100lbs. It may be a long time before you see physical changes -- but don#39;t let that discourage you.艾丽西亚#8226;马里耶是个彻头彻尾的减肥狂,她减掉了100多磅。她说,可能你用了一辈子的时间才达到现在的体重,所以也许还要好多年才能回到最健康的状态。可能还要很久才能看到身体上的一些变化,但不要因此而气馁。Don#39;t go on a diet不要节食Embracing an eating plan specifically designed for weight loss is a temporary measure to a permanent problem. ;A #39;diet#39; is something a person goes on, knowing there comes a time when they go off of it,; says Randy Hartman, a reinvention coach who has lost more than 80lbs. ;This only exacerbates the problems and ends in yo-yo weight loss. It#39;s far better to embark on an eating plan that you can follow for the rest of your life. Consistency over the long haul is key.;遵守一个专门为了减肥而设计的节食计划是在用暂时的办法解决永恒的问题。兰迪#8226;哈特曼减掉了80多磅,把自己塑造成了一个健身教练,她说:“如果一个人坚持‘节食’,那么他就知道总会迎来摆脱掉节食的那一刻。这只会使问题加剧,最终体重减了又长。如果能制定一个可以坚持一辈子的饮食计划会好很多。长时间坚持才是关键。”Don#39;t be drastic不要太过猛烈Instead of making lots of big changes, Becky Lehman, who, after losing 100lbs, is now a certified health coach, recommends making one small change a day to move yourself closer to your health goals and avoid becoming overwhelmed. ;Drastic changes don#39;t tend to stick, but the basic concepts of weight loss remain the same: move more, eat more vegetables, drink more water,; she says. ;Drinking one extra glass of water today will not cause the scale to drop 20lbs, but those small changes can add up to huge and lasting transformations.;贝基#8226;雷曼曾甩掉100磅的肉,现在已经是一名经过认的健身教练,她建议说不要做太多太大的改变,每天做一点小小的改变就能离你的目标体重更近一点,避免被过重的任务压垮。她说:“过度的改变往往不能持久,但减肥的基本要义一直都没有变:多运动、多吃蔬菜、多喝水。今天多喝一杯水并不能减掉20磅的体重,但聚沙成塔就会形成巨大持久的改变。”Make fitness a priority, but go slowly把减肥放在首位,但要慢慢来Naomi Teeter, the blogger behind Inspire Transformation, knew it was a priority to make working out a habit when she began her weight-loss journey -- all in all, she lost 150lbs and has managed to keep 125lbs off for seven years. Yet she cautions against going too hardcore. ;Too many people live by the philosophy, #39;Go hard or go home,#39; when it comes to fitness and beat themselves to the ground when they first start out, causing them to give up more easily,; she explains. ;Your workout doesn#39;t have to be insane to be good.;内奥米#8226;迪特是“激发改变”网站的客主,她在开始减肥之旅的时候就知道,应该首先把健身作为一种习惯——总而言之,她减掉了150磅,连续七年体重保持在125磅以下。然而她很小心,防止自己走得太极端。她解释说:“很多人减肥的时候都信奉‘要么努力要么回家’这个理念,第一次开始的时候就因任务太重把自己打倒了,这样更容易放弃。你健身不一定非要达到疯狂的地步才是好的。”Don#39;t ban specific foods不要给具体的食物下禁令Making certain foods “off limits” can tempt you even more -- and almost always leads to overindulging. According to Lehman, she eats chocolate ;almost every single day,; yet has still managed to keep the weight off. ;Of course, willpower still comes into play here, but don#39;t cut your favorite foods out of your diet completely.;把某些食物设在“禁区”会带来更大的诱惑——几乎总会导致暴饮暴食。据雷曼说,她“几乎每天”都吃巧克力而依然保持着体重。“当然,意志力在这里依然很重要,但不要把你最喜欢的食物从饮食中完全删掉。”Recruit someone who will hold you accountable找个对你负责的人An accountability buddy doesn#39;t necessarily need to be a workout buddy, but they do need to be someone you can talk to when you#39;re feeling unmotivated and who can remind you of your original goal, says Kelsey Byers, lifestyle coach and fitness blogger behind Good Morning Fit, who has lost 50lbs. Byers#39; husband helped her stick to her goals; social media can also help you find a supportive community if you don#39;t feel like there#39;s anyone nearby who can help you as you try to drop weight.凯尔茜#8226;拜尔斯曾减掉50磅体重,现在是生活方式指导教练和“早安,健身”网站的健身主,她说,一个对你负责的朋友并不一定必须是与你一起健身的人,但是他们确实得是你可以倾诉的对象,在你丧失斗志的时候鼓励你,提醒你不要忘了最初的目标。拜尔斯的丈夫帮助她坚持实现了目标;如果你觉得身边没有人能帮助你减肥,社交媒体也可以帮你找一帮人持你。Stop buying food products...不要再买加工食品了……… and start buying whole foods. That means no more things in boxes, simple frozen meals, foods mushed into bar form, and so on, Marie says. Walk around the outside of the grocery store and don#39;t mess with the inner isles. With the exception of dried beans and coffee, there#39;s really not much you need in those aisles.开始买天然食品吧。也就是说不要买盒子包装的食品,简单的速冻食品,压成条状的食品等等,马里耶说。在杂货店的走一走就行了,不要挤进货架里面,那儿也就有干豆子和咖啡可以买,别的你都不怎么需要。Manage your emotions管理你的情绪Emotions can ruin your day, and subsequently any healthy progress you#39;ve made, Teeter warns. One bad day at work can lead to binge eating and drinking in front of the TV instead of preparing a nourishing meal and hitting the gym. When you#39;re feeling bad, Teeter recommends paying attention to why you feel that way so you can comfort yourself in a more productive way, instead of stuffing yourself full of food until you can#39;t move.情绪会毁了你的一天,进而毁了所有你减肥取得的进步,迪特警告说。某一天工作中心情不好,回家就会坐电视机前大吃大喝,而不会准备有营养的晚餐,去健身房锻炼。迪特建议,如果你心情不好,关注你产生情绪的原因,就可以更有效地安慰自己,而不是自己吃撑到走不动路。Focus on feeling better, rather than what you see in the mirror把注意力集中于更好的感觉上,而不是镜子里的自己Sometimes ;looking good in a bathing suit; isn#39;t a big enough goal, at least not if you want to keep the weight off for longer than the warm summer months. ;It#39;s important to establish the reason why you want to get healthy. Maybe it#39;s for your kids or grandkids,; Byers suggests. ;Maybe you want to get healthy so you can have a family. No matter where you are in your journey, I encourage you to think about your personal #39;why#39; and post it on a vision board where you can see it every day.;有时候“穿泳衣好看”并不是个什么远大的目标,至少如果你希望温暖的夏天过后仍能保持较轻的体重的话,这算不上什么。拜尔斯表示,“设立一个你为什么想减肥的理由很重要。也许是为了你的儿女或孙子孙女。也许你为了生小孩而健身。无论你处在健身的哪一阶段,我都鼓励你思考一下你的‘为什么’,把它贴在愿景板上,你每天都能看到它。”Track your progress with pictures用照片记录进步While it#39;s important to focus on how you feel over how you look, Byers also suggests taking pictures every week so you can visually track your progress. On a day-to-day basis, you might not notice the changes that a photo will capture. ;The scale can be misleading -- it doesn#39;t know if you#39;re replacing fat with muscle,; notes Byers. ;The more muscle you have, the more toned you look as long as your nutrition is on point.;尽管重要的是关注你的感觉而不是外表,拜尔斯也建议每周拍张照片,就可以看见自己每次的进步。每天都拍照的话,你也许注意不到照片捕捉到的变化。拜尔斯注意到:“变化幅度可以误导人,因为你不知道是不是肌肉代替了脂肪。只要你营养跟上,肌肉越多,你看上去就越健美。”Don#39;t eat or drink anything handed to you through a window不要接受从窗户递过来的食物或饮料Yes, even coffee. Get up and go inside to get your coffee if you want it that bad, Marie suggests. Better yet, go someplace where you can control how much sugar and cream goes into it.是的,即使是咖啡。如果你实在想喝,站起来走进去拿你的咖啡,马里耶建议。如果你能去那种可以自己控制加多少糖和奶油的地方就更好了。Step outside your comfort zone走出舒适区Embrace uncertainty, especially if you consider yourself a perfectionist. ;Things will not always go your way, no matter how prepared you think you are,; Teeter says. ;Many folks throw in the towel after just one setback. But if you condition yourself to expect and embrace [setbacks], you#39;ll be far happier with yourself and the progress you#39;re making -- even during the difficult times.;接受不确定性,如果你认为自己是个完美主义者就更要去接受。“事情并不总是如你所愿,无论你觉得自己准备得多么充分,”迪特说。“很多人仅仅遇到一个挫折就认输了。但是如果你能调节自己,预料到(挫折)并欣然接受,那么你就会为自己和自己所做的进步而感到更加高兴——即使在困难的时候。”Eat a lean protein and complex carb during each meal每顿饭吃富含精益蛋白质和复合碳水化合物的食品For Byers, that meant lots of grilled chicken with sweet potatoes, grilled zucchini with asparagus, and meal-replacement shakes. ;One of my favorite meals is scrambled egg whites with hash browns and green salsa mixed together,; she says. ;Another favorite is extra-lean turkey tacos on corn tortillas and avocado slices, plus salsa.;对拜尔斯来说,那意味着很多烤鸡肉加地瓜,烤西葫芦和芦笋,和正餐替代品奶昔。“我最喜欢的菜之一就是炒蛋白,薯饼拌上绿色的洋葱汁,”她说。“另外喜欢的是精瘦火鸡肉玉米卷饼、鳄梨片加上洋葱汁。”Start today今天就开始The sooner you start, the sooner you#39;ll see results: ;There will always be reasons to start tomorrow, or wait until your busy season is over,; Lehman adds. ;Fight through your excuses and do something right now.;越早开始,越早收到成效:“总有明天才开始的理由,或者等到忙季结束,”雷曼说。“打败你的借口,现在就行动。” /201605/444701

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  Shanghai plans to introduce an online appointment booking service for people wanting a divorce, in a bid to make the process more organized and convenient for the growing number of couples in the city looking to end their marriages.近日,随着上海市寻求离婚的夫妇人数不断增加,为使办理流程更有秩序、更便捷,上海市计划为想办理离婚的人士推出网上预约务。Since the launch of the amended Marriage Registration Regulation on Feb 1, an added procedure involving inquiries and questions has increased the length of the process to register for a divorce from around 25 to 35 minutes to a new time of between 45 and 55 minutes.自2月1日新《婚姻登记工作规范》发布以来,新增的询问程序导致办理离婚登记的耗时从25-35分钟左右延长至45-55分钟。Couples must now talk to staff at the registration office separately to independently confirm their willingness to proceed and statements they have made.现在,办理离婚的夫妇必须与登记处工作人员单独交谈,各自确认其离婚意愿、离婚协议。The additional work and slower process was part of the reason why Pudong district#39;s civil affairs bureau chose to reduce the number of appointments it would handle each day. That, in turn, has led to crowded waiting rooms.这些附加的工作和缓慢的进程是浦东新区民政局选择每天限号办理离婚的部分原因。这反过来又导致了等候室的拥挤。;We are discussing launching an online booking system for couples to select an appointment time in advance to shorten the waiting time and control the number of daily filings,; said Sun Xiaohong, deputy director of the marriage management department at the Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau.上海民政局婚姻管理处副主任孙晓红说道:“我们正在讨论推出一个在线预约系统,提前为夫妇选择预约时间,以缩短等待时间和控制日常的工作量。”More than 3.6 million couples divorced across the country in 2014, 3.9 percent higher than in the previous year.2014年我国共有超过360万对夫妇选择离婚,这一数字要比前一年高出3.9%。 /201603/433510There#39;s good news for puzzle fans as a new brainteaser, featuring a water park scene, is sweeping the net.有个好消息要告诉解谜游戏爱好者们,一个以水上公园为背景的新谜题正风靡网络。It#39;s the latest in a series of #39;hidden word#39; puzzles to have the internet scratching its head, with previous brainteasers featuring a picture of a family fishing, as well as a farm scene.这是“隐藏单词”系列谜题的最新版,该谜题也让网友们迷惑不解,而这一系列谜题之前的版本是以家庭钓鱼和农场为背景的。 And this recent one, created by Playbuzz, is proving to be as challenging as the ones that have come before it.根据试验,由Playbuzz设计的这个最新版谜题与之前发布的谜题一样颇具挑战性。The picture shows a group of children enjoying themselves in a pool, with two of them splashing down a water slide.图片展示的是一群孩子在一个游泳池中快乐地玩耍,其中两个孩子正从水滑梯上滑下来,溅起一片水花。But six aquatic words are hidden in the scene - and they are trickier to find than you might expect.但是,在这个场景中隐藏了6个与水相关的单词,他们比你想象的更难发现。This brainteaser depicts a happy-looking holiday scene.这个谜题描绘的是快乐假日的情景。Hidden within this idyllic garden scene, six different words are carefully concealed among the farmers, plants and vegetables.6个不同的单词隐藏在这片田园诗般的花园中,并小心翼翼地隐匿在农夫、植物和蔬菜中。So can you find all six words?那么你能找出所有的6个单词吗? The answer revealed tomorrow!明天揭晓! /201606/450639

  If Someone Has very Obviously Had Cosmetic Surgery, Should You Acknowledge It or Not?如果有人整容整的非常明显,你该不该承认呢?It’s a tough one, I grant you, Geoffrey. After all, the person has submitted themselves to an extraordinary amount of pain and cost. Surely, you might think, the polite thing would be to acknowledge it? You might think that, but you would be wrong. The polite thing is to pretend the person has always looked like this. Vogue has a corker of an example of that this month in its interview with Renée Zellweger. Now, Zellweger looks a little different these days. How to deal with this silicone elephant in the room? Easy: “Let’s get it out of the way: Renée Zellweger looks perfectly normal to me,” the interview begins. Um, OK! “And if she has done something to her face (and does it really matter?), then hats off to her, she looks terrific.” How’s that for some fancy footwork? She doesn’t look like she’s had anything done, but if she has, GOOD FOR HER.这是个很难的问题,我把这个问题交给你了杰弗里。毕竟,这个人也承受了非凡的疼痛和代价。当然,你也许会认为,想要礼貌点的话就是承认整容?你也许是这么想的,但这是错的。想要礼貌的话,就是去假装这个人看上去一直就是这样的。《时尚》杂志本月在采访Renée Zellweger时有一个十分了不得的例子。现在,Zellweger看上去有点不一样了。如何在访问室里与这个硅胶大象打交道呢?很简单:“让我们切入正题:我觉得Renée Zellweger看上去很正常,”访谈开始了。恩,好的!“如果她的脸动刀子的话(这真的很重要吗?),然后向她致敬,她看上去棒呆了。”这样一个花式步伐如何?她看上去不像动过刀子,但是如果她动过的话,真是好样的。Here’s my tuppence on the matter: no one should be judged, negatively or positively, for doing whatever they want to their body. It is this judgment that makes people who have had the work feel like they have to deny the obvious. The best thing for everyone is if the person who has had the work laughs at the critics and gossips and makes like Dolly Parton who famously said: “If I have one more facelift, I’ll have a beard.” Now I’m not saying Zellweger has had work or not, but I do think all of our lives would be marvellously improved if she started cracking jokes about pubic facial hair in Vogue.这是我对这个问题的建议:没有人应该因为对自己的身体做了想要的改变,而被别人指指点点,不管是好的还是坏的。正是这种指指点点使整容的人觉得他们应该要否认这种明显的整容。对于每个人来说都最好的就是,如果这个整过容的人嘲笑批评家和散播流言蜚语的人,并说了多丽#8226;帕顿曾说过的一句有名的话:“如果我整过容,我就会长胡子。”现在我不是说Zellweger动过刀子了,但我的确认为如果她开始在《时尚》杂志上公然的开起面部毛发的玩笑,那么我们的生活都会得到很大的改进。译文属 /201606/4514695.Trick-or-Treating5.不给糖就捣乱Many cultures have strong historic traditions relating to dressing up around the time of Halloween and exchanging various forms of food, but few of these traditions involve children going door-to-door asking for candy with the words: ;Trick or treat!; That strange practice is believed to be American in origin, but funny enough, perhaps the people who find this the practice most baffling are the pintsized rookies being paraded around the neighborhood. While at any other time of year their parents forbid them from talking to strangers, begging for candy and roaming the streets at night, all of a sudden they change their tune and support such shenanigans on one magical evening each fall.很多文化中都有在万圣节前夕穿盛装和交换各种食物的历史传统,但是很少有习俗会让孩子们挨家挨户地要糖,还要不停地说“不给糖就捣乱”。人们普遍认为这个奇怪的习俗起源于美国本土,但有趣的是,也许对这个习俗感到最为困惑的恰恰是那些正在邻居门前游行的小孩子。父母一年到头都不许他们和陌生人说话、讨要糖果,更别说深更半夜还在街上晃荡,然而却在每年秋天这个神奇的夜晚突然来个一百八十度大转弯,转而鼓励起这种鬼把戏。But here#39;s the catch: They only receive these precious goodies by parroting out the magic words ;Trick or treat.; And heaven forbid the giver of candy requests a ;Trick; of these poor confused newbies. But after a few years, they catch on, and trick-or-treating becomes a tradition they couldn#39;t imagine October without.然而这个恶作剧的关键在于,他们只有鹦鹉学舌般不断重复“不给糖就捣乱”这一咒语,才能获得这些宝贵的美食。但愿不会有大人拒绝给糖,却要求这些困惑的新手“捣乱”。但是过几年,他们就会明白了,而“不给糖就捣乱”也成了他们在十月不可或缺的传统。4.Presidential Turkey Pardons4.总统赦免火鸡Thanksgiving in general seems to mystify those not steeped in American traditions, but perhaps no part of that quirky turkey fest seems more bizarre than the annual ceremony during which modern presidents grant an official pardon to a live turkey presented to them by the National Turkey Federation (NTF). Interestingly, there#39;s also been a great deal of confusion among Americans concerning the actual origins of this strange tradition. Although the NTF has been gifting presidents with turkeys annually since 1947, the whole idea of ;pardoning; them by sparing them from the stove didn#39;t occur until years later, and even then, when it did occasionally happen, it certainly wasn#39;t with anything as grandiose as a declaration of an official presidential pardon. The first bird to receive a formal stay of execution in the mode of an expressly stated ;presidential pardon; wasn#39;t delivered to the Rose Garden until 1989, when then-President George H. W. Bush started this act of official benevolence that#39;s now become an annual American tradition.对那些不热衷于美国传统节日的人来说,感恩节似乎会让他们感到困惑。但在这场奇怪的火鸡盛会中,最令人费解的莫过于每年总统都会赦免一只由国家火鸡联盟赠送的火鸡。有趣的是,美国人自己也搞不懂这个奇怪的传统到底从何而来。自1947年起,国家火鸡联盟每年向总统赠送感恩节火鸡,但多年后,肯尼迪总统才首次赦免火鸡,让它们免遭炉灶之火。不过此次赦免事出偶然,远非美国官方的“总统特赦”。直到1989年,总统乔治·布什才在玫瑰园正式举办了首次“赦免火鸡仪式”,之后“总统赦免火鸡”便成了美国的一个传统。3.Black Friday Shopping Sprees3.黑色星期五购物狂潮Just hours after millions of unpardoned turkeys are devoured in the ed States on Thanksgiving each year, armies of shoppers head out to get a start on their annual Christmas gift list. Black Friday sales traditionally launch this national weekend shopping bonanza, which wraps up on Cyber Monday, a more recently minted tradition that#39;s grown in popularity with the rise of online shopping.每年感恩节当天,都会有数百万未遇大赦的火鸡成为美国人的盘中餐,而几小时后,购物大军就会着手采购圣诞礼物。周末购物狂潮从黑色星期五开始,到网络星期一结束。(网络星期一是因网购而新兴不久的网络购物节)In 2010, the National Retail Federation conducted a survey, and estimated that more than 200 million shoppers went online and to stores around the nation during the weekend after Thanksgiving, with 106 million Americans planning to make purchases online come the following Monday. Most of those shopping on Black Friday arrive at a civilized time, but many diehards take the tradition a step further and start the day at a gruelingly early hour. In rare cases, riots or deadly stampedes have even broken out among shoppers slavering to get a certain deal or a particular product.2010年,美国零售联合会的一项调查显示,在感恩节后,全美大约有超过2亿顾客网购或到实体店购物,其中有1.06亿美国人打算在感恩节后第一个星期一网购。黑色星期五的购物时间迎合了大部分国民的需求,但也有些顽固分子早早地就冲到商场排队,让人筋疲力尽。其中不乏想要购买大量或特定商品的疯狂购物者,偶尔甚至会发生暴乱或严重的踩踏事件。2.Groundhog Day Prognosticating2.土拨鼠日之时令预测Leave it to Americans to make their warm weather travel plans based on the machinations of a reticent rodent. Each year, groundhogs around the country -- but most notably Punxsutawney Phil of Punxsutawney, Penn. -- are paraded out to predict how many more weeks will transpire before spring is on the way.你可能不会相信,美国人竟会根据一只土拨鼠的“小把戏”来制定春游计划。每年土拨鼠日这一天,美国的土拨鼠都会从洞穴里出来,“预测”春天还有多久到来,其中最著名的是来自宾夕法尼亚州旁苏托尼小镇的土拨鼠费尔。It#39;s either six more weeks of winter, or an early spring, depending upon whether the little critter in question sees his shadow or not. This tradition has been going on since the 1800s, despite (ahem) modest advances in weather prediction since that time. And speaking of measuring stuff by strange means, we#39;ve got one last weird American tradition for you on the last page.春天会提早到来,或是冬天仍要持续六个星期,这得看小家伙能不能看到它的影子。虽说几百年来人类预测天气的技术稳步发展,但土拨鼠预报时令的传统从19世纪一直沿袭至今。1.Inches, Teaspoons and a Ton of Bricks1.英寸、茶勺和一吨砖头It#39;s perfectly acceptable to use the metric system in the ed States -- Congress originally authorized it in 1866 and has repeated those sentiments in the years since -- but tradition tells a whole other tale. Although the government now requires metric use in some public sectors and strongly encourages it in many private industries, the American public never really took to the system and largely dismissed it, making the ed States the only industrialized nation where that#39;s the case.公制度量单位完全可以在美国通行——1866年美国国会首次批准使用公制单位,之后也多次推行公制——但我们所知的美国传统并非如此。尽管当今政府要求一些公共部门使用公制,也一直鼓励私营企业采用公制单位,但大部分民众并没有把公制系统当回事,相反地总是忽略它的存在。在这方面,美国确实是工业国家的一个特例。In an effort to move the matter along, Congress even passed a Metric Conversion Act of 1975 and set up a U.S. Metric Board to take care of all the planning for the desired transition, but they apparently didn#39;t empower the board with enough authority, and the American people essentially said, ;meh; to adopting metric and continued on with their miles, pounds, ounces and all the rest. Similarly lackluster efforts since then have done little to get Americans to change their ways.1975年,为了推行公制度量单位,美国国会通过了《公制转换法案》,并成立了美国公制委员会,专门负责公制单位转换。但显然,这个委员会还不够权威,公众打心底里对公制单位嗤之以鼻,依旧若无其事地使用英里、磅、盎司等传统单位。虽然政府一直努力推行公制单位,但收效甚微。审校:瑶瑶Yvonne 来源:前十网 /201605/445455

  This season#39;s must-have make-up trend has quite literally come out of the blue. Sarah Young investigates the beauty industry#39;s renewed love for a nostalgic favourite这一季度“必备妆”的趋势已然在很大程度上以蓝色为主色调。萨拉#8226;杨,针对美容界对这个曾经受到广泛喜爱的过时元素又重新燃起了热情这一现象,进行了调查。Colour is making a comeback and if the spring runways are anything to go by a stand-out blue wash is the only colour to wear on your eyes this season. While the vast majority of us haven’t dabbled with the shade since the bygone days of dance recitals it seems to be making a mighty return to our make-up rotation. The vogue for blue eye make-up brings with it a sense of nostalgia but a coming of age contends that more contemporary hues of cobalt, sapphire and aquamarine are worthy of your devotion and it doesn’t stop there.妆正在强势归来,如果形形色色的设计都如走马观花似的出现在春季系列的T台上,那么脱颖而出的水洗蓝将是本季唯一一个能够涂抹在眼睛上的颜色。虽然我们中的大多数都还没有尝试过用水洗蓝作眼影,但是这样的妆容似乎正在时尚妆不断更替的浪潮中强势回归。伴随蓝色眼妆的时尚风潮而来的,是一种怀旧的感觉,但是也有人争论说更具现代气息的钴蓝色、蓝宝石色和海蓝色才是值得青睐的。各方争论仍在继续。There’s much more to oceanic eyes than a painterly swathe of shadow this time round, granting Missoni opted for a wash of colour on the lids but a far more novel approach to this beauty riposte meant a densely pigmented shade of cobalt blue spoke for itself. Likewise, Diane Von Furstenberg and Roksanda chose to apprise classic shadow by creating a retro smoky eye in shimmering hues of mermaid-esque teal.这一次,对于海洋系眼妆来说,不再是只需要画出一条色眼影来那么简单了,米索尼选择在眼睑处用一种水洗颜色上妆,但是这一复古美可以变得更加新颖——即只选择浓密的钴蓝色眼影作为眼妆。同样,黛安#8226;冯芙丝汀宝和洛克山达也选择通过创造美人鱼式的闪亮蓝绿色调的复古烟熏眼妆,来向传统的眼影样式靠拢。 According to the spring/summer 2016 shows though, there are far more innovative ways to experiment with the shade; it’s time to toss your preconceived notions of eyeliner and mascara aside and make way for a seriously graphic gaze. At Jonathan Saunders and Boss black eyeliner was replaced with a slick of azure very close to the lash line and while Boss opted for a super-neat cat eye, Saunders ringed the entire eye with slightly smudged liner. Eccentricity is nothing new to Mary Katrantzou so it’s hardly surprising that her offering posed an entirely unique take on blue beauty; ocean-blue, spidery lashes adorned the centre portion of the model’s eye for a vivid but entirely wearable version of the Twiggy lash. 虽然从2016年春夏季T台秀的情况来看,人们对眼影可以做出更多创新性的尝试。但是也是时候把诸位在眼线膏和睫毛膏方面先入为主的的想法扔在一边了,需要重新思考其真正的意义和用途。在乔纳森#8226;桑德尔斯和铂斯的设计中,黑色眼线被一条非常贴近眼线的天蓝色细线所替代。桑德尔斯在整个眼睛周围都画上了有淡淡晕染效果的眼线,而铂斯则选择了用特别整齐的眼线来画出猫眼的效果。玛丽#8226;卡特兰佐的古怪风格对大家来说已不是什么新鲜事,所以她对蓝色有着完全不同的审美也不足为奇。为了眼妆的生动效果,她用海洋蓝和细长的睫毛来装饰模特眼睛的中心部分,而不是像特薇吉那样全部都粘上假睫毛。 The lover of no-make-up make-up need not fear though as this is a trend that works best with fresh skin and a barely-there base; simply opt for a metallic cream shadow and adopt a less is more approach to liner and mascara for a more subtle look. But for those of you who are keen to experiment it’s quite literally blue sky thinking.但是裸妆爱好者也不必担心他们的妆容,因为这种趋势是最适合裸妆群体和只打一层轻薄底妆的人的。为了打造一个更自然的妆容,可以仅在更靠近眼线和睫毛膏的地方,涂一点点金属色的霜状眼影。但是对于诸位这些热衷尝试的人来说,这简直就是天马行空的思维。译文属 /201607/454824

  I#39;ve started collecting fine china...我开始收集精巧的瓷器……Sorry to hear that, Ann...Is it contagious?抱歉听到这个消息,安……它会传染吗? /201607/452815。

  What is your most memorable cultural shock?你印象最深的文化冲击是什么?In summer of 2015, I was in Helsinki, Finland for an internship. Although, I had that Finnish people are reserved and like tostay within their space, I had not expected it to be this:2015年夏天,我在芬兰首都赫尔辛基实习。虽然我之前听说过芬兰人比较冷淡而且不喜欢别人闯入自己的空间,但是我没想到会是这样:At a bus stop: You are alone in the shade of the stop and that is your space. No one will come to bother you.在公交车站:你一个人站在站牌阴影下,而这就是你的空间,没人会来打扰你。Inside a bus: You enter a bus and see that all the window seats are occupied. You don#39;t have a seat and have to stand. Respect that space! (This is rather extreme, but you definitely get anxious as to where should you sit.)在公交车内:你上了一辆公交车,然后看到所有靠窗的位子都有人了。虽然旁边还有位子,但是你就没位子了,必须得站着。因为要尊重个人空间!(这很极端,但说到坐哪里,你一定会感到很焦虑。)You are scared to shout to the driver to stop the bus: I was running to catch the bus and signaled the driver by my hands to stop the bus. I entered the bus and saw all eyes were turned to me. I have never felt so guilty of anything.你不敢朝司机大喊让他停车:我跑过去拦公交车还挥手示意司机停车,当我上车之后看到所有人都转过来看着我。我从来没有这么内疚过。I caught my Finnish neighbor sneaking into his room and pretending that he didn#39;t see me in the hallway:我当场看到我的芬兰邻居偷偷进他自己的房间还假装没在玄关看到我:There was seemingly no traffic and I decided to cross the road while the light was still red. I looked back and saw a man shaking head in discontent. I waited for it to turn green next time onward.路上看起来没有车辆,所以我决定在红灯的时候过马路。我回过头看到一个男人在很不满地摇头。所以我等到绿灯了才往前走。Finns don#39;t like small talk. You ask general questions and a long, detailed answer follows.芬兰人不喜欢闲聊。你问普通的问题会得到一串又长又详细的回答。In Japan, during my first week here, I had to go through a medical check-up in the university clinic, a normal procedure for the new students and old ones as well.到日本的第一周,我在校医务室要参加一次体检,这是新老学生都要经历的常规步骤。I didn#39;t know where the clinic building was, so I asked another student about it. She told me that she was on her way to the clinic too, and that she could show me the place. While we were on our way, she began asking me where I was coming from and so on; as I was replying to her, I noticed that she was wearing a face-mask, one exactly like this:我不知道医务室在哪里,所以我问了另一个学生。她告诉我他也要去医务室,她还可以带我去那里。我们走在路上的时候,她开始问我来自哪里等问题,我在回答她的时候注意到她戴了个口罩,就像这样:I thought that perhaps it was a must to wear a face-mask before going to the clinic, as a kind of protection against some prospective infections.我以为这也许是因为去医务室之前必须要戴口罩,是一种预防潜在感染的手段。I asked her: ;Is it necessary to wear a face-mask before going to the clinic?;我问她:“去医务室之前一定要戴口罩吗?”She replied: ;No, no… I just didn#39;t do my makeup today.;她回答:“不,不是的······我只是今天没有化妆罢了。”Squat Toilets.蹲式厕所。Found to be the most common type of public toilet in China, I genuinely thought that I would eventually be able to learn how to use these things and become at one with the culture during my two-month stay in Beijing last summer.我发现这是在中国最常见的公共厕所,我曾经真的以为我总能学会怎么用这种厕所,并且能够在去年夏天呆在北京的两个月里成功融入这种文化。I never managed to learn how to use them in my entire two months spent in Beijing.然而我在北京呆了整整两个月还是没学会。 /201608/457602

  

  Tea has become entrenched in the British way of life, from the humble tea break to the afternoon tea to be enjoyed – in a jacket and tie, of course, gentlemen – at the very swankiest of London hotels.从简易的普通茶歇,到伦敦顶级奢华酒店供应的下午茶,饮茶俨然已成为英伦生活方式中不可或缺的一部分。而为了享用茶餐,绅士们甚至还要穿着西装、打上领带。But what are the molecules behind the taste of this beloved beverage? And does how you take your tea say something about who you are?而身为饮品界的英伦宠儿,茶香的根源到底是什么呢?我们又能否从一个人喝茶的方式中,多少窥探出些许关于其真实境况的信息呢?To answer that, it’s worth first trying to work out what it is exactly that makes tea taste the way it does. Tea’s flavour is intimately affected by how it is grown, processed, and brewed – beginning with the light. Tea bushes – Latin name camellia sinesis – are grown in terraces all over the tropics and subtropics. But if the intent is to make certain kinds of green tea from them, like matcha, growers will make sure they are carefully shaded with nets or mats. Less sun causes them to produce more chlorophyll as well as fewer polyphenols, a class of molecules that imparts tea’s singular astringency.想要解答这些问题,首先,我们有必要设法搞清楚:究竟是什么赋予了茶以独特的味道。茶叶的味道深受其栽培方式、加工方式以及冲泡方式的影响。而所有这些都得从阳光说起。在全球热带和亚热带的梯田中,人工种植的茶树(拉丁名为“camellia sinesis”)随处可见。然而,倘若种植者意在将它们制作成某种特定类型的绿茶(比如抹茶),他们便会小心翼翼地用网眼织物或者席子遮住茶树,确保它们不会过度曝光。这是因为太阳光照越少,茶叶生成的叶绿素就会越多,同时多酚类物质就会越少,而茶本身那种奇异的涩味便是源自于后面一类分子。Of course, some of us may like that taste, and tea processing can amp it up. After the new leaves and buds have been plucked from a bush, they are laid out to dry. How long they lie again depends on the kind of tea intended. For green teas, the leaves are almost immediately tossed in a hot pan or steamed (tea might look like the rawest of edibles, but it is actually cooked, or at least heat-treated). An oolong results when the leaves are dried a little, bruised and only then cooked. And a black tea – the most popular variant, accounting for 78% of the tea drunk world-wide – results when the bruised leaves dry quite a long while before being finished in the pan.当然,我们之中可能有些人会喜欢那种味道,而且制茶工艺还可以加重这种味道。茶农先将新叶和嫩芽从一株株茶树上采摘下来,然后把它们摊开来放置,以便晾干,而摊放时间的长短则取决于要制作的茶的类型。如要制成绿茶,茶农几乎需在第一时间就把鲜叶扔进热锅里加热杀青,也有的绿茶是蒸气杀青(尽管乍一看上去,茶可能像最原始而未经加工的食品,但实际上,茶是烹熟的,或者起码也经过了热处理)。如要制成乌龙茶,茶农需要在叶子稍干一些后,将其捣碎、揉捻,在这之后再烘焙烹熟便可大功告成。而如果要制成红茶,茶农需先把叶子捣碎、揉捻,再将它晾相当长的一段时间,然后在锅中完成最后的烘炒。红茶是最为流行的茶品种,占到全世界茶饮消费总量的78%。What’s behind all this is that as the tea leaves are drying, enzymes native to the tea plant are busily transforming simple molecules into more complex ones. The longer the tea spends drying, the longer those enzymes have to work – and the more these molecules build up in the tea leaves. The most famous in tea-chemistry circles is probably theaflavin, a tangle of carbon rings responsible for some of the ruddy colour of black teas as well as some of the astringency.蕴藏在这一切背后的化学原理,就是茶树原生的各种酶素在茶叶逐渐晾干的过程中,马不停蹄地将结构简单的分子转化成结构复杂的分子。茶叶晾干的时间越长,这些酶素发挥效用的时间就越长,进而这些在茶叶中组合聚集起来的分子也就越多。在茶叶化学界最负盛名的恐怕要数茶黄素了,这是一团纠结在一起的碳环,因了它的存在,红茶多了几分红润的色泽,还多了些许涩味。Firing the tea leaves calls the process to a halt by destroying the enzymes. As a result, there’s very little theaflavin and related molecules in, say, green teas. But aside from polyphenols, hundreds of other compounds build up in the tea over time; their roles in crafting tea’s bouquet and taste are not yet clear. Regardless, the end result is a different chemical profile for each kind of tea.茶叶的烘烤焙制工艺开始后,这一反应过程因酶素被摧毁而被迫终止。因此,在诸如绿茶等一些茶制成品中,茶黄素及其相关分子的含量微乎其微。不过,随着时间的推移,除了多酚类物质,茶叶中还组合聚集了数百种其它种类的化合物;而在茶的香味和口感的缔造过程中,它们发挥了怎样的作用,如今尚无定论。无论如何,最终的结果便是,每种茶都有了不同的化学剖面。Given how much tea people drink, there#39;s growing interest in understanding whether this habit has any medical benefits. It appears that molecules found in tea can protect cells in a dish from some kinds of damage, but despite copious research,there is conflicting evidence on whether tea-drinking provides benefits beyond warm hands and an alert mind.鉴于人们的饮茶量如此之大,学界对于饮茶习惯是否具有医学效用这一问题的研究兴趣日益高涨。尽管有大量研究表明,在茶叶中发现的分子似乎可以在培养皿中保护细胞,使其免受某些类型的损伤,但在饮茶是否能为人们带来暖手和提神之外的其它益处的这个问题上,各种据之间又充满了矛盾。Because, of course, there are the stimulants. Brewed tea has roughly half the caffeine of an equivalent volume of coffee, but it is still plenty for a mid-afternoon pick-me-up. You might have heard that caffeine in tea gives a different high from the caffeine in coffee. Many studies have found that if this is the case, it’s because of an amino acid called theanine, which occurs in tea. When volunteers consume both caffeine and theanine – versus caffeine and other tea molecules – they show moderately more alertness and better ability to switch between tasks than with caffeine alone. The amount in a given cuppa may not be the same as the doses given during a study, however, and the effect of theanine is not enormous. But all on its own, the caffeine will give you a nice lift.这是因为茶的确对大脑神经有刺激性。虽然与同等剂量的咖啡相比,煮好的茶所含的咖啡因大约只有前者的一半,但依然足够起到午后提神的作用。你或许已有耳闻,茶中的咖啡因所带给人的兴奋感与咖啡所含的咖啡因有所不同。许多研究已经表明,如果事实的确如此,那么差异的出现源自于茶叶中存在的一种氨基酸,它名为“茶氨酸”。当志愿者同时摄入咖啡因与茶氨酸时,相较于同时摄入咖啡因与其它的茶分子(单靠咖啡因醒神),他们表现出略微强一些的敏捷性和更好的多任务切换能力。不过,一杯茶水中所含的茶氨酸和研究中所用的剂量可能会有差异,而且茶氨酸的效用也并不是很大。但是,就咖啡因自身而言,茶的提神效果还是挺不错的。 /201606/450210

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