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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月16日 06:41:03
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And I would argue, in the future, well have wearable devices in our clothes,monitoring ourselves 24/7.我要说,在将来,我们将有穿在衣里的装置,全天候检测我们的身体。And just like we have the OnStar system in cars,就像我们现在车里用的OnStar系统,your red light might go on-it wont say check engine though.你的红灯会亮起来-它虽然不会说检查发动机。Its going to be check your body light,and go in and get it taken care of.它将会是检查身体灯,亮起来就得小心。Probably in a few years, youll check into your mirror and its going to be diagnosing you.也许几年之后,你照镜子的时候它就会诊断你。For those of you with kiddos at home,how would you like to have the wireless diaper that supports your too much information, I think, than you might need.对于你们中在家带小孩的,你会觉得无线网络尿布会帮你大忙。我认为有比你需要的多得多的信息。But its going to be here.但是会是这里。Now weve heard a lot today about new technology and connection.现在我们已经听了太多技术和连接,And I think some of these technologies will enable us to be more connected with our patients,and take more time,and actually do the important human touch elements of medicine,as augmented by these sorts of technologies. 我认为一些技术将会使我们和病人联系得更好,节约更多的时间,实际上增进医学交流中重要的人与人之间的交互,这些技术都能增强这些交流。Now weve talked about augmenting the patient, to some degree.现在我们在某种程度上谈过了与患者的增进交流。How about augmenting the physician?那与医生的增进交流呢?Were now in the era of super-enabling the surgeon who can now go inside the body and do things with robotic surgery, which is here today,at a level that was not really possible even five years ago. 我们正处在超能医生时代,他们能进入身体内部用机器人做手术,如今成为现实,在过去这是不可能完成的。即使在5年前。Now this is being augmented with further layers of technology like augmented reality.现在这种技术被多重技术所增强,就像增强现实一样。So the surgeon can see inside the patient, through their lens,where the tumor is, where the blood vessels are. 医生能通过镜头看到患者身体内部,肿瘤在哪里,血管在哪里。This can be integrated with decisions support.这可以和决策持合并在一起。A surgeon in New York can be helping a surgeon in Amsterdam, for example.例如,纽约的一个医生能帮助阿姆斯特丹的另一个医生做手术。And were entering an era of really, truly scarless surgery called NOTES,where the robotic endoscope can come out the stomach and pull out that gallbladder all in a scarless way and robotically. 我们正处在一个叫做NOTES的真正无疤手术时代,机器人的内窥镜能穿过胃部切除胆囊,全程都是机器人化无疤方式。And this is called NOTES, and this is coming basically scarless surgery,as mediated by robotic surgery. 这就叫做NOTES,这就是基本无疤手术,通过机器人手术来实现。Now how about controlling other elements?现如今控制其他元素会怎么样呢?For those who have disabilities-the paraplegic,theres the era of brain-computer interface, or I,where chips have been put on the motor cortex of completely quadriplegic patients and they can control a curser or a wheelchair or, eventually, a robotic arm.对于残疾人-半身不遂,这是大脑-计算机交互时代,或者叫I,在大脑皮层运动区放置芯片对四肢瘫痪者,他们能够控制一个遥控器或者一个轮椅或者,最终,一个机器手臂。And these devices are getting smaller and going into more and more of these patients.这些装置变得越来越小,可以植入越来越多的患者体内。Still in clinical trials, but imagine when we can connect these,for example, to the amazing bionic limb,such as the DEKA Arm built by Dean Kamen and colleagues,which has 17 degrees of motion and freedom and can allow the person whos lost a limb to have much higher levels of dexterity or control than theyve had in the past. 虽然仍在临床实验阶段,但是设想当我们能连接这些技术,例如,令人惊叹的仿生学假肢,像迪安卡门和他的同事们所设计的DEKA手臂,它有17度的移动和灵活度,能够让失去一个肢体的人有更高水平的灵活和控制度,比起他们过去曾有过的手臂。So were really entering the era of wearable robotics actually.我们实际上真正进入了可穿用的机器人时代。If you havent lost a limb-youve had a stroke, for example,you can wear these augmented limbs.如果你没有失去一个肢体-比方说,你有过中风,你可以穿用这些假肢。Or if youre a paraplegic-like Ive visited the folks at Berkley Bionics,theyve developed eLEGS.或者如果你是一个半身不遂患者-像我拜访过的在伯克利仿生学实验室工作的同事们,他们发明了电子腿eLEGS。I took this last week. Heres a paraplegic patient actually walking by strapping on these exoskeletons.我上周拍了这段视频。这是一个半身不遂患者正在走路通过穿上这些盔甲。Hes otherwise completely wheelchair-bound.如果不穿这些盔甲他完全得依靠轮椅。And now this is the early era of wearable robotics.现在是可穿用机器人时代的早期。And I think by leveraging these sorts of technologies,were going to change the definition of disability to in some cases be superability, or super-enabling. 我认为通过采用这些技术,我们能够改变残疾的定义,在某些情况下成为超常或者超能。This is Aimee Mullins, who lost her lower limbs as a young child,and Hugh Herr, whos a professor at MIT who lost his limbs in a climbing accident.这是艾米马林斯,在小时候她失去了下肢,休贺尔,麻省理工的教授在一次攀岩事故中失去了肢体。And now both of these can climb better, move faster, swim differently with their prosthetics than us normal-abled persons.现在他们可以比我们正常人爬得更好,移动得更快,以不同的姿势游泳,通过修复手术。Now how about other exponentials?其他的指数技术怎么样呢?Clearly the obesity trend is exponentially going in the wrong direction,including with huge costs. 很明显肥胖趋势朝错误的方向指数发展,包括巨额出。But the trend in medicine actually is to get exponentially smaller.但是在医学上这种趋势正在指数减少。So a few examples: were now in the era of Fantastic Voyage,the iPill.有几个例子:我们现在处在奇异旅程时代,iPill。You can swallow this completely integrated device.你可以吞下这个完全集成的装置。It can take pictures of your GI system,help diagnose and treat as it moves through your GI tract.它能在你的消化道里拍照片,当它通过你的消化道的时候帮助你诊断和治疗。We get into even smaller micro-robots that will eventually autonomously move through your system again and be able to do things that surgeons cant do in a much less invasive manner.我们感兴趣更小的微型机器人将会最终自动通过你的消化系统能做到医生做不到的事情用一种痛苦少得多的方式。Sometimes these might self-assemble in your GI system and be augmented in that reality.有时这些装置也许可以在你的消化系统自行组装从而增强其使用价值。On the cardiac side, pacemakers are getting smaller and much easier to place so you dont need to train an interventional cardiologist to place them.对于心脏手术,起搏器正变得更容易放置,因此你不需要训练一个介入心脏医师去放置它们。And theyre going to be wirelessly telemetered again to your mobile devices so you can go places and be monitored remotely.它们将会被你的手机遥控,你可以去任何地方并远程遥控。These are shrinking even further.这些装置正在被变得更小。Heres one thats in prototyping by Medtronic thats smaller than a penny.这是一个Medtronic制作的样品,比一分硬币还小。Artificial retinas, the ability to put these arrays on the back of the eyeball and allow the blind to see.人工视网膜的功能是把光线集中在眼球后面从而让失明者恢复视力。Again, in early trials, but moving into the future.虽然仍在早期试验阶段,但是有很好的前景。These are going to be game changing.这些技术将会是革命性的。Or for those of us who are sighted,how about having the assisted-living contact lens? 对于我们中的那些视力有问题的人,有了这些辅助生活的隐形眼镜会怎样呢?BlueTooth, WiFi available-beams back images to your eye.用蓝牙,无线网络-投射图像到你的眼球上。201504/370137

  Wow, thank you. Thank you, thank you, thank you. What an incredible honor! Wow, that meant a lot, thank you so much. Thank you to the HFPA and to the other fantastic performances in this category, you guys were unbelievable. What a terrific year in film! Two years ago, we found ourselves submerged deep in nature with all of its complications and all the beauty that it gave us cinematically. This film was about survival, it was about adaptation, it was about the triumph of the human spirit; but more than anything, it was about trust, and there is no one more deserving of that trust than our director Alejandro I#241;árritu. Thank you for allowing me to be a part of this journey with you. Your leadership, your vision, your acute attention to making every day so visceral and real for us, Ive never had an experience like this in my entire life. The depths to which he and Chivo and the entire crew went through was unfathomable.And, I really want to thank the actors that I got to stand shoulder to shoulder with in this film, in particular, my good friend Tom Hardy, who is a beast and unbelievable talent. He was there every single day, who I know in real life would never bury me alive and leave me out in the cold to die like that. My makeup artist, Sian Grigg, youre an unbelievable talent, thank you for all the genius you brought to this movie. I have to thank all the people involved in making this film, Mary Parent, Steve Golin, Brad Weston, Jim Gianopulos, but Arnon Milchan, there is no one in this industry that would stick with a film like this to its bitter end. You are the champion of this film. My entire team, Jen, Sean, Rick, Steve, Cretchen, Rick, thank you for pushing me constantly to make choices like this. My parents, I love you dearly. My friends, you know who you are. And lastly, I wanna share this award with all the First Nations people represented in this film, and all the indigenous communities around the world. It is time that we recognize your history and we protect your indigenous lands from corporate interests and people that are out there to exploit them. It is time that we heard your voice and protect this planet for future generations. Thank you very much.201603/430141

  And I will thank a couple of people that you guys probably wouldnt even think I will thank. Isaiah Thomas, Magic Johnson and George Gervin. They are the so-called freezing-out in my rookie season. I would never guess, but you guys gave me the motivation, say, you know what? Evidently Ive got to prove to these guys. Ive got to prove to them that I deserve what Ive got on this level. No matter what people may have said, if it is rumor, I never took it as truth. But you guys never froze me up, because I was just happy to be there no matter how you look at it. From that point forward, I wanted to prove to you, Magic, Larry, Gorge, everybody that I deserve to be on this level as much as anybody else. And hopefully over the whole period of my career I have done that, without a doubt. Even in the Detroit, weve done that.我还要感谢一些人,这些人或许你们都没想到。伊塞亚·托马斯,魔术师约翰逊,乔治·格温。在我的新秀赛季,我被你们完全冻结。是你们给了我前进的动力。每天我都需要向你们明我所得到的一切成就都问心无愧。无论人们是如何的,我从来不把谣言当做真相。你们从来没有把我吓怕,因为,我只是喜欢打球而已,不管你们如何看待。以此为出发点,我就是要向你们明我有资格在这个场上打球,就跟你们一样。我想,在我整个职业生涯中我已经明了这一切,毫无疑问。即使是在底特律,我们也做到了。Pat Riley, I mean, you and I go way back. I still remember in Hawaii, remember in Hawaii where you and I, I was coming in. You were, I guess, leaving: you decided to stay a couple of days. You were coming into my suite and came, and I told you: ;Get out of my suite.; You slid a note on the leak of my door, although you had to move, you didnt move. You slid the note, saying ;I enjoyed the competition, congratulations, but we will meet again. ; And I take the heart in that, because I think in all I see you are just as competitive as I am and even from a coach standing point.帕托·莱利,还记得我们间的恩怨吗。我记得在夏威夷,我刚到,而你可能正准备离开。后来你决定多待几天。你跑到我的房间,要进来,我就喊:“出去。”尽管你要走,但你却没有。你给我的门上留了一张纸条:我很享受与你的比赛,恭喜你,但是我们还会再见的。我打心底里感激。我想你就和我一样,享受竞争的过程,即便你是从一个教练的角度。201404/288370。

  Its hard to admit that I need help, but I do. For 45 days from the end of December to early February, I was in inpatient therapy receiving guidance for the issues Im facing. I have a long way to go. But Ive taken my first steps in the right direction.要我承认我需要外界的帮助并不是一件容易的事,但我确实需要。在过去的45天里,从12月底到2月初这段时间,我一直住院接受治疗,以引导我正确面对所面临的问题。之后的路还很长,不过我已经向正确的方向迈出了第一步。As I proceed, I understand people have questions. I understand the press wants to ask me for the details and the times I was unfaithful. I understand people want to know whether Elin and I will remain together. Please know that as far as Im concerned, every one of these questions and answers is a matter between Elin and me. These are issues between a husband and a wife.在这个过程中,我知道大家有很多的疑问,我知道媒体很想知道我过去那段不忠经历的细节,我也知道大家很关心我跟我太太伊琳是否还在一起。不过请大家谅解,这些都是我和我太太的个人问题,是夫妇之间的私事。Some people have made up things that never happened. They said I used performance-enhancing drugs. This is completely and utterly false. Some have written things about my family. Despite the damage I have done, I still believe it is right to shield my family from the public spotlight. They did not do these things; I did.有些人捏造一些从未发生过的事情,有人说我用兴奋剂,这些都是绝对不真实的。有人写了些关于我家人的报导,虽然我伤害了他们,但我仍然有责任保护他们的隐私,因为他们没有犯错误,犯错误的人是我。201402/276367

  First of all, for those of you who首先,对你们所有are not familiar with my work,不熟悉我的工作的人,I create multicultural characters,我创造了一个多重角色,so characters from lots of different backgrounds.那些角色具有多个不同背景So before the present is the new future,那样,现在的前面是一个新的未来,a bit about the past is that I grew up in a family关于我的一点儿过去是,我成长在一个家庭that was multi-everything -- multi-racial, multi-cultural,有着多种-每一样东西-多种-种族,多种-文化black and white, Caribbean,黑和白,加勒比海的,Irish-American, German-American.爱尔兰美国人,德裔美国人。There was Dominican music blasting from stereos.有多米尼克德音乐从音响里迸发。There were Christians and Jews.有基督徒和犹太人。Thats a long story filled with那是一个长长的故事充满了intrigue and interfaith guilt and shame.纠葛和信仰的付疚感和羞耻感。But I was totally immersed in this world但我完全地沐浴在这个that was filled with everybody,充满了每个人的世界and then I went on to the ed Nations school,后来我去了联合国学校and that just completely all”就这样完成了-So I began sort of developing these voices我开始发现这些声音and these people,和这些人,all of whom were loosely based on people I really know,都是那些我不太熟悉的人,and so, for example, in performing them,于是,举个例子说,为了表演他们I would really try to inhabit them.我就真的努力去和他们融合在一起。And for example, 比如I dont really talk like that,我真的不想那样说话but that was one of my people,但那是我的人中间的一个and Im going to bring a few of my friends --我将带来我的几个朋友I think of them as my friends ”我把他们当作我的朋友-to this stage, in this spirit of the idea在这个讲台上,在这个观念的精华里面that the present is the new future,现在就是一个新的将来in sort of a meta way,在某种相关的路上because I thought about it, and the future, for me,因为我思考着它,未来,我的,what can be so frightening有什么是那么可怕的?is that I dont know whats coming.是我不知道有什么会发生。I dont know if thats true for other people,我不知道那对别人也是真的but that notion of thinking about但那个概念是思考how we can understand the future我们该如何理解未来and predict outcomes,并且预计结果for me, its terrifying to not know what might be coming.对我来说,不知道即将来临的事情会很可怕。And so the idea that there are questions于是这个主意就有些that Ive never seen我从没明白的问题,that my people are going to answer,那是我的人要回答的,and some of these characters have been with me for ages,有些角色已经跟着我有很多年了,some of them dont even have names,他们中的一些连名字都没有I dont know whats going to happen.我不知道将会发生些什么。I dont know whats coming,也不知道结果怎样and all I can do is remind myself我所能做的就是提醒自己that I told Chris Id fly by the seat of my pants,我告诉克瑞斯我会飞到我的长裤的坐位上and now that Im up here it sort of feels like现在我来到这儿,就让我感觉像that dream where you dont have any pants on,那种梦里你没有穿裤子的感觉,and so I suppose Im going to be那样我应该是flying by the seat of my ass.坐到我的屁股旁边上的位置上飞行That said, lets just see who comes out.那就是说,让我们看看谁会来。May we have the first question:我们可以有第一个问题:;Do you ever get headaches“你曾经感觉from the microchips implanted in your brain?;从微芯片植入你的大脑那里而来的疼痛吗?”Right.对了Okay.好的。Well first of all, Ill just say好了, 首先,我只会说that I hope you can hear me okay.我希望你们可以听到我。My name is Lorraine Levine,我的名字是罗伦尼.列文,and the idea of microchips implanted in my brain,我的脑子里植入微芯片的主意,frankly, just putting on my glasses reminds me友好地说,当我戴上眼镜的时候就让我想起来了of thank God Im not wearing the Google Glasses.感谢上帝,我没有带上谷歌眼睛No offense to them. Im glad that you all enjoy them,我并不反感他们, 我很高兴你们都喜欢,but at my age,但在我的年纪,just putting on the regular ones I have只是带上我的普通的那种aly gives me too much information.已经给了我太多的信息。Do you understand what Im saying to you?你理解我对你们说的吗?I dont need to know more. I dont want to know.我不需要知道更多的。我不想知道啦。Thats it. Thats enough.就是那样,那就够了。I love you all. Youre wonderful.我爱你们所有的人。你们都是美妙的。Its fabulous to be here with such big machers它是多么好啊在这儿和这么多重要的人在一起again this year. Mwah!今年的又一次机会。姆哇!Okay, next question. (Applause)好了,下一个问题。(鼓掌)Next, please.下一个,有请。;Is dating boring,“约会很没劲吧,now that humans reproduce asexually?;现在人类可以单性繁殖了?”201410/335656If you are one of the same sex couples getting married this weekend, I want to congratulate you and wish you the very best of luck. As you make your vows, you’ll be making history.Finally, after years of campaigning, and having seen off some very tough opposition, any couple who wants to get married can get married.Together we’ve made our country a place where we celebrate love equally, gay or straight – and for that reason we should all be raising a glass.So, as you make those last-minute preparations and your family and friends gather, I hope you have a day to remember.Here’s to a long and happy life together for you and your partner. And here’s to a fairer more modern and equal future for our country.201502/358932And I remember that by the time I was done putting together the site, I know I had no idea how successful it could be. And I was actually thinking that after day in and day out. I had a different idea that I wanted to do, and I was going to scrap it after that. So Im happy that I didnt do that. So I think that its more like how you spend your time doing stuff — to have question there, to have an answer — than like something that Ive learned specifically from college.我记得当我建好网站后,我并不知道它可能会多成功。我真的是每天都在思考。等我有了新点子想去实践,我就把这网站丢弃不管了。现在我很庆幸当初没那么干。所以我觉得这个问题的关键更像是你如何配自己的时间去做各种事情——有了问题,然后想出解决的办法,而不是我在大学里学到什么具体的技能。I made a ton of random things when I was at Harvard and most of them no one ever saw. A lot of them just werent meant for other people to see. And there are things that I made for myself because I thought theyll be cool. I used to make stuff like the natural language interface to play my MP3s. Or a thing I made before, this was a Hot or Not program out of everyones IDs at Harvard, that almost got me kicked out.我在哈佛的时候编了很多各式各样的程序,大多数都没有人见过,因为那都是为我自己做的,我为自己编程序,因为我觉得那很有意思。我为我的MP3做了一个自然的语言界面,之前在哈佛还用每个人的ID做过一个类似Hot or Not程序的网站,因为这个,我差点被哈佛开除。So I dont know, I actually spent a long time making random stuff. I think that that definitely made it. So by the time it came, more like, by the time I came to meet this random project, I was pretty well tuned toward making that, you know in terms of managing this whole process, nothing. Like I have no idea what Im doing, you know.我不知道我实际上花了很多时间编各种程序。这对我后来做的事很有帮助。当这个奇怪的点子冒出来的时候,我已经准备得比较充分,可以实现它了。但说到怎么规划整个过程时,我没想过,我都是想到什么干什么。The two things that you focus on are maintaining what you have now, thats good and growing, all right? What we have now is a pretty good utility. And then, going back to the first question that you ask me, whats the thing that I measure the most? Its that 70% of the people come back to site every day and making sure that that remains, not just because Were doing some gimmicky things.有两件事你需要关注,一是保持你现有的,二是发展,对吧,我们现有的就是很好的实用功能。回到你问的第一个问题,我最看重的衡量指标是什么?就是有70%的人每天都来登录,并且要保持这一水平, 不靠噱头和花招。201407/314908

  They will share the information on how to improve.他们会交流如何改善治疗效果的经验。So it is, by measuring and creating transparency,正是通过医疗效果量化和透明化,you get a cycle of continuous improvement,我们进入了一个不断改善的正循环,which is what this slide shows.正如这张幻灯片所示。Now, you may say this is a nice idea,现在,你可能觉得这是个不错的主意,but this isnt only an idea.不过这已经不仅仅是个主意了,This is happening in reality.它正在发生。Were creating a global community,我们正在打造一个全球共同体,and a large global community,一个很大的全球共同体,where well be able to measure and compare来量化和对比what we achieve.我们的成效。Together with two academic institutions, G Michael Porter at Harvard Business School,与两个学术院校,哈佛商学院的Michael Porter,and the Karolinska Institute in Sweden,以及瑞典的Karolinka学院,G has formed something we call ICHOM.合作成立了ICHOM。You may think thats a sneeze,你们可能会觉得这听起来but its not a sneeze, its an acronym.像打喷嚏,其实这是个缩写。It stands for the International Consortium for Health Outcome Measurement.它的意思是健康结果测评的国际联盟。Were bringing together leading physicians我们把顶尖的医生和病人and patients to discuss, disease by disease,集合起来,针对每一种疾病what is really quality,讨论是什么决定了医疗质量,what should we measure,我们应该如何衡量,and to make those standards global.最后形成全球统一标准。Theyve worked -- four working groups have worked在过去一年里,我们有四个小组在工作,during the past year:他们的项目是:cataracts, back pain,白内障,背部疼痛,coronary artery disease, which is, for instance, heart attack,冠状动脉疾病,比如心脏病,and prostate cancer.和前列腺癌。The four groups will publish their data这四个小组会在今年十一月in November of this year.发表研究数据。Thats the first time well be comparing这将是我们第一次apples to apples, not only within a country,在国家之间对比(疾病医疗的效果),but between countries.而不是仅限于单一国家内。Next year, were planning to do eight diseases,明年我们计划研究8种疾病,the year after, 16.后年,增加到16种。In three years time, we plan to have covered我们计划用三年时间40 percent of the disease burden.完成对40%的疾病的分析。201509/400138Good evening, everybody. I just want to make a few brief comments about the attacks across Paris tonight. Once again, weve seen an outrageous attempt to terrorize innocent civilians. This is an attack not just on Paris, its an attack not just on the people of France, but this is an attack on all of humanity and the universal values that we share. We stand prepared and y to provide whatever assistance that the government and the people of France need to respond. France is our oldest ally. The French people have stood shoulder to shoulder with the ed States time and again. And we want to be very clear that we stand together with them in the fight against terrorism and extremism. Paris itself represents the timeless values of human progress. Those who think that they can terrorize the people of France or the values that they stand for are wrong. The American people draw strength from the French peoples commitment to life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness. We are reminded in this time of tragedy that the bonds of liberté and égalité and fraternité are not only values that the French people care so deeply about, but they are values that we share. And those values are going to endure far beyond any act of terrorism or the hateful vision of those who perpetrated the crimes this evening. Were going to do whatever it takes to work with the French people and with nations around the world to bring these terrorists to justice, and to go after any terrorist networks that go after our people. We dont yet know all the details of what has happened. We have been in contact with French officials to communicate our deepest condolences to the families of those who have been killed, to offer our prayers and thoughts to those who have been wounded. We have offered our full support to them. The situation is still unfolding. Ive chosen not to call President Hollande at this time, because my expectation is that hes very busy at the moment. I actually, by coincidence, was talking to him earlier today in preparation for the G20 meeting. But I am confident that Ill be in direct communications with him in the next few days, and well be coordinating in any ways that they think are helpful in the investigation of whats happened. This is a heartbreaking situation. And obviously those of us here in the ed States know what its like. Weve gone through these kinds of episodes ourselves. And whenever these kinds of attacks happened, weve always been able to count on the French people to stand with us. They have been an extraordinary counterterrorism partner, and we intend to be there with them in that same fashion. Im sure that in the days ahead well learn more about exactly what happened, and my teams will make sure that we are in communication with the press to provide you accurate information. I dont want to speculate at this point in terms of who was responsible for this. It appears that there may still be live activity and dangers that are taking place as we speak. And so until we know from French officials that the situation is under control, and we have for more information about it, I dont want to speculate. Thank you very much.201511/411433

  In so doing, I reached a frontier of biology so strange, so rich,that it seemed as though it exists on another planet. 通过这样的方式,我来到一个非常古怪却又非常丰富的生物学领域,简直就像降临到别的星球一样。In fact, we live on a mostly unexplored planet.事实上,我们就生活在一个很多地方皆未被研究的星球上。The great majority of organisms on Earth remain unknown to science.科学家对于地球上大多数的有机体都是一无所知的。In the last 30 years, thanks to explorations in remote parts of the world and advances in technology,biologists have, for example, added a full one-third of the known frog and other amphibian species,to bring the current total to 5,400,and more continue to pour in. 过去30年,人们去到了一些较为边缘的地区,也得益于科技的进步,生物学家使已知的青蛙以及两栖类物种数增加了三分之一,现在,两栖类生物物种总数为5400种,并且还不断有新的物种被发现。Two new kinds of whales have been discovered, along with two new antelopes,dozens of monkey species and a new kind of elephant and even a distinct kind of gorilla. 也发现了两种新的鲸鱼种类,以及两种新的羚羊,还有几十个猴子的种类以及一种新的大象种类,甚至还有一种新发现的大猩猩!At the extreme opposite end of the size scale, the class of marine bacteria,the Prochlorococci -- that will be on the final exam,although discovered only in 1988, are now recognized as likely the most abundant organisms on Earth,and moreover, responsible for a large part of the photosynthesis that occurs in the ocean. 而在生物体体型大小的另一端,我们发现了新的海洋细菌,原绿球藻,也许在你的期末考试出现过,虽说是1988年发现的,现在则被认为是地球上最繁盛的生物,这一生物为海洋里头发生的光合作用起到了很大的推动作用。These bacteria were not uncovered sooner,because they are also among the smallest of all Earths organisms so minute that they cannot be seen with conventional optical microscopy.我们没能在更早的时候发现这些细菌,是因为它们也是地球上体型最小的生物之一,你用普通的光学仪器是难以看得到它们的。Yet life in the sea may depend on these tiny creatures.但海底的生物却必须依赖它们才能生存。These examples are just the first glimpse of our ignorance of life on this planet.这些都不过是一些例子,显示出我们对于地球上的生物是多么无知。Consider the fungi -- including mushrooms, rusts, molds and many disease-causing organisms.再看看真菌,包括蘑菇、锈菌、霉菌以及其他携带病原体的真菌60,000 species are known to science,我们知道有6万种的真菌,but more than 1.5 million have been estimated to exist.但科学家估计,事实上有150万真菌存活于地球上。Consider the nematode roundworm, the most abundant of all animals.再看看线虫,它们是所有动物家族当中最为繁盛的。Four out of five animals on Earth are nematode worms if all solid materials except nematode worms were to be eliminated,you could still see the ghostly outline of most of it in nematode worms.地球上80%的动物都是线虫,假如地球上除了线虫以外所有的固态物质都消失,你还是可以从线虫身上看出曾经的地球痕迹。About 16,000 species of nematode worms have been discovered and diagnosed by scientists;there could be hundreds of thousands of them, even millions, still unknown.大约16000种线虫动物,已经被科学家发现并进行研究;而事实上,也许有数以千计甚至是数以百万计的我们还未曾知道。This vast domain of hidden biodiversity is increased still further by the dark matter of the biological world of bacteria,which within just the last several years still were known from only about 6,000 species of bacteria worldwide.还有另外一个生物群体,它们通常不被关注,但其蕴含的生物多样性却更多,单单是过去的几年,世界范围内就发现了6000例新的细菌物种。But that number of bacteria species can be found in one gram of soil,just a little handful of soil, in the 10 billion bacteria that would be there.在一克的泥土里,就可以找出这一数目的细菌出来,一剖泥土,里面就有一百亿的细菌。Its been estimated that a single ton of soil-fertile soil contains approximately four million species of bacteria, all unknown.有人估计,单单是一吨沃土当中就包含了近四百万种的细菌,并且我们对这些细菌一无所知。So the question is: what are they all doing?所以,我们要问:那些家伙到底在干嘛?The fact is, we dont know.是:我们根本不知道。201504/367395

  It also turns out that thinking about mental illness in other animals isnt actually that much of a stretch.同时更没有费心思索过其他动物的精神疾病。。Most mental disorders in the ed States are fear and anxiety disorders,and when you think about it, fear and anxiety are actually really extremely helpful animal emotions.大多数美国人的精神障碍是恐惧和焦躁性障碍,但仔细想一想这两者实际上是极其有益的动物情绪。Usually we feel fear and anxiety in situations that are dangerous,and once we feel them,we then are motivated to move away from whatever is dangerous.通常在危险的情况下 我们才会感到恐惧和焦躁,一旦感受到它们,我们就会受到刺激而远离危险。The problem is when we begin to feel fear and anxiety in situations that dont call for it.问题是,我们在不必要的时候 也会感受到恐惧和焦虑。Mood disorders, too, may actually just be the unfortunate downside of being a feeling animal,and obsessive compulsive disorders also are often manifestations of a really healthy animal thing which is keeping yourself clean and groomed.情绪障碍实际上仅仅是作为有感知动物的一种消极面。强制性障碍也是一种健康动物行为的表现。它让你保持干净整洁。This tips into the territory of mental illness when you do things like compulsively over-wash your hands or paws,这就进入了精神疾病领域当动物强迫地过度洗手或洗爪子,or you develop a ritual thats so extreme that you cant sit down to a bowl of food unless you engage in that ritual.或发展出极端的仪式行为以至于心满意足之前都不能坐下好好吃饭。So for humans, we have the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, which is basically an atlas of the currently agreed-upon mental disorders.所以 对于人类我们有一本 《诊断与统计手册》。这本册子主要收录了目前认可的精神障碍。In other animals, we have YouTube.而其它动物,我们有Youtube。This is just one search I did for OCD dog but I encourage all of you to look at OCD cat.这只是搜索强迫症的结果。但我鼓励你们所有人去搜一搜强迫症猫。You will be shocked by what you see.你会被结果惊到的。Im going to show you just a couple examples.在这我就分享一些例子。This is an example of shadow-chasing.这是一直追影子的。I know, and its funny and in some ways its cute.我知道,这很好笑 在某个程度上还很可爱。The issue, though, is that dogs can develop compulsions like this that they then engage in all day.问题是,有了这种强迫行为就会一整天地重复下去。So they wont go for a walk,they wont hang out with their friends,they wont eat.它们不去散步,不跟朋友玩,也不吃饭。Theyll develop fixations like chasing their tails compulsively.然后产生心理固着,比如强迫地追自己尾巴。Heres an example of a cat named Gizmo.这里有只猫叫 吉斯莫。He looks like hes on a stakeout but he does this for many, many, many hours a day.他看起来正在监视什么,但这一举动每天会持续若干小时。He just sits there and he will paw and paw and paw at the screen.他就坐在那,用前爪一直,一直,一直摆弄百叶窗。This is another example of whats considered a stereotypic behavior.这是另外一个重复行为。This is a sun bear at the Oakland Zoo named Ting Ting.这是一只在奥克兰动物园的马来熊名为听听,And if you just sort of happened upon this scene, you might think that Ting Ting is just playing with a stick.然而如果你刚好看到这个画面,你可能会觉得听听。只是在玩树枝。But Ting Ting does this all day.但听听一整天就这样。and if you pay close attention and if I showed you guys the full half-hour of this clip,youd see that he does the exact same thing in the exact same order, and he spins the stick in the exact same way every time.如果你们仔细看。再等这半个小时的视频放完,会注意到它每次都做着同一动作,以同一顺序和同一方式转那个树枝。Other super common behaviors that you may see,particularly in captive animals,are pacing stereotypies or swaying stereotypies, and actually, humans do this too.其他非常常见的行为,尤其是笼子里的动物有固定的踱步行为或摇摆行为。事实上我们人类也一样。and in us, well sway, well move from side to side.我们会摆动,从这边挪到那边。Many of us do this, and sometimes its an effort to soothe ourselves,and I think in other animals that is often the case too.我们很多人这么做其实是一种放松方式而且我相信其他动物也是如此。But its not just stereotypic behaviors that other animals engage in.但他们不止重复行为。This is Gigi. Shes a gorilla that lives at the Franklin Park Zoo in Boston.她是吉吉住在波士顿富兰克林动物园的母猩猩。201412/348908。

  Well, welcome to the White House,everybody. And that was one of the best introductions I’ve ever had. (Applause.) So we’re so proud of Kiara for the introduction and for sharing yourstory, and you’re just so poised. And Iknow Geoff Canada is just out there all excited -- (laughter) -- and proud, andI know your mom is proud. I know she is. She should be. Kiara and the rest of these youngpeople grew up in a 97-square-block section of Harlem. It’s a place where the odds used to bestacked against them every single day, even just graduating from high schoolwas a challenge. But with the help ofsome very dedicated adults and a program called the Harlem Children’s Zone,they’re right on track to go to college. Together, students, teachers, administrators, parents, community, they’rechanging the odds in this neighborhood. And that’s what we’re here to talk about today -– changing the odds forevery American child so that no matter who they are, no matter where they areborn, they have a chance to succeed in today’s economy.Now, the good news is that,thanks to the hard work and sacrifice of the American people all across thecountry over the last five years, our economy has grown stronger. Our businesses have now created more than 8million new jobs since the depths of the recession. Our manufacturing, our housing sectors arerebounding. Our energy and technologyand auto industries are booming. We’vegot to keep our economy growing. We’vegot to make sure that everybody is sharing in that growth. We’ve got to keep creating jobs, and then we’vegot to make sure that wages and benefits are such that families can rebuild alittle bit of security. We’ve got tomake sure this recovery, which is real, leaves nobody behind. And that’s going to be my focus throughoutthe year. This is going to be a year ofaction. That’s what the American peopleexpect, and they’re y and willing to pitch in and help. This is not just a job for government; thisis a job for everybody. Working people are looking forthe kind of stable, secure jobs that too often went overseas in the past coupleof decades. So next week, I’ll join companies and colleges and take action toboost high-tech manufacturing -- the kind that attracts good new jobs and helpsgrow a middle class. Business owners arey to play their part to hire more workers. So this month, I’m going to host CEOs here at the White House not once,but twice: First to lay out specificsteps we can take to help more workers earn the skills that they need for today’snew jobs; second, they’re going to announce commitments that we’re making toput more of the long-term unemployed back to work. And on January 28th, in my Stateof the Union address -- which I want all the legislators here to know I’m goingto try to keep a little shorter than usual -- (laughter) -- they’re cheeringsilently -- (laughter) -- I will mobilize the country around the nationalmission of making sure our economy offers every American who works hard a fairshot at success. Anybody in this countrywho works hard should have a fair shot at success, period. It doesn’t matter where they come from, whatregion of the country, what they look like, what their last name is -- theyshould be able to succeed.And obviously we’re coming off ofa rancorous political year, but I genuinely believe that this is not a partisanissue. Because when you talk to the American people, you know that there arepeople working in soup kitchens, and people who are mentoring, and people whoare starting small businesses and hiring their neighbors, and very rarely arethey checking are they Democrat or Republican. There’s a sense of neighborliness that’s inherent in the American people-- we just have to tap into that. And I’ve been very happy to seethat there are Republicans like Rand Paul, who’s here today, who are y toengage in this debate. That’s a goodthing. We’ve got Democratic andRepublican elected officials across the country who are y to roll up theirsleeves and get to work. And this shouldbe a challenge that unites us all.I don’t care whether the ideasare Democrat or Republican. I do carethat they work. I do care that they aresubject to evaluation, and we can see if we are using tax dollars in a certainway, if we’re starting a certain program, I want to make sure that young peoplelike Kiara are actually benefiting from them.Now, it’s one thing to say weshould help more Americans get ahead, but talk is cheap. We’ve got to actually make sure that we doit. And I will work with anybody who’swilling to lay out some concrete ideas to create jobs, help more middle-classfamilies find security in today’s economy, and offer new ladders of opportunityfor folks to climb into the middle class.And, personally, I hope we startby listening to the majority of the American people and restoring theunemployment insurance for Americans who need a little help supporting theirfamilies while they look for a new job. And I’m glad the Republicans and Democrats in the Senate are workingtogether to extend that lifeline. I hopetheir colleagues in the House will join them to set this right.Today I want to talk aboutsomething very particular, a specific example of how we can make adifference. We are here with leaders whoare determined to change the odds in their communities the way these kids andtheir parents and dedicated citizens have changed the odds in Harlem. It’s now been 50 years since PresidentJohnson declared an unconditional War on Poverty in America. And that groundbreaking effort created newavenues of opportunity for generations of Americans. It strengthened our safety net for workingfamilies and seniors, Americans with disabilities and the poor, so that when wefall -- and you never know what life brings you -- we can bounce backfaster. It made us a better country anda stronger country.201501/355834

  Good morning everybody.Angelina Jolie and I are delighted to welcome you to the Global Summit to End Sexual Violence in Conflict.We began campaigning, as you probably know, two years ago because we believe the time has come to end the use of rape in war once and for all, and we believe it can be done.We are convinced this is an issue of international peace and security, that is central to conflict prevention, that it is fundamental to the advancement of women’s rights everywhere, and above all that it is a moral issue for our generation.For centuries the rape of women, girls, men and boys has been a feature of conflict and warfare.These crimes have been taking place on a vast scale without many people even being aware of it.And today the facts are beginning to emerge for all to see, thanks to courageous survivors, NGOs, journalists, doctors and activists, many of whom are aly here today.We know how few of these crimes have ever been punished, but because of the impunity, they continue today in Syria, South Sudan and the Central African Republic, to name just a few examples.What would it say about Britain or any other nation if, knowing all this, we chose not to act, we chose to do nothing?As was said of slavery in the 18th century:Now we know the facts, we cannot turn aside.And so this week, we are bringing together here governments, experts, civil society, survivors and members of the public here at the Excel centre, in an unprecedented concentration of effort and attention on this issue:Today, we are hosting young people from across the world to discuss all the issues and to make recommendations to the Ministers, before the Ministers get here.Tomorrow, over 1,000 experts and activists will take part in a multitude of events to address issues from collecting evidence, to protecting children, to tackling sexual exploitation.And on Thursday, more than 117 countries, 70 Ministers, several heads of state, many faith leaders from across the world will gather here.We want this Summit to shatter the culture of impunity for sexual violence, to increase support for survivors and to start changing the situation on the ground in the most affected countries. There are a whole range of practical actions that we want to achieve:We will launch an international protocol that sets out how to document and investigate sexual violence, so that those on the ground have the best tools to collect information and evidence to bring perpetrators to justice.We will ask countries to strengthen their laws so that there are no safe havens for those responsible for warzone sexual violence, we will also urge all countries to train soldiers and peace-keepers to prevent and respond to sexual violence more effectively.We want countries to commit new funds for tackling sexual violence in conflict-affected countries like Somalia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, to do more to protect women and girls in humanitarian emergencies, and to increase their support for human rights defenders who campaign for justice and help for survivors.201504/369749

  There is no secret society out there 外面没有秘密帮会that will tap you on the shoulder one night and show you the way 能够某天晚上轻拍你的肩膀 给你指明方向because the true secret is 因为真正的秘密在于your life will not be defined by the society that we have left you 你的生命并不是由我们留给你们的社会所定义to paraphrase Robert Bolt 转述罗伯特·鲍特的一句话society has no more idea of what you are than you do 社会对你一无所知 它只能看到你做了什么because ultimately因为最终it has only your brains to think with 社会将只能通过你们的大脑来思考Every generation must define itself每一代人必须定义自身and so make the world that suits itself 从而让世界适宜于自身So 因此if you must find your own path如果你必须找到自己的道路and we have left you no easy path 而且我们没有留下任何容易的道路then decide now to choose the hard path 那么你们现在就必须选择难的道路that leads to the life and the world that you want 从而获得你们想要的生活和世界and dont worry 不要担心if we dont approve of your choices 我们不赞同你们的选择In our benign self absorption 在我们良性的自我陶醉中I believe we have given you a gift我相信我们给了你们一个礼物a particular form of independence 一种特殊形态的独立性because you do not owe the previous generation anything 因为你们不欠上一代人任何东西Thanks to us 幸亏有我们you owe it to the Chinese 你们只欠中国人的So have the courage 你们要有勇气to follow the example of your founder Thomas Jefferson 以你们学校的创建者托马斯·杰斐逊为榜样the greatest mind of that most daring generation 以这位最大胆一代中的伟人为榜样to create something new for yourselves为你们自己创造全新的世界201603/430031

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