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2020年02月17日 18:27:49来源:安心晚报

Pete Frates can no longer speak. But in the last two and a half weeks, a posted on Facebook by Mr. Frates, a 29-year-old former college baseball player, has inspired people like Bill Gates, LeBron James, Chris Christie and Taylor Swift to dump a bucket of ice on their heads and speak out for his cause.大学时曾是棒球运动员的皮特·弗雷迪斯(Pete Frates)再也没办法讲话了。但在过去的两周半时间里,29岁的他上传到Facebook上的一段视频,促使比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)、勒布朗·詹姆斯(LeBron James)、克里斯·克里斯蒂(Chris Christie)和泰勒·斯威夫特(Taylor Swift)等人将一桶加了冰的水从头顶浇下,并且发声持他的目标。The “Ice Bucket Challenge” has lit social media on fire, raising both money and awareness for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, commonly known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. About 30,000 Americans now have the disease, which attacks nerve cells and ultimately leads to total paralysis, though the mind remains sharp. Life expectancy is typically two to five years from the time of diagnosis.“冰桶挑战”这项活动在社交媒体上火了起来,既为肌萎缩性脊髓侧索硬化症(amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,简称ALS)的研究筹集到了资金,又增强了人们对这种病的认识。这种疾病通常被称作葛雷克氏症(Lou Gehrig’s disease)。目前,美国大约有3万人患有ALS,这种病会攻击神经细胞,最终会导致患者彻底瘫痪,但患者的思维仍会保持敏捷。确诊后,患者的寿命通常只有两到五年。(患者俗称“渐冻人”。——译注)The stunt goes like this: People make a of themselves dumping a bucket of ice water on their heads, post it on Facebook, Instagram or other social media sites, and then challenge friends to do the same within 24 hours or donate 0 to ALS. (Many do both.)这项活动是这样的:人们将自己把一桶冰水从头顶浇下的过程拍摄成视频,并上传到Facebook、Instagram或其他社交媒体网站上,然后向朋友发起挑战,让对方在24小时之内做同样的事情,否则就捐100美元(约合620元人民币)用于ALS研究。(很多人既接受挑战,也捐了款。)People have shared more than 1.2 million s on Facebook between June 1 and Aug. 13 and mentioned the phenomenon more than 2.2 million times on Twitter since July 29, according to those sites. Donations to the ALS Association have spiked. As of Sunday, the association said it had received .3 million in donations since July 29, compared with .7 million during the same period last year. It said there were about 260,000 new donors. (With a spate of celebrities and business executives joining in over the past few days and pledging contributions, that number is expected to rise.)从6月1日到8月13日,人们在Facebook上分享了120万个视频。同时,自7月29日以来,这一现象在Twitter上被提到了超过220万次。上述数据分别来自这两家网站。ALS协会(ALS Association)收到的捐款也大幅增加。该协会表示,从7月29日到周日,收到了1330万美元捐款,而去年同期,该协会收到的捐款仅有170万美元。ALS协会称大约有26万名捐赠者是新增的。(鉴于过去几天里,大量名人和企业高管也参与进来并承诺捐款,这一数字预计会上升。)The Ice Bucket Challenge had been making the rounds on the Internet for several weeks before it was tied to ALS. Matt Lauer, the host of N’s Today Show, had water poured over his head on July 15 after being challenged by the golfer Greg Norman.在和ALS联系在一起之前,冰桶挑战活动就已经在互联网上流传了数周。7月15日,在被高尔夫球手格雷格·诺曼(Greg Norman)点名后,N节目《今日秀》(Today Show)的主持人马特·劳尔(Matt Lauer)让人将冰水从他头顶泼下。Mr. Lauer said that he would donate money to the Hospice of Palm Beach County. He challenged Brian Williams, Martha Stewart and Howard Stern.劳尔表示,将捐款给棕榈滩县安养院(Hospice of Palm Beach County)。他向布莱恩·威廉姆斯(Brian Williams)、玛莎·斯图尔特(Martha Stewart)和霍华德·斯特恩(Howard Stern)发出了挑战。In late July, Mr. Frates learned about the challenge from his friend Pat Quinn, a New Yorker who also has ALS, and wanted to turn the trend into a fund-raiser for the disease.7月底,弗雷迪斯从纽约的朋友帕特·奎因(Pat Quinn)那里了解到了这项挑战活动。奎因也是一名ALS患者。弗雷迪斯想把这个潮流转变成一项针对ALS的募捐。Mr. Frates nominated himself for the challenge. Instead of having ice water poured on his head — “ice water and ALS are a bad mix,” he said on his Facebook page — he posted a of himself bouncing his head to “Ice Ice Baby,” the 1989 hit song by the rapper Vanilla Ice. He challenged some friends, and the stunt sp quickly through Boston circles, then across the web until last week when a parade of boldfaced names joined in. (Last week, Mr. Frates again took the challenge, this time having ice dumped on his head at Boston Red Sox’s Fenway Park.)弗雷迪斯点名让自己接受该挑战。在弗雷迪斯上传的视频中,他没有让冰水从头顶淋下——他在Facebook上写道,原因是“ALS患者遇到冰水会有不好的后果”——而是跟着说唱歌手瓦尼拉·艾斯(Vanilla Ice)于1989年推出的热门歌曲《冰酷宝贝》(Ice Ice Baby)的节奏点头。他向一些朋友发出了挑战,这种做法很快便在波士顿多个圈子传开,后来又在网上迅速流传。一众名人上周也加入了进来。(上周,弗雷迪斯再度接受挑战。这一次,在波士顿红袜队[Boston Red Sox]的芬威球场[Fenway Park]里,他让人将冰水从自己的头顶浇下。)“Did we ever imagine the level of awareness or the money that is coming in? In our dreams we did,” said Mr. Frates’s mother, Nancy Frates.“我们以前想象过,人们对这种病的了解,会达到现在的程度吗?想过会有源源不断的捐款吗?想过,但是在梦里,”弗雷迪斯的母亲南茜·弗雷迪斯(Nancy Frates)说。There has been a backlash. Some have criticized the campaign for so-called slacktivism, where people will click and post online for social causes with little actual impact on the cause. “There are a lot of things wrong with the Ice Bucket Challenge, but the most annoying is that it’s basically narcissism masked as altruism,” said Arielle Pardes, a writer for Vice. On Slate, Will Oremus urged people to take the “no ice bucket challenge” and just donate the money.这场风潮也受到了非议。一些人批评,这场风潮只是“懒人公益行动”(slacktivism),人们只是为一项目标在网上点点按钮、发发帖子,但对这项事业本身并没有多少实际帮助。Vice的作者爱丽尔·帕尔戴斯(Arielle Pardes)说道,“冰桶挑战里有很多不妥当的地方,但是最令人反感的一点是,它基本上是把自恋包装成了利他行为。”在Slate网站上,威尔·奥尔穆斯(Will Oremus)敦促人们参加“不玩冰桶”的挑战,直接捐钱。Ms. Frates said that her son, the former captain of the Boston College baseball team, had been “living the life” when he called a family meeting in 2012. He revealed his illness and said that he did not want to whine, but would instead use the diagnosis as an opportunity to positively affect other people’s lives.南茜·弗雷迪斯说,她曾在波士顿学院(Boston College)棒球队当过队长的儿子,此前一直“过着充实的生活”,直到他在2012年召集了一次家庭会议。他袒露了自己的病情,但说自己不想抱怨,而是会把自己的诊断当做一个机会,努力为别人的生活带来积极的影响。The disease has progressed quickly in the past six months. Mr. Frates has lost the ability to move his arms and legs and now communicates through eye-gaze technology, his mother said. He was married last year to Julie Frates, whom he met eight months before he learned that he had ALS. They are expecting a baby in September.过去六个月里,病情发展很快。弗雷迪斯的母亲说,弗雷迪斯已经无法移动胳膊和腿,现在只能通过跟踪眼球运动的技术与人沟通。去年,弗雷迪斯与朱莉·弗雷迪斯(Julie Frates)结婚,两人是在他得知自己患有ALS的八个月前相识的。他们的孩子将于今年9月降生。In a last December, Mr. Frates said: “The story right now goes: You’ve got ALS, have it for a little while, a long while, but either way, the end is always the same. ALS always wins. So in order to rewrite the end of it, we need to raise awareness, money.”在去年12月的一段视频中,弗雷迪斯说:“现在的故事都是这样的:得了ALS,无论患病的时间是长是短,最后的结局都是一样的。ALS总会打败你。所以,为了改写故事的结局,我们需要提升公众的关注,也需要筹钱。” /201408/323329。

  • The early bird really does catch the worm… but he saves it for dinner.早起的鸟儿真的是在捉虫,但却在晚上才吃掉。Blue tits, great tits and other small garden birds scout for food in the morning but only return to eat it in the late afternoon, a study found.研究发现,蓝山雀、大山雀和其他花园鸟类在早上找食,但只在临近傍晚的时候才吃掉。The Oxford University researchers believe the strategy allows them to stock up on food while avoiding the clutches of predators.牛津大学的研究人员认为,鸟类用这种方式来囤积食物,同时也为了免于被猎食动物吃掉。A full belly in the morning would slow them down in the hunt for food and make them easy prey.要是早上吃饱了的话,在找食的时候飞得慢,容易被猎食动物吃掉。So they search out food when lean and lithe and then dine in the evening to ensure they have a big enough store of fat to survive through the night.所以鸟类趁身子轻盈的时候,在早上出去寻找食物,却在晚上吃掉,这样能保体内存储大量脂肪来过夜。The ‘early bird’ strategy was revealed in an experiment in which over 2,000 birds were fitted with tiny radio tags which activated when they landed on feeders hidden in Wytham Woods, near Oxford.针对超过2000只鸟的实验揭示了这种“早起鸟” 捕食策略方式,试验中给鸟儿安装了微型无线电标签,把喂食器藏在牛津附近的威萨姆森林里,鸟儿只要落在喂食器上微型无线电标签就会被激活。The feeders were moved around over the course of the day and the researchers noted when the birds landed on them. This revealed that the birds were much better at finding the feeders’ new locations in the morning. However, they waited until the afternoon to get tucked in.白天,研究人员会移动喂食器的位置,观察鸟儿落在喂食器上的情况。经观察发现鸟类在早上更容易找到喂食器的新位置。不过,他们等到下午才把捕来的虫子吃掉。The researchers said the complex strategy acts as an insurance policy, with birds remaining light yet still able to get enough fat to survive the night. It is particularly important in winter when the risks of predation are high and just one day without food can make the difference between life and death for small birds.研究人员说,这种捕食策略复杂一些则保险一些,鸟类要在保持身子轻盈的同时还要保过夜所需的脂肪量充足。 特别是冬季,捕食风险很高,小鸟就一天没有吃的,就得面临被饿死的境地。Zoologist Damien Farine said: ‘Birds have to store body fat to avoid starving during the cold winter nights, but this can make them slower and less manoeuvrable so they are more likely to be caught by predators.动物学家Damien Farine说:“鸟类体内储存脂肪为了免于在寒冷的冬夜里挨饿受冻,但吃饱了身子不够灵活就会飞得慢,所以,更有可能被猎食动物吃掉。”‘So there is a trade-off, where birds need to remain lean enough in order to “outrun” their predators during the day but also store enough fat to survive each night.’ Writing in the Royal Society journal Biology Letters, he added that the study shows that rather than ‘idly waiting’ to until the afternoon, the birds start searching out food in the morning.“所以,鸟类也要遵循权衡法则,为了‘逃脱’被捕食动物吃掉,就要保持身子轻盈,还要在白天储存够过夜的脂肪。” 该研究报告发表在《英国皇家学会生物学快报》杂志上,他还补充说,据研究鸟儿们并不是“无所事事”地空等到下午,它们从早上就开始寻找食物。‘Our results show these birds display very different patterns of food discovery in the morning and afternoon; very few new food sources were found during the afternoon, whereas nearly every new food source we put out during the morning was quickly discovered.“我们的研究结果显示这些鸟类在早上和下午找食物的模式大不一样,在下午很少能找到新的食物源,而我们在早上放出去的食物几乎每一个新的食物源都很快就被发现了。”‘It supports the idea of an ‘early bird’ strategy of scouting for food early on so they can return to feast a couple of hours before dusk in preparation for a long winter’s night.’“这项研究为‘早起鸟’利用早上找食的策略性方法提供了实验依据,这样它们可以赶在黄昏前飞回来吃掉为度过漫长的冬夜做准备。” /201402/277433。
  • Artificial sweeteners may disrupt the body’s ability to regulate blood sugar, causing metabolic changes that can be a precursor to diabetes, researchers are reporting.科研人员通报,人工甜味剂或许会干扰人体控制血糖的能力,导致可视为糖尿病前兆的代谢变化。That is “the very same condition that we often aim to prevent” by consuming sweeteners instead of sugar, said Dr. Eran Elinav, an immunologist at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, at a news conference to discuss the findings.在讨论这一发现的新闻发布会上,以色列魏茨曼科学研究学院(Weizmann Institute of Science)的免疫学家埃兰·伊莱纳夫士(Eran Elinav)表示,这“恰好是我们”用甜味剂代替糖时“通常希望避免的那种情况”。The scientists performed a multitude of experiments, mostly on mice, to back up their assertion that the sweeteners alter the microbiome, the population of bacteria that is in the digestive system.科学家们在以小鼠为主的实验对象身上进行了大量实验,以持他们的结论:甜味剂会改变消化系统中的微生物菌群。The different mix of microbes, the researchers contend, changes the metabolism of glucose, causing levels to rise higher after eating and to decline more slowly than they otherwise would.研究人员指出,不同的菌群构成会改变葡萄糖的代谢,导致餐后血糖浓度升得更高、回落的速度也更慢。The findings by Dr. Elinav and his collaborators in Israel, including Eran Segal, a professor of computer science and applied mathematics at Weizmann, are being published Wednesday by the journal Nature.伊莱纳夫的以色列合作者中,包括魏茨曼学院的计算机科学与应用数学教授埃兰·赛加尔(Eran Segal)。他们的这项发现发表在周三出版的《自然》杂志(Nature)上。Cathryn R. Nagler, a professor of pathology at the University of Chicago who was not involved with the research but did write an accompanying commentary in Nature, called the results “very compelling.”芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)的病理学教授凯瑟琳·R·纳格勒(Cathryn R. Nagler)没有参与这项研究,不过在《自然》杂志上进行了相关,称他们的研究结果“非常有说力”。She noted that many conditions, including obesity and diabetes, had been linked to changes in the microbiome. “What the study suggests,” she said, “is we should step back and reassess our extensive use of artificial sweeteners.”她指出,包括肥胖症和糖尿病在内的许多症状已被认为与微生物菌群的变化有关。“本研究表明,我们应该退后一步,重新评估我们对人工甜味剂的广泛使用,”她说。Previous studies on the health effects of artificial sweeteners have come to conflicting and confusing findings. Some found that they were associated with weight loss; others found the exact opposite, that people who drank diet soda actually weighed more.此前对人工甜味剂的健康影响进行的多项研究,得出了相互矛盾、令人困惑的结论。一些研究认为,甜味剂与减重有关;另一些则正好相反,发现饮用健怡汽水的人实际更重。Some found a correlation between artificial sweeteners and diabetes, but those findings were not entirely convincing: Those who switch to the products may aly be overweight and prone to the disease.还有一些研究的结论是,人工甜味剂与糖尿病正相关。不过这些结论并不完全可信:那些放弃糖,而消费甜味剂产品的人可能本已超重,易于罹患糖尿病。While acknowledging that it is too early for broad or definitive conclusions, Dr. Elinav said he had aly changed his own behavior.尽管承认得出广泛结论或决定性的结论还为时尚早,但伊莱纳夫表示,他已经对自身行为做出了改变。“I’ve consumed very large amounts of coffee, and extensively used sweeteners, thinking like many other people that they are at least not harmful to me and perhaps even beneficial,” he said. “Given the surprising results that we got in our study, I made a personal preference to stop using them.“我喝很多很多的咖啡,大量使用甜味剂,和很多人一样,以为它们起码不会伤害我的身体,说不定还有好处,”他说。“基于我们的研究得出的意外结果,我个人选择不再使用甜味剂。”“We don’t think the body of evidence that we present in humans is sufficient to change the current recommendations,” he continued. “But I would hope it would provoke a healthy discussion.”“我并不认为,我们提出的据足以修改目前的饮食建议,”他接着说。“但我希望,这将引发一场良好的讨论。”In the initial set of experiments, the scientists added saccharin (the sweetener in the pink packets of Sweet’N Low), sucralose (the yellow packets of Splenda) or aspartame (the blue packets of Equal) to the drinking water of 10-week-old mice. Other mice drank plain water or water supplemented with glucose or with ordinary table sugar. After a week, there was little change in the mice who drank water or sugar water, but the group getting artificial sweeteners developed marked intolerance to glucose.在初步实验中,科学家们把糖精(粉色包装的纤而乐[Sweet’N Low]的甜味剂)、三氯蔗糖(黄色包装的善品糖[Splenda]的甜味剂)或阿斯巴甜(蓝色包装的怡口[Equal]的甜味剂)添加到饮用水中,让10周大的小鼠摄入。其他小鼠则喝白水,或者添加了葡萄糖或普通食糖的水。一周之后,饮用白水或糖水的小鼠变化不大,但摄入人工甜味剂的那组小鼠明显出现了葡萄糖耐受不良。Glucose intolerance, in which the body is less able to cope with large amounts of sugar, can lead to more serious illnesses like metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes.葡萄糖耐受不良表明身体处理大量糖分的能力降低,可能会导致更加严重的疾病,比如代谢综合征和2型糖尿病。When the researchers treated the mice with antibiotics, killing much of the bacteria in the digestive system, the glucose intolerance went away.当研究人员对小鼠使用抗生素,杀死其消化系统中的很多细菌之后,它们的葡萄糖耐受不良问题就消失了。At present, the scientists cannot explain how the sweeteners affect the bacteria or why the three different molecules of saccharin, aspartame and sucralose result in similar changes in the glucose metabolism.目前,科学家尚无法解释甜味剂是如何影响这些细菌的,以及为什么在葡萄糖代谢过程中,糖精、阿斯巴甜和三氯蔗糖这三种不同的分子导致了类似的变化。To further test their hypothesis that the change in glucose metabolism was caused by a change in bacteria, they performed another series of experiments, this time focusing just on saccharin. They took intestinal bacteria from mice who had drank saccharin-laced water and injected them in mice that had never been exposed any saccharin. Those mice developed the same glucose intolerance. And DNA sequencing showed that saccharin had markedly changed the variety of bacteria in the guts of the mice that consumed it.科学家们假设葡萄糖代谢中的变化是由细菌的变化引起的,为了进一步检验这个假设,他们开展了另外一系列只针对糖精的实验。科学家们从摄入了糖精水的小鼠身上取出肠道细菌,注入到从未接触过任何糖精的小鼠体内。随后这些小鼠也出现了葡萄糖耐受不良。DNA测序表明,在摄入糖精的小鼠的肠道中,糖精明显改变了细菌种类的组合。Next, the researchers turned to a study they were conducting to track the effects of nutrition and gut bacteria on people’s long-term health. For 381 nondiabetic participants in the study, the researchers found a correlation between the reported use of any kind of artificial sweeteners and signs of glucose intolerance. In addition, the gut bacteria of those who used artificial sweeteners were different from those who did not.接下来,研究人员开始追踪营养和肠道细菌对人体长期健康的影响。这项研究有381例非糖尿病患者参加,研究人员发现,任何一种人工甜味剂的摄入,都和葡萄糖耐受不良体征之间存在着相关性。此外,有没有摄入人工甜味,肠道细菌会不一样。Finally, they recruited seven volunteers who normally did not use artificial sweeteners and over six days gave them the maximum amount of saccharin recommended by the ed States Food and Drug Administration. In four of the seven, blood-sugar levels were disrupted in the same way as in mice.最后,研究人员招募了七名通常不使用人工甜味剂的志愿者,并在六天时间中,让他们摄入了美国食品与药品(Food and Drug Administration,简称FDA)建议的糖精最大摄入量。结果七人中有四人的血糖值出现了与小鼠类似的变化。Further, when they injected the human participants’ bacteria into the intestines of mice, the animals again developed glucose intolerance, suggesting that effect was the same in both mice and humans.此外,当他们把人类受试者的细菌注入到小鼠的肠道中后,小鼠再次出现了葡萄糖耐受不良,这表明该效应在小鼠和人类中是相同的。“That experiment is compelling to me,” Dr. Nagler said.“我认为这个实验很令人信,”纳格勒士说。Intriguingly — “superstriking and interesting to us,” Dr. Segal said — the intestinal bacteria of the people who did experience effects were different from those who did not. This suggests that any effects of artificial sweeteners are not universal. It also suggests probiotics — medicines consisting of live bacteria — could be used to shift gut bacteria to a population that reversed the glucose intolerance.有趣的是——“让我们觉得既震惊又有趣”,西格尔士说——出现了这种效应的人,其肠道细菌不同于没有经受它的人。这表明,人工甜味剂的任何效应都不是放之四海而皆准的。这也表明,益生菌——含有活细菌的药品——可用于改变肠道细菌群,以逆转葡萄糖耐受不良。Dr. Frank Hu, a professor of nutrition and immunology at the Harvard School of Public Health who did not take part in the study, called it interesting but far from conclusive and added that given the number of participants, “I think the validity of the human study is questionable.”哈佛大学公共卫生学院(Harvard School of Public Health) 的营养和免疫学教授弗兰克#8226;胡(Frank Hu)士没有参与这项研究,他称该研究很有趣,但还远远不能就此做出结论,因为受试者人数不足,他说,“我认为这项人体研究的正确性存在问题。”The researchers said future research would examine aspartame and sucralose in detail as well as other alternative sweeteners like stevia.研究人员表示,未来的项目会对阿斯巴甜、三氯蔗,以及甜叶菊等其他甜味剂进行详细研究。 /201409/330376。
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