吉安脱毛多少钱养心生活

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 吉安脱毛多少钱爱媒体
The American chain is to open its first shop in Milan next year, fulfilling what chief executive Howard Schultz called a 30-year dream.这家美国连锁店将于明年在米兰开设首家店铺,一偿首席执行官霍华德#8226;舒尔茨(Howard Schultz)所称的30年的梦想。The long wait before entering the country, despite opening thousands of shops elsewhere across Europe, highlights the stiff competition the Seattle-based company can expect in the home of the espresso.星巴克已经在欧洲其他国家开设了上千家店铺,但进入意大利却经过了漫长等待,从此可以预见这家西雅图公司在浓缩咖啡(espresso)的故乡将要面临的激烈竞争。McDonald’s McCafe brand operates in the country, but it remains small in terms of market share. Italy’s distinctive coffee culture is based around independent cafés and bars, which account for nearly 90 per cent of the market, according to Euromonitor.麦当劳(McDonald)虽然在意大利开设了麦咖啡(McCafe),但所占市场份额依然很小。据欧睿(Euromonitor)调查显示,意大利特有的咖啡文化基于独立的咖啡馆和酒吧,它们占市场份额近90%。“The dream of the company always has been to sometime complete the circle and open in Italy, but we haven’t been y,” said Mr Schultz in a statement on Sunday. His own experiences in Italian coffee bars inspired the Starbucks coffee shop concept, he explained.上周日,舒尔茨发表声明称:“公司一直梦想着有朝一日能在意大利开设店铺,画下一个完满的圆圈,但此前我们还未准备好。”他表示,正是自己在意大利咖啡馆的体验启发他想出了星巴克咖啡店的概念。Starbucks is working with Percassi, the company that partnered with Benetton for 30 years, brought Zara to the Italian market and has worked with a string of American brands including Nike, Ralph Lauren and Tommy Hilfiger. It also runs Kiko, a make-up company.星巴克将与Percassi合作,这家公司与贝纳通(Benetton)合作了30年,曾将Zara带入意大利市场,并与耐克(Nike)、拉尔夫#8226;劳伦(Ralph Lauren)、汤米#8226;希尔费格(Tommy Hilfiger)等一系列美国品牌有过合作。Percassi旗下还有化妆品公司Kiko。Antonio Percassi, the company’s founder and president, acknowledged the tricky nature of opening a coffee chain in his home market.Percassi创始人兼总裁安东尼#8226;佩尔卡西(Antonio Percassi)承认在本国市场开设一个咖啡连锁店的棘手性。“We know that we are going to face a unique challenge with the opening of the first Starbucks store in Italy, the country of coffee, and we are confident that Italian people are y to live the Starbucks experience, as aly occurs in many other markets,” Mr Percassi said.佩尔卡西说:“我们知道要在意大利开设第一家星巴克店铺将要面对的独特挑战,我们也有信心意大利人民已经准备好体验星巴克的务,就像其他许多市场的情况一样。”Starbucks said that “espresso will clearly be star of the show” in Italy, but that it had not yet settled the . “We plan to tailor our offerings to the Italian customer in a way that will demonstrate the respect and learning we’ve acquired” in Italy, a spokeswoman said.星巴克表示“浓缩咖啡肯定会成为意大利店铺的主打产品”,但目前尚未确定菜单。该公司发言人表示:“我们计划为意大利客户量身打造特色务,以此展示我们对他们的尊重,以及我们所学到的知识。”Starbucks, which is planning about 1,800 net store openings globally in fiscal 2016, has 21,000 coffee shops across the world. However, there have been bumps on the way, and it has not met with success in every market. In 2008 it closed most of its stores in Australia, leaving just 25.星巴克计划2016财年在全球开设1800家连锁店,目前它在世界各地拥有2.1万间咖啡店。但店铺数量总是在变化,而且并不是在所有市场都能获得成功。2008年星巴克关闭了澳大利亚大部分店铺,只留下25家店。Italy is one of the largest consumers of coffee in the EU, which in itself is the largest importer of coffee beans in the world, but being one of the most competitive means Starbucks has a big job on its hands.意大利是欧洲最大的咖啡消费国之一,其本身就是全球最大的咖啡豆进口国,这意味着星巴克想要进入这个竞争最激烈的市场,将是一项艰巨的任务。 /201603/429332

A treatment that uses “molecular scissors” to edit genes has been used for the first time by UK medics successfully to treat a one-year-old girl with an “incurable” form of leukaemia.英国医生第一次依靠使用“分子剪刀”修改基因的疗法,成功地治愈了一名患有“无法治愈的”白血病的1岁女孩。The case at Great Ormond Street Hospital in London involved the creation of “designer immune cells” programmed to hunt and kill the disease. The girl, called Layla, is now cancer free and doing well, according to the hospital.伦敦大奥蒙德街医院(Great Ormond Street Hospital)的这一病例,生成经过设计的“人工培育的免疫细胞”去捕捉并治疗疾病。医院称,这个名叫“莱拉”(Layla)的女孩目前摆脱了癌症,身体状况很不错。The breakthrough will add to excitement over the fast-emerging field of gene-editing — a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, replaced or removed from genes to fix faults or fight disease.这次突破将令人对基因编辑这一快速发展的新兴领域感到更加兴奋。基因编辑是基因工程的一种,向基因中插入DNA,替换或取下其中的DNA,从而修复缺陷或战胜疾病。Gene-editing has caused controversy because of its potential to be used in ethically dubious ways, such as the creation of “designer babies”. However, the London success helps show why many scientists are so enthusiastic about the technology.基因编辑引发了争议,因为它可能导致令人产生道德疑虑的用法,比如生成“设计婴儿”。然而,这家伦敦医院的成功也明,为何很多科学家那么热衷于这项技术。The so-called UCART19 cells used at Great Ormond Street had shown promise in animals but had never been used in humans before they were administered as a last-ditch attempt to save Layla after other drugs failed.大奥蒙德街医院使用的所谓UCART19细胞在动物身上已显出良好前景,但除了此次为救活莱拉而做的最后努力之前,该细胞从未应用于人体。此前在莱拉身上使用的其他药物全部失败了。The treatment, developed by a French biotech company called Cellectis, consisted of 1ml of UCART19 cells injected into Layla’s bloodstream. After several weeks it was clear the leukaemia cells were disappearing.这一疗法是由法国生物科技公司Cellectis开发出来的,把1毫升的UCART19细胞注入了莱拉的血流中。几周后,白血病细胞明显开始消失。The treatment is similar to cancer therapies in development using modified T-cells from companies including Novartis of Switzerland and Juno and Kite of the US. However, whereas others use cells extracted from the patient’s own blood, UCART19 cells come from healthy donors.该疗法类似于瑞士的诺华制药(Novartis)以及美国的Juno和Kite等公司开发的使用修饰T细胞治疗癌症的办法。然而,其他疗法使用从病人自身血液中提取的细胞,而UCART19细胞则来自于健康的捐献者。This overcomes the problem of many leukaemia patients not having enough healthy T-cells — a type of white blood cell that fights off disease — to be harvested after chemotherapy.这就克了从化疗后的许多白血病患者体内难以提取到足量健康T细胞的难题。T细胞是一种能够对抗疾病的白血细胞。A further possible advantage is that donor cells can be mass produced for use in any patient, making them potentially more affordable than rival treatments that must be personalised for each individual. High costs are viewed as one of the biggest drawbacks of the so-called CAR-T therapies under development by Novartis, Juno and Kite.一个更有可能的优势在于,捐赠细胞可以大规模生产,并用于任何患者,与因患者而异的其他疗法相比,在成本上更低。诺华制药、Juno和Kite正在研制中的所谓CAR-T疗法的最大缺点之一,就是被认为价格太高。 /201511/408543

FOR most of us, sleep is the only time during the day where we can get away from our screens and get a bit of rest.对大部分人来说,在面对各种屏幕一天后,终于可以在睡觉休息的时候远离电脑了。But not for 27-year-old Rikki Mortimore, who shops online in her sleep.但27岁的丽奇·莫蒂默却会在睡梦中上网购物。;I#39;ve spent around 00 so far, but I#39;ve returned around 85 per cent of the items I#39;ve bought,” Rikki, who works as an online designer in Sydney, told news.com.au.;丽奇现居悉尼,是一名网络设计师。她告诉澳大利亚新闻在线:“算下来,我已经在熟睡时网购了近1500美元的东西,不过其中约85%的东西已经被我退掉了。”Rikki says her abnormal sleep behaviour is only a few months old, which she thinks stemmed ;from a few incidents as a child;.丽奇称,自己的反常行为始于几个月前。不过,她认为,这与发生于“自己小时候的几则轶事”息息相关。;When I was a kid, I would sometimes sleepwalk,; she said.她说:“我小时候偶尔会梦游。”;Once, I walked through my house and straight to our alarm system. It was switched off that night, but I typed in the pin and set the alarms off in the middle of the night.;“有一回大半夜,我穿过整座房子,径直走到警报器前,输入了密码,触发了原本关闭的警报器。”;My mum found me standing there as sirens were going off around me. It was a one off incident, so we didn#39;t take it seriously and seek treatment.;“我妈发现我站在那儿,四周警报大响。不过后来这样的情况再没发生过,我们也就没当回事,没去看医生。”During her teenage years, Rikki would often set three alarms during high school, because while asleep, she would switch each clock off and in turn, run late to school.青少年时期也有轶事。那时丽奇上高中,每天要设三个闹钟,因为她总会在睡梦中关掉闹钟,害得自己第二天迟到。She has recently been diagnosed with insomnia, and is now taking non-addictive medication to assist with a healthy sleeping pattern.最近她被诊断出得了失眠症,眼下正在用一些非成瘾药物辅助睡眠。But Rikki admits her strange sleeping behaviour didn#39;t start with online shopping.但丽奇也坦言,梦中网购并不是自己第一宗睡眠怪行。;When I first started waking up, I would go to sleep and wake up wearing different clothes,; she said.她说:“刚开始梦游那会儿,我第二天醒来会发现自己穿着与前一晚完全不同的衣。”“The shopping incidents started when I fell asleep next to my laptop. When I was asleep, I guess I would just use it and go to websites I had visited during the day.”“有段时间,我趴在笔记本电脑前睡着了,于是就有了梦中购物的经历。我猜我就是在梦中无意识地操作电脑,上白天浏览过的网页。”Admittedly a big ASOS fan, Rikki said her fingers do all the talking when it comes to her sleep shopping stints.丽奇本人很喜欢逛ASOS网店(译者注:英国著名网上时装与化妆品店)。梦游时,光动动手指,就买下了许多东西。;During the day, I look obsessively at ASOS, so my fingers know where to go,; she said.她说:“平日里我特爱逛ASOS,手指对操作网页已是熟门熟路。”;I have heaps of things in my shopping cart online just waiting. But most of the time I am buying things that I would never buy, so I must browse in my sleep.;“虽然我购物车里屯着一大堆东西,但其实我梦游时买下的那些并不是我平日里想买的,由此可见我梦游时也会浏览其他东西。”;My last order, I brought jumpers and swimsuits, which I really don#39;t want. I never go swimming! I haven#39;t in three years!;“我上次买了毛衣和泳衣,结果压根用不上。我从不游泳!这三年里一次都没去过!”;I also bought three pairs of the same shoes once.;“有一回,我还买了三双一模一样的鞋子。”From blazers, skirts and shirts, Rikki now keeps a box under her desk where she collects the unwanted items, which she will return to the online retailer before the refund date expires.如今,丽奇的桌子下放着一只盒子,里面塞满了她梦中买的,却用不上的东西:上衣啦,裙子啦,衬衣啦等等。她得在退货截止日前,把这些东西统统退掉。;Sometimes I actually like what I have bought while asleep, but a lot of the time it#39;s too big and it has to go back.;“有时候,我还蛮喜欢睡梦中买到的衣的。但大多数时候,它们总是太大,需要退货。”Rikki and her partner laugh at her shopping habits now, but admit she has recently taken extreme measures in a bid to reduce her addiction.说到梦游怪癖,丽奇和她的伴侣往往会忍俊不禁。但丽奇表示,近来也在想方设法克自己的异行。;I#39;m really worried what I might actually buy one day, like a flight overseas or something similar,; she said.她说:“我很担心自己哪天买了张国际机票啥的。”;As a measure, I have taken my credit card details off websites, and even hidden my laptop in the bathroom so I won#39;t be able to find it while I#39;m asleep.;“所以呢,我删掉了网站上的信用卡预留信息,甚至把电脑藏到浴室里,这样我梦中就找不到它了。”;I was looking at a beautiful handbag online the other day, but had to delete it from my history so I didn#39;t drop 00 in my sleep,; she laughed.“有一次,我在网上看到一款特别漂亮的手提包,但不得不清空了浏览记录,免得自己睡梦中又当‘剁手党#39;,花掉3000美元。”她笑着说。The National Sleep Foundation suggests sleepwalking and parasomnia originates during deep sleep, and is much more common in children than in adults.全国睡眠协会称,一旦人进入深度睡眠,就可能引发梦游和睡眠机能紊乱,且儿童的发生率比成人高。The act of movement and activity while asleep is sometimes an inherited trait caused by lack of sleep or even stress, drugs and other medicines.另外,缺乏睡眠、压力过大、滥用药物等亦可能引发梦游活动。Parasomnias include abnormal acts like eating disorders while asleep, nightmares, sleep paralysis and sleep aggression.睡眠机能紊乱包括了梦游进食、频发恶梦、睡眠麻痹、睡眠躁动等一系列失常症状。It is often hard to wake someone during the activity because they are in such deep slumber when the walking or activity occurs. Aside from traditional ‘sleepwalking#39; it can also include sitting in bed, walking around the house, leaving the home and in extreme cases, even getting behind the wheel of a car.通常,旁人很难叫醒睡眠机能紊乱患者,因为他们正处于深度睡眠状态。除了常见的“梦游”外,他们也可能突然从床上坐起,在房内打转,离开住所,甚至开车出行。;I dealt with a patient recently who was going on a cruise but was a sleepwalker,; Dr Maree Barnes, Sleep Physician and President of the Australasian Sleep Association told news.com.au.玛丽·巴恩斯士是一名睡眠治疗师,也是澳洲睡眠协会会长。她告诉澳大利亚新闻在线:“我最近接收了一个梦游病人,那人在梦游时乘船出行。”;So I gave him sedatives so he was very sound asleep while on the ship.;“于是我给他开了镇定剂,好让他在船上睡得安稳些。”;Some other patients are compulsive eaters, sleep walkers and talkers, or even people who get behind the wheel of a car while asleep.;“我也有过不少其他病人,有的会在睡眠时进食,有的会梦游,有的会发梦呓,还有人甚至边睡觉边开车。”;Basically these are people who have deep rooted psychological issues that are being played out during the night. It#39;s a matter of keeping people safe until the behaviour ceases to occur, and usually it always is dealt with through psychology and time.;“其实这些人都患有根深蒂固的心理疾病,各种症状会在睡梦中表现出来。治疗的首要准则是确保他们的安全,直至症状消失。通常来说,这需要通过心理诱导,更需要耐心。”Sleep Health Foundation of Australia suggests that around three children in 100 sleepwalk often, and approximately five in 100 children sleepwalk sometimes.澳大利亚睡眠健康协会称,约3%的儿童经常梦游,约5%的儿童偶尔梦游。In adults, this figure is lower, with only four in every 1000 people still sleepwalking. Statistics indicate that if you sleepwalk or talk as a child, you#39;re less than a quarter likely to do that as an adult.成人梦游的比率要低得多。只有4‰的成人深受梦游之苦。同时,数据显示,哪怕一个人在儿童时期梦游或发梦呓,此概率在成年后会骤降七成多。;Most people will grow out of it,; Dr Barnes said.“这些症状一般在成年后都会消失。”巴恩斯士说。We don#39;t know why people sleep walk or talk, but we do know that it is not uncommon at some stage of your life to do some for of activity.”梦游或发梦呓的原因尚不可知,但这些行为在个人成长中并不罕见。While 4 per cent of the population admit to sleepwalking at least once in their lives, the condition can be easily rectified if treated accordingly. Adults are advised to enlist good sleeping habits, or seek medical advice.4%的成人表示,他们有过梦游经历。只要治疗得当,比如培养良好的睡眠习惯,寻求医护人员的帮助,梦游症状便会很快消失。;Main treatment is to keep these people safe,; Dr Barnes said.巴恩斯士称:“主要的治疗手段是保患者的安全。”;Partners and family members should ensure sleepwalkers can#39;t get out of the room, out of windows or through the front door.“患者的配偶及家属应确保患者待在屋内,不会爬出窗户,或走出家门。”;Psychologists can explore anxieties, concerns, issues and past events and even worries about the future.“心理学家不妨着手研究患者的为什么会焦虑担心、心事重重,以及他们对往事的执念,或是对未来的担忧。”;All of these areas can contribute to these behaviours.;“以上种种,都可能导致睡眠功能紊乱。”As for Rikki#39;s sleep-shopping, Dr Barnes suggests more sleep, and eliminating caffeine, food and alcohol at least one hour before bedtime, and not to rely on prescribed sleeping medication.针对丽奇的梦中网购症状,巴恩斯士建议她补充睡眠,切勿在睡前一小时喝咖啡、进食或饮酒,并避免一味依赖安眠药。;The room should be also quiet, dark and comfortable,; Dr Barnes said.“还要营造安静、黑暗、舒适的睡眠环境,”巴恩斯士补充道。;Sometimes medication can effect your sleep — its like a circuit breaker. Taking sleeping tablets are not good for anyone in the long term. If the short term interventions don#39;t work, then a psychologist is the way to go.;“安眠药的作用机制和断路器相似。从长远角度看,吃安眠药都会产生副作用。病人短期用安眠药后发现无效果,就应该转而寻求心理治疗。” /201602/426853Zhu Xi (1130~1200), whose courtesy name was Zhonghui and literary name Hui#39;an, was born in Wuyuan, Huizhou (now part of Jiangxi Province) in the Southern Song Dynasty.朱熹(1130~1200),字仲晦,号晦庵,他是南宋徽州婺源(今属江西)人。As one of the most significant philosophers of the Neo-Confucian school in the Song and the Ming dynasties, he held that the universe has two aspects: the formless and the formed. The formless, or li, is a principle or a network of principles that is supreme natural law and that determines the patterns of all created things. This law combines with the material force or energy called qi to produce matter, or things having form. Li is never separable from qi: there is no li without qi and no qi without li.他是南宋思想家,宋明理学的代表人物,主要学术成就是对理学的发展。在字宙观上,朱熹持理气论,他认为宇宙万物是理与气妙合而成的,“理是形而上者,气是形而下者”。理是看不见的事物的本体,是形而上之道,气是看得见的物质的质料形象,是形而下之器。合而看,理气浑然一体; 离而看,理气又有先后。Based on this theory, Zhu Xi believed that ;it is the interaction between li and qi that human beings are created.;以理气论为哲学基础,朱熹认为“人之所以生,理与气合而已。”In human beings, li (manifested as human nature) is essentially perfect, and defects, including vices, are introduced into the body and mind through impurities of qi.禀受天地之理为本性,为天命之性; 禀受天地之气为形体,为气质之性。Thus in reality the human nature embodies the conflicts between “Heaven#39;s laws; and “human desires;, and they can never coexist. Therefore, to preserve Heaven#39;s laws and eliminate human desires becomes the core of Zhu Xi#39;s ethical thoughts.所以,现实人性中存在着“天理”与“人欲”的对立,“天理存而人欲灭,人欲胜则天理灭”,于是“明天理,灭人欲”就成了朱熹伦理思想的核心。Zhu Xi#39;s concept of li actually echoes the Confucian ethical and moral principles. To preserve; Heaven#39;s laws; means to preserve the hierachical system and established moral values. To eliminate; human desires;, on the other hand, is to eliminate the cravings against the feudal hierachical system and moral values.朱熹之所谓“理”是儒家伦理道德观念的体现,“明天理”就是要维护封建等级制度和纲常秩序,“灭人欲”就是要清除违反封建等级制度和纲常名教的各种非分的物质欲求。In this way, Zhu Xi seemed to justify feudalism by channeling humanism into ethics and strengthened the traditional Confucian values.这样,朱熹从伦理学角度论了封建统治的合理性,同时把伦理学安置在人性论的基础上,并强化了传统濡家价值观念。Zhu Xi#39;s idea of putting ethical principles over physical desires bears some features of rationalism, but it also has a negative side of suppressing individuality.朱熹以伦理来主宰物欲的理欲观,明显具有一种理性主义的特征,也有压抑人的个性的一面。 /201510/405844The age of the Qing Dynasty is, not only in the eyes of Westerners, but also in the mind of Chinese,a period of prosperity, of decay,of stag-nation,of revolution,of laziness and of challenges that came upon a population that seemed to sleep a beauty’s sleep of Confucian social ethics in a paradise where a wise ruler governed over a satisfied and happy population,and on the other side a society that was bound by rules of a backward social thinking.清朝无论在西方人的眼中还是在中国人的眼中,是一个经历了繁荣、腐败、停滞、革命、惰性和挑战的时代,所有这些都发生在这个国家国人的身上。它就像是沉睡在天国里封建道德中的睡美人。在那里,聪明的统治者统治着满足和幸福的国民,也统治着一个受落后的社会思想束缚的社会。The period of early and middle Qing Dynasty Is the culmination of two thousand years of bureaucratical administration, two thousand years of literature, thinking and art.清朝早中期是中国2000年官僚统治的顶峰,也是2000年文学、思想和艺术的顶峰。Their rule over the majority ofculturedand highly sophisticated Chinese population was only possible by a mixture of authoritarianism, or force, and paternalism, or benevolence.他们对于这个有文化的、老于世故的绝对大汉族的统治只有通过多方面的专制来实现—— 要么是武力,要么是家长制统治,要么是亲善。The second and third generation emperors of the Qing learned that it was only possible to rule China if the Manchu became Chinese themselves , not racially, but culturally and mentally.清朝的第二代、第三代皇帝懂得,只有满人汉化才能统治中国。所谓的汉化,不仅仅是种族上,关键是文化和思想意识。Therefore, the three great emperors with the reign mottos Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong, saw themselves as protectors of Chinese literature and art.所以,清朝的三位皇帝以“康熙、雍正和乾隆”为座右铭,将自己看作是汉文化艺术的保护者。China was the largest, richest and most effectively governed state of the world till the 18th century.直到18世纪,中国在世界上是最大、最富有、最有影响力的政权国家。Internal problems and external conflicts led to the decay of a glorious empire from the beginning of 19th century, focusing on the Opium war and the following unequal treaties.内忧外患,尤其是鸦片战争和战后一系列不平等条约,最终导致了在19世纪开始辉煌的帝国的最终灭亡。 /201603/428566

Significant academic and cultural achievements were made in the Han Dynasty.汉时的文化发展取得了辉煌的成就。Confucianism set up its supreme status in the ideological field of the feudal society.儒教在意识形态领域成为封建正统。At that time, Yuefu Poems appeared ( Yuefu was an official department being responsible to collect and process folk songs).乐府诗也是出现在这一时期,乐府是官方的负责收集和创作民歌的机构。They were composed of sentences of varying lengths, common for folk songs of the Han time, and were intended to be set to music and song.乐府诗的句子长短不一,这在汉时的民谣中较为常见,配曲后可以演唱。Many oiyuefu poems are found in the collections u New songs from the Jade Terrace 11 , u Collection of Music Bureau Poetry and the small anthology u Nineteen Old Poems .现在可以见于《玉台新咏》、《乐府诗集》、《古诗十九首》中。A very common verse style from Han to Tang was the prose-poetry fu , mastered by Sima Xiangru , Yang Xiong and Ban Gu . Zi Xu Fu and Shang Lin Fu writ-; ten by Sima Xiangru were the masterpieces in the Western Han period.汉、唐时赋是一种非常流行的韵文。司马相如、扬雄、班固是杰出的代表人物,而司马相如的《子虚赋》、《上林赋》堪称西汉时期的杰作。Historiography achieved great complishment during the Han Dynasty, because a new style of writing history was invented by Sima Qian, who composed the “ Records of the Historian ”.汉时是历史编撰发展的关键时期。司马迁编写《史记》,一种新的历史编撰方式随之出现。The traditional way of recording history was in chronical order, which is found in the Classical Annals of Lu , and the Bamboo Annals or the free anecdotical style that is found in the u Stratagems of the Warring States.中国传统的历史编撰多采用编年体,如《春秋左传》、《竹书纪年》,或是传奇形式,如《战国策》。However, Records of the Historian is totally different, and it is a thirteen-volumeyuan general history of China covering the period from the mythical Five Emperors down to Han Wudi.《史记》是一部纪传体通史,全书共13卷,记录了从五帝至汉武帝之间的历史。It is unique in its accounts on different historical stages and their characteristics, its portrayal and appraisal of historical figures and its description of social conditions.该书在讲述各历史阶段及其特征,描绘、评价历史人物,描写社会状况方面别具一格。This type of biographical and thematic history writing had been used as the standard type of official historiography till the end of the Chinese empire.直到中国封建帝国末年,这种以纪传体编撰历史的方法一直为官方所使用。In the regime of Chengdi, Liu Xiang was ordered to collate important books in the imperial library, such as the Confician classics, works of the different schools of thought written in the pre-Qin period, such as collections of poems, prose-poems, military and medical writings.成帝时,刘向受命编辑整理书库中的儒家经典、先秦的诸子著作:诗、赋 集、军事和医学著作。He submitted memorials to the Emperor, which contained the essense and outline of every book. He also collected himself old texts, stories and statements and put them together to his books M New Storiesry, Garden of Explanations, and The Lieniizhuan , He was responsible for the redaction of unofficial histories of the Eastern Zhou period , the Guoyu or u Accounts of the Feudal Statesand \he Zhanguoce (the Strategies of the Warning States).他将每本书内容和提纲都写在奏章上呈给皇上,还收集很多古文献,传奇故事,将其编入《新序》、《说苑》、《烈女传》并负责编写了《战国策》、《国语》。During the reign of Emperor Aidi,his son Liu Xin took over his job.刘歆是刘向的儿子。哀帝时,他接替了父亲的工作。Heclassh fied all the books under seven headings and briefly described the contents of each, and the summaries were later incorporated into the Seven Categories of Writing , which was the first bibliography in Chinese history.他将所有的书按其内容分为七类,附以简介,著成《七略》。这是中国历史上第一部图书目录。Yang Xiong was a famous writer, philosopher and linguistist.杨雄,西汉文学家、哲学家、语言学家。In his early years, he wrote two famous prose-poem Chang Yang Fu and Gan Quart Fu ,imitating the style of Sima Xiangru.早年仿司马相如作《长杨赋》、《甘泉赋》。Later, he changed his stand, claiming that all sayings should be in accord with the Confucian Classics, and devoted himself to the study of philosophy.后期主张一切言行都应以“五经”为准则,转而研究经学。Then wrote Tai Xuan, a book modeled after The Book of Changes , and Fa Yan modeled after The Analects .A new calendar Taichu Calender practiced from the year 104 B. C. to 85 A. D. , which had far-reaching influence in the history of Chinese calendric science.仿《易经》作《太玄》,仿《论语》作《法言》。《太初历》是汉武帝太初元年(公元前104年)至东汉章帝元和二年(公元85年)实施的历法,对我国历法学的发展产生了深远影响。It contained 24 solar terms and reasonable arrangements of the intercalary month. The first lunar month became the beginning of the year.该历法包含有24节气,对闰月进行了合理的安排,并以正月为岁首。The Yellow Emperor ^ s Classics of Internal Medicine , written in a question-and-answer form around the early Western Han period, explains the physiological signs and pathological changes of the human body, gives the earliest elucidation of its blood circulation and points out the importance of pulse feeling in diagnosis.《黄帝内经》是著于西汉早期的一部医学经典。以问答形式解释了人体的生理和病理变化,并最先就血液循环进行了阐释,指出了把脉在诊疗中的重要性。Apart from suggesting the methods of treatment for 311 ailments and illnesses of 44 categories, it emphasizes disease prevention and getting at the root of a disease to seek a permanent cure.在为311种、44类疾病提供了治疗方法的同时,强调疾病预防,以彻底根除隐患。 /201511/413019Harper Lee, whose first novel, “To Kill a Mockingbird,” about racial injustice in a small Alabama town, sold more than 10 million copies and became one of the most beloved and most taught works of fiction ever written by an American, has died. She was 89.哈珀·李(Harper Lee)的第一本小说《杀死一只知更鸟》(To Kill a Mockingbird)讲述的是阿拉巴马州一座小城里的种族不公,共卖出1000多万册,成为最受喜爱、最多用作教材的美国小说之一。哈珀·李去世,享年89岁。Her death was confirmed by HarperCollins, her publisher.她的死讯得到了她的出版商哈珀柯林斯出版社(HarperCollins)的确认。The instant success of “To Kill a Mockingbird,” which was published in 1960 and won the Pulitzer Prize for fiction the next year, turned Lee into a literary celebrity, a role she found oppressive and never learned to accept. The enormous success of the film version of the novel, released in 1962 with Gregory Peck in the starring role of Atticus Finch, a small-town Southern lawyer who defends a black man falsely accused of raping a white woman, only added to Lee#39;s fame and fanned expectations for her next novel.《杀死一只知更鸟》1960年出版,很快获得成功,第二年获得普利策奖(Pulitzer Prize),哈珀·李因此成为文学名人,这个角色让她觉得很沉重,从未学会接受。1962年,根据这本小说改编的电影上映,由格利高里·派克(Gregory Peck) 饰演主角阿蒂克斯·芬奇(Atticus Finch)——他是南方小城里的一名律师,为一个遭到诬告强奸白人妇女的黑人辩护。电影的巨大成功增长了李的名声,人们更加期待她的下一部小说。For more than half a century, it failed to appear. Then, in 2015, long after the ing public had given up on seeing anything more from Lee, a sequel appeared under mysterious circumstances.在之后的半个多世纪里,她没有再出版小说。2015年,在广大读者不再指望看到李的任何新书很久之后,一部续集在神秘的情况下出现了。“I never expected any sort of success with `Mockingbird,”#39; Lee told a radio interviewer in 1964. “I was hoping for a quick and merciful death at the hands of the reviewers, but, at the same time I sort of hoped someone would like it well enough to give me encouragement.” Instead, she said, “I got rather a whole lot, and in some ways this was just about as frightening as the quick, merciful death I#39;d expected.”1964年,李在接受电台采访时说:“我从没想过《知更鸟》能取得任何成功。我以为家们会很快仁慈地判它死刑,但是与此同时,我有点希望有人会喜欢它,给我一点鼓励。”她说,但是实际上“我得到了太多赞美,从某种程度上讲,这和我本来期望的快速仁慈的死亡一样可怕”。Lee gained a reputation as a literary Garbo, a recluse whose public appearances to accept an award or an honorary degree counted as important news simply because of their rarity. On such occasions she did not speak, other than to say a brief thank you.李被誉为文学界的嘉宝(Garbo),过着隐居生活,极少公开露面,偶尔接受奖项或荣誉学位都会成为重要新闻。在这些场合,她从不演讲,只是简短地说“谢谢”。In Feb. 2015, her publisher, Harper, an imprint of HarperCollins, dropped a bombshell. It announced plans to publish a manuscript, long thought to be lost, that Lee submitted to her editors in 1957 under the title “Go Set a Watchman.” Lee#39;s lawyer, Tonja B. Carter, had chanced upon it, attached to an original typescript of “To Kill a Mockingbird,” while looking through Lee#39;s papers, the publishers explained. It told the story of Atticus and Scout 20 years later, when Scout is a young woman living in New York, and included several scenes in which Atticus expresses conservative views on race relations seemingly at odds with his liberal stance in the earlier novel.2015年2月,她的出版商、哈珀柯林斯出版社旗下的哈珀宣布了一个令人震惊的消息。它计划出版一份被认为早已遗失的手稿,那是李1957年提交给编辑们的手稿,标题是《设立守望者》(Go Set a Watchman)。出版社解释说,李的律师托尼娅·B·卡特(Tonja B. Carter)在浏览李的文件时偶然发现它附在《杀死一只知更鸟》原始打字稿后面。它讲述的是20年后阿蒂克斯和斯考特(Scout)的故事,那时年轻的斯考特生活在纽约,在某些场景中,阿蒂克斯表达了一些关于种族关系的保守观点,似乎与之前小说中他的自由主义立场不太一致。The book was published in July with an initial printing of 2 million and, with enormous advance sales, immediately leapt to the top of the fiction best-seller lists, despite tepid reviews.这本小说于2015年7月出版,初印200万册,由于预售量巨大,它很快跃升至虚构类畅销书榜首,尽管它并未受到热烈好评。The book soared miles above such criticisms. By the late 1970s “To Kill a Mockingbird” had sold nearly 10 million copies, and in 1988 the National Council of Teachers of English reported that it was being taught in 74 percent of the nation#39;s secondary schools. A decade later Library Journal declared it the best novel of the 20th century.这些批评并未阻挡这本小说的人气。到20世纪70年代末,《杀死一只知更鸟》已售出近1000万册,1988年,美国英语教师全国委员会(National Council of Teachers of English)报告称,这本小说被美国74%的中学用作教材。十年后,《图书馆杂志》(Library Journal)宣布,它是20世纪最好的小说。Nelle Harper Lee was born in the poky little town of Monroeville, in southern Alabama, the youngest of four children. “Nelle” was a backward spelling of her maternal grandmother#39;s first name, and Lee dropped it when “To Kill a Mockingbird” was published, out of fear that ers would pronounce it Nellie, which she hated.内尔·哈珀·李(Nelle Harper Lee)出生在阿拉巴马州南部小城门罗维尔(Monroeville),是四个孩子中最小的一个。内尔是她外祖母名字的反向拼写,李在出版《杀死一只知更鸟》时去掉了这个名字,因为担心读者会把它念成Nellie,她很讨厌这种念法。Her father, Asa Coleman Lee, was a prominent lawyer and the model for Atticus Finch, who shared his stilted diction and lofty sense of civic duty. Her mother, Frances Finch Lee, also known as Miss Fanny, was overweight and emotionally fragile. Truman Capote, a friend of Lee#39;s from childhood, later said that Nelle#39;s mother had tried to drown her in the bathtub on two occasions, an assertion that Lee indignantly denied.她的父亲亚萨·科尔曼·李(Asa Coleman Lee)是著名律师,是阿蒂克斯·芬奇的原型。芬奇生硬的措辞和崇高的公民责任感来源于他。她的妈妈弗朗西丝·芬奇·李(Frances Finch Lee)又称范妮(Miss Fanny),她体胖,感情脆弱。李从儿时起的朋友杜鲁门·卡波特(Truman Capote)后来说,内尔的妈妈曾两次想把她溺死在浴缸里。李愤怒地否定了这一说法。Lee was a tough little tomboy who enjoyed beating up the local boys, climbing trees and rolling in the dirt. “A dress on the young Nelle would have been as out of place as a silk hat on a hog,” recalled Marie Rudisill, Capote#39;s aunt, in her book “Truman Capote: The Story of His Bizarre and Exotic Boyhood by an Aunt Who Helped Raise Him.”李小时候是个固执的假小子,喜欢跟当地的男孩子打架,爬树,在泥地上打滚。卡波特的姨妈玛丽·鲁迪西尔(Marie Rudisill)在自己的书《杜鲁门·卡波特:帮助养育他的姨妈讲述他奇特的童年》(Truman Capote: The Story of His Bizarre and Exotic Boyhood by an Aunt Who Helped Raise Him)中回忆说:“小内尔穿上连衣裙就像猪戴上大礼帽一样格格不入。”One boy on the receiving end of Nelle#39;s thrashings was Truman Persons (later Capote), who spent several summers next door to Nelle with relatives. The two became fast friends, acting out adventures from “The Rover Boys” and, after Nelle#39;s father gave the two children an old Underwood typewriter, making up their own stories to dictate to each other.喜欢跟内尔打闹的其中一个男孩就是杜鲁门·珀森斯(后来改姓卡波特),有几个夏天,他住在内尔隔壁的姨妈家。他们俩很快成为朋友,进行《罗弗男孩》(The Rover Boys)中的探险,内尔的父亲送给这俩孩子一台旧Underwood打字机,他俩自己编故事,让对方打字。Capote later wrote Nelle into his first book, “Other Voices, Other Rooms,” where she appears as the tomboy Idabel Tompkins. She made a repeat appearance as Ann Finchburg, nicknamed Jumbo, in his story “The Thanksgiving Visitor.” Lee returned the favor, casting Capote in the role of the little blond tale-spinner Dill in “To Kill a Mockingbird.”后来,卡波特把内尔写进自己的第一本书《其他声音,其他房间》(Other Voices, Other Rooms)里,成为书中假小子埃达贝尔·汤普金斯(Idabel Tompkins)的原型。在他的小说《感恩节来客》(The Thanksgiving Visitor)中,她再次以安妮·芬奇伯格(Ann Finchburg)的身份出现,昵称江波(Jumbo)。作为回报,李在《杀死一只知更鸟》中把卡波特写成很会编故事的白人小男孩迪尔(Dill)。Lee attended Huntingdon College, a local Methodist school for women, where she contributed occasional articles to the campus newspaper and two fictional vignettes to the college#39;s literary magazine. After a year at Huntingdon, Lee transferred to the University of Alabama to study law, primarily to please her father. Her own interests, and perhaps her disposition, led her elsewhere. After her senior year, she spent a summer at Oxford University as part of a student-exchange program. On her return from England, she decided to go to New York and become a writer.李后来上了当地女子循道公会学校亨廷登学院(Huntingdon College),她偶尔给学校报纸投稿,还在学校的文学杂志上发表过两篇虚构短文。在亨廷登上了一年之后,她转去阿拉巴马大学(University of Alabama)学习法律,主要是为了讨父亲欢心。她自己的兴趣和性情则把她带到了别的领域。大四之后,作为交换生,她在牛津大学(Oxford University)呆了一个夏天。从英国回来之后,她决定去纽约当作家。Lee arrived in Manhattan in 1949 and settled into a cold-water apartment in the East 80s. After working briefly at a bookstore, she found work as a reservations agent, first for Eastern Airlines and later for BOAC. At night she wrote on a desk made from a door. The local colony of displaced Southerners regarded her askance. “We didn#39;t think she was up to much,” recalled Louise Sims, the wife of the saxophonist Zoot Sims. “She said she was writing a book, and that was that.”1949年,李来到曼哈顿,住在East 80s一个只提供冷水的公寓里。她在一家书店短暂工作了一段时间,之后开始做预订员,先是为东方航空公司(Eastern Airlines),后来是为英国海外航空公司(BOAC)。晚上,她在一个用门改成的书桌上写作。周围的南方人对她不以为然。萨克斯管演奏家祖特·西姆斯(Zoot Sims)的妻子露易丝·西姆斯(Louise Sims)回忆说:“当时我们觉得她不会有什么成就。她说她在写书,就这样。”Editors at Lippincott told Lee that her manuscript like a string of anecdotes, not a novel, but encouraged her to revise. Eventually they paid a small advance and assigned her to work with Tay Hohoff, an experienced editor with whom she developed a close working and personal relationship.利平科特出版社(Lippincott)的编辑们对李说,她的书稿读起来像一连串轶事,不像小说,但是鼓励她重写。最后,他们付给她一小笔定金,安排她和资深编辑泰·霍霍夫(Tay Hohoff)合作,她和霍霍夫建立起亲密的工作和私人关系。Signs of its success were visible almost immediately after it was published in July 1960. Both Book-of-the-Month Club and the Literary Guild made the novel one of their selections, and Reader#39;s Digest selected it for publication in condensed form. A week after its publication, it jumped to the top of the best-seller lists; it remained there for 88 weeks.1960年7月,这本小说几乎一出版就显现出成功的迹象。每月一书俱乐部(Book-of-the-Month Club)和文学行会(Literary Guild)都选中了它,《读者文摘》(Reader#39;s Digest)出版了它的缩略版。出版一周后,它跃升至畅销书榜首,占据榜首之位88周。In one of her last interviews, with a Chicago radio show in 1964, Lee talked in some detail about her literary ambition: to describe, in a series of novels, the world she grew up in and now saw disappearing. “This is small-town middle-class Southern life as opposed to the Gothic, as opposed to `Tobacco Road,#39; as opposed to plantation life,” she told her interviewer, adding that she was fascinated by the “rich social pattern” in such places. “I would simply like to put down all I know about this because I believe that there is something universal in this little world, something decent to be said for it, and something to lament in its passing,” she continued. “In other words, all I want to be is the Jane Austen of South Alabama.”1964年,李在接受芝加哥一家电台采访(那时她最后几次接受采访)时较为详细地讲述了自己的文学志向:用一系列小说讲述她成长过程中经历的如今正在消失的那个世界。“我想讲述南方小城中产阶级的生活,不是哥特式的,不是《烟草路》里的那种生活,也不是种植园的生活,”她对采访者说。她说自己痴迷于这些地方“丰富的社会模式”。她接着说:“我只是想把自己知道的关于这里的一切写下来,因为我相信这个小世界里有某种共通的东西,有值得讲述的高尚事物,它的逝去值得哀悼。换句话说,我唯一想要的就是做阿拉巴马南部的简·奥斯汀(Jane Austen)。”News of the rediscovery of “Go Set a Watchman” threw the literary world into turmoil. Many critics, as well as friends of Lee, found the timing and the rediscovery story suspicious, and openly questioned whether Lee, who was shielded from the press by Carter, was mentally competent to approve its publication. It remained an open question, for many critics, whether “Go Set a Watchman” was anything more than the initial draft of “To Kill a Mockingbird.”重新发现《设立守望者》的消息在文学界引起轩然。很多家以及李的很多朋友觉得重新发现书稿的时机和故事很可疑,公开质疑李是否精神健全,能否同意出版。卡特不让李接受媒体采访。对很多者来说,《设立守望者》是否就是《杀死一只知更鸟》的初稿仍是一个悬而未决的问题。In a statement, Lee, who said that she had assumed the manuscript was lost, wrote, “After much thought and hesitation, I shared it with a handful of people I trust and was pleased to hear that they considered it worthy of publication.”李在声明中说,她以为那部手稿已经遗失,“经过再三思考,我给少数几个我信任的人看了这部手稿,他们认为它值得出版,我听了很高兴。” /201602/427506

The Duchess of Cambridge dazzled in the Queen Mother#39;s tiara as she took pride of place on the top table next to Chinese president Xi Jinping and the Queen at the state banquet held in his honour this evening.剑桥公爵夫人凯特戴着王太后的王冠惊艳四座,在今晚为中国国家主席习近平举办的国宴上坐在主席和女王的旁边。The Chinese national anthem played as the 170 guests assembled in Buckingham Palace#39;s lavishly decorated grand ballroom for the white-tie dinner, hosted by the Queen and Prince Philip.It was the first time the Duchess has attended a palace state dinner, which comes at the start of a four-day state visit by the Chinese leader and seen as being key to cementing economic ties between the two countries.170名宾客在宏伟艳丽的白金汉姆宫宴会厅参加女王和菲利普亲王举办的晚宴,中国国歌奏响。这是公爵夫人首次参加国宴,随即中国领导人将开始为期四天的国事访问,这被看成是中英两国加强经济联系的重要举措。 /201510/405224Organic meat and milk differ markedly from their conventionally produced counterparts in measures of certain nutrients, a review of scientific studies reported on Tuesday.周二(2月9日),一项科学研究综述报告,有机肉类和牛奶在某些营养成分上与通过常规方式生产的同类产品间存在明显差异。In particular, levels of omega-3 fatty acids, beneficial for lowering the risk of heart disease, were 50 percent higher in the organic versions.尤其是,有机产品中有益于降低心脏病风险的ω-3脂肪酸的水平比普通产品高出50%。“The fatty acid composition is definitely better,” said Carlo Leifert, a professor of ecological agriculture at Newcastle University in England and the leader of an international team of scientists who performed the review.该综述由一国际科学家小组完成,其负责人,英格兰纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University)的生态农业教授卡洛·莱费特(Carlo Leifert)说:“(有机产品的)脂肪酸组成绝对更佳。”The European Commission, the executive body of the European Union, and the Sheepdrove Trust, a British charity that supports organic farming research, paid for the analysis, which cost about 0,000.该项分析耗资约60万美元,这些费用由欧盟(European Union)的执行机构欧盟委员会(European Commission)和持有机农业研究的英国慈善机构Sheepdrove Trust承担。However, the question of whether these differences are likely to translate to better health in people who eat organic meat and drink organic milk is sharply disputed.然而,上述差异是否代表着吃有机肉类、喝有机牛奶的人更为健康呢?人们对此仍有尖锐的争议。“We don’t have that answer right now,” said Richard P. Bazinet, a professor of nutritional sciences at the University of Toronto who was not involved with the research. “Based on the composition, it looks like they should be better for us.”“这个问题的我们现在还不得而知,”多伦多大学(University of Toronto)的营养科学教授理查德·P·巴齐内(Richard P. Bazinet)说,他没有参与上述研究。“但就营养组成而言,它们(有机产品)似乎更为有益。”The two new scientific papers, published in The British Journal of Nutrition, are not the result of any new experiments, but instead employ a statistical technique called meta-analysis that attempts to pull robust conclusions out of many disparate studies.这两篇新的科学论文发表在《英国营养学杂志》(The British Journal of Nutrition)上,它们并没有介绍什么新的实验结果,而是采用了一种名为荟萃分析的统计技术,试图从众多不同的研究中得出强有力的结论。They are certain to further stir a combative debate over whether organic foods are healthier. Some scientists assert that organic and conventional foods are nutritionally indistinguishable, and others find significant benefits to organic. Many people who buy organic food say they do so not for a nutritional advantage, but because of environmental concerns and to avoid pesticides.它们势必会进一步激起人们就有机食品是否更为健康展开激烈的辩论。一些科学家宣称,有机食品和常规食品的营养价值并无区别,而其他人则发现有机产品显著较好。许多人称自己购买有机食品并非是为了更高的营养价值,而是出于对环境的忧虑,以及希望能避免农药问题。The higher levels of omega-3, a type of polyunsaturated fat, arise not from the attributes usually associated with organic food — that the animals are not given antibiotics, hormones or genetically modified feed — but rather from a requirement that animals raised organically spend time outside. Organic milk and beef come from cattle that graze on grass, while most conventional milk and beef come from cows subsisting on grain.ω-3脂肪酸是一种多不饱和脂肪。有机食品中ω-3脂肪酸水平较高,并不是有机食品本身的特点(即不给予动物抗生素、激素或转基因饲料)造成的,而是因为有机养殖的动物在室外活动的时间较长。有机牛奶和牛肉产自在草地上放牧的牛,而大多数普通牛奶和牛肉则产自吃谷物的牛。“It’s not something magical about organic,” said Charles M. Benbrook, an organic industry consultant who is an author of the studies. “It’s about what the animals are being fed.”“有机食品本身并没有什么神奇之处,”研究的作者之一,有机产业顾问查尔斯·M·本布鲁克(Charles M. Benbrook)说。“关键在于动物是用什么东西饲喂的。”Most of the same changes would be observed in conventionally raised animals that also grazed for the majority of their diet, the scientists said.“For once, this is a pretty simple story,” Dr. Benbrook said.科学家们表示,如果常规饲养的动物也以吃草为主,那么在它们身上也能发现很多相同的改变。“这样一来,问题就变得简单了,“本布鲁克士说。The review of comparisons of organic and conventional milk analyzed all 196 papers the scientists found. Because studies of meat are sparser, they could not look at just one type of meat like beef or pork. Instead, they did one analysis of the 67 papers they found for all types of meat. “Only if you throw them all in one pot can you do a meta-analysis,” Dr. Leifert said.科学家们在比较有机和常规牛奶的综述中分析了他们所能找到的所有196篇论文。由于对肉类的研究较少,他们发现只审查关于某一种肉,如牛肉或猪肉的研究不现实。反之,他们对关于各种肉的67篇论文统一进行了分析。“只有把它们放在一起才能进行荟萃分析,”莱费特士解释道。Two years ago, Dr. Leifert led a similar review for fruits and vegetables that found organic produce had higher levels of some antioxidants and less pesticide residue than conventionally grown crops.两年前,莱费特士领导了一项关于水果和蔬菜的类似综述,发现与用常规方法种植的作物相比,有机农产品中某些抗氧化剂的水平较高,农药残留较少。Nutrition experts broadly agree that omega-3 fatty acids in food offer numerous health benefits. When the ed States Department of Agriculture revised its dietary guidelines in 2010, it urged people to eat more seafood, which is rich in omega-3.营养专家普遍认同,食物中的ω-3脂肪酸具有多种健康效益。美国农业部(ed States Department of Agriculture)在2010年修订其膳食指南时,呼吁人们多多食用富含ω-3脂肪酸的海产品。Omega-3 is much more prevalent in grass than in grain, which is why organic livestock and milk also contain higher levels. “Lo and behold, we altered in some fundamental ways the nutrient intake of these animals and hence the nutrient composition of the products that we derive from those animals,” Dr. Benbrook said.草料中的ω-3脂肪酸含量比谷物中高,因此有机家畜及其乳制品中也含有较高水平的ω-3脂肪酸。“你瞧,我们改变了这些动物摄入营养的基本方式,这才影响了其衍生产品的营养成分,”本布鲁克士说。The new analysis found that levels of another polyunsaturated fat, omega-6, were slightly lower in organic meat and dairy. Omega-3 and omega-6 are essential for the functioning of the human body, which can make neither. But some have argued that a skewing toward omega-6 has become unhealthy.新的分析还发现,在有机肉类和乳制品中,另一种多不饱和脂肪酸:ω-6脂肪酸的水平略低。ω-3和ω-6脂肪酸对于人体的正常功能来说都必不可少,而且人体无法自己合成它们。但也有人认为,过多摄入ω-6脂肪酸并不利于健康。Centuries ago, people ate roughly equal amounts of the two fatty acids. Today, most Americans eat more than 10 times as much omega-6, which is prevalent in certain vegetable oils and thus also fried foods, as omega-3.几个世纪以前,人们摄入的这两种脂肪酸大致等量。今天,由于某些植物油中普遍含有ω-6脂肪酸(因此油炸食品也一样),大多数美国人摄入的ω-6脂肪酸约为ω-3的10倍以上。In an email, Dr. Walter C. Willett, the chairman of the nutrition department at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said the differences between organic and conventional beef were trivial, and the amount of saturated fat in both were high.哈佛大学公共卫生学院(Harvard School of Public Health)的营养系主任沃尔特·C·威利特(Walter C. Willett)士在一封电子邮件中写道,有机和常规牛肉之间的差异微不足道,而且两者中的饱和脂肪含量均很高。“Far greater, and beneficial, differences in fatty acids are seen if poultry and fish replace red meat,” Dr. Willett said.“如果用禽肉和鱼肉来代替红肉,你会发现更大、更有益于健康的脂肪酸差异,”威利特士如是说。A shortcoming of the recommendation to eat more fish is that if everyone followed it, the rivers, oceans and lakes would be emptied of fish. Dr. Bazinet of the University of Toronto said perhaps encouraging people to switch to organic meats and milk would be “a way to kind of get at them with the foods they’re aly eating.”不过,多吃鱼这个建议本身也有其缺点:如果每个人都遵循这个建议,那么河流、海洋和湖泊中的鱼就要被吃光了。多伦多大学的巴齐内士表示,鼓励人们改吃有机肉类和牛奶或许“只是在教人摄入本来就在吃的食物”。Dr. Bazinet said observational studies suggested that adding 200 milligrams a day of omega-3s to an average diet should yield health benefits. Switching to organic beef would add about 50 milligrams. “Eating one grass-fed beef serving per day is not going to do it,” he said.巴齐内士说,观察研究表明,在普通膳食的基础上,每天增加摄入200毫克ω-3脂肪酸可带来健康效益。而改吃有机牛肉只能多摄取到约50毫克的ω-3脂肪酸。于是他总结道:“每天吃一份草饲牛肉达不到你(补充ω-3脂肪酸)的目的。”But if combined with a couple of glasses of organic milk, “it should make a difference,” Dr. Bazinet said. “That would be the hypothesis.”但是,如果再喝上一两杯有机牛奶的话,“应该就有用了,”巴齐内士说。“假设上是如此。”Scientists are now trying to examine the health question more directly.现在科学家们正试图以更直接的方式来探讨这些健康问题。Dr. Leifert cited several studies that indicated that infants of mothers who ate organic fruits and vegetables were less likely to contract some diseases. He is also conducting experiments to see if rats fed organic foods are healthier. So far, he said, it appears that crop pesticide residue does have measurable effects on the rats’ hormones.莱费特士列举了数项研究,它们都表明,食用有机水果和蔬菜的母亲所诞下的婴儿较不容易患某些疾病。他还在进行实验,以研究饲喂有机食品的大鼠是否更健康。他说,从迄今为止的结果来看,农作物上的农药残留确实对大鼠的激素水平造成了明显的影响。“We still don’t know whether it kills you, but we do know it has an effect on hormonal balances,” he said. “It’s something that makes you think a little bit.”“虽然尚不清楚它是否会致死,但我们的确发现,它会影响激素的平衡。”他说,“这一点颇值得深思。” /201602/428192

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