楼主:放心活动 时间:2019年07月19日 15:53:05 点击:0 回复:0
BDANDA, Nepal — From a pasture high in the Himalayas, Tulsingh Rokaya, 55, a shepherd, watched for years as the number of itinerant harvesters swelled.尼泊尔巴格丹达——来自喜马拉雅山脉一个高原牧场的55岁牧民图尔辛格·罗卡亚(Tulsingh Rokaya),多年来眼睁睁地看着流动采摘者的人数在不断壮大。They came in search of what is known as caterpillar fungus, or yarsagumba in Nepali. A parasitic fungus, it forms out of the head of ghost moth larvae living in the soil at altitudes above 10,000 feet, and has been used as an aphrodisiac for at least a thousand years, earning it the nickname Himalayan Viagra.他们是来寻找所谓的“虫草”的,尼泊尔语叫;yarsagumba;。这是一种寄生真菌,由蝠蛾幼虫的头部形成,这种幼虫生活在海拔3000多米的高原土壤中。虫草被用作壮阳药至少有1000年了,它拥有“喜马拉雅伟哥”的别名。In the 1980s, the pickers used to trade the fungus for cigarettes and noodles. But as yarsagumba grew in popularity, it exploded into a multibillion-dollar industry spanning China, Singapore and the ed States.在20世纪80年代,采摘者用这种真菌换香烟和面条。但随着虫草越来越多地受到人们的喜爱,它迅速发展成为一个横跨中国、新加坡和美国的数十亿美元的产业。During the picking season, which runs from late May to July, the number of harvesters in Bagdanda and two neighboring camps has often reached several thousands of people. But this season, with the fungus becoming scarce, the number is down to the hundreds.在5月下旬至7月的采摘季节,前来巴格丹达和附近两个营地的采集者人数往往可达到几千人。但随着这种真菌变得越来越稀少,今年采集季节的人数已下降到了几百。They still hike from a camp below, carrying metal picks to dig out the fungus, helping to produce an average regional harvest of 135 tons a year. Occasionally, they stop at Mr. Rokaya’s tent to buy sheep’s curd. Most of the time they pass through, teetering on a steep hillside where they spend the morning hunched over to find the fungus’s crooked black stem poking through the dirt.他们仍从山下的营地徒步上山,手拿金属小镐把虫草挖出来,为这个山区平均每年135吨的产量做贡献。偶尔,他们会在罗卡亚的帐篷前停留,购买羊凝乳。但大多数时候,他们只是从这个搭建在陡峭山坡上的帐篷前路过,整个上午都在弯着腰寻找这种真菌露出泥土的弯曲黑茎。Folklore has it that interest in the fungus stems from the startling performance of Chinese runners at an international track meet in 1993, which their coach attributed to their consumption of a soup combining the fungus with turtle blood. (Western competitors suspected something less exotic, namely performance-enhancing drugs.)民间传说称,对这种真菌的兴趣,来自中国赛跑选手在1993年的一次国际田径运动会上令人吃惊的表现。他们的教练把成绩归结于运动员喝了用虫草和鳖血做的汤。(西方的竞争对手怀疑并不是出于这么具有异国风味的原因,而是由于使用了提高成绩的兴奋剂。)With prices topping ,000 a pound in China’s coastal megacities, harvesting of the fungus has helped to curb endemic poverty in the Himalayas, which stretch across Nepal, northern India, Bhutan, Tibet and China. For hundreds of thousands of people living in remote villages, selling yarsagumba has become a primary source of income.在中国的沿海大城市,虫草标价超过了每磅5万美元(约合每千克66万元人民币)。采摘虫草帮助改善了喜马拉雅地区普遍存在的贫穷状况。这一地区跨越尼泊尔、印度北部、不丹、藏区和中国。对于数十万生活在边远村庄的人而言,售卖虫草成了一项重要的收入来源。A study by Nepal’s central bank found that harvesters earned an average of about ,500, or 56 percent of their yearly income, selling the fungus. Money from yarsagumba has given some of the world’s most impoverished people access to electricity, hospital care and education.尼泊尔中央的一项研究发现,采摘者售卖虫草的平均收入约为2500美元(约合1.7万元人民币),占他们年收入的56%。由虫草获得的收入让世界上最贫穷的一些人用上了电,看得起病,也得以接受教育。“The whole Tibetan plateau is by now completely dependent on the cash influx,” said Daniel Winkler, a mycologist who has studied the caterpillar fungus extensively in Tibet. He estimated that over one million people in Tibet sell the fungus.“到现在,整个青藏高原地区完全依赖这部分资金来源,”真菌学家丹尼尔·温克勒(Daniel Winkler)说。他在藏区就虫草做过大量的研究。他估计藏区有超过100万人在卖虫草。But as quickly as demand for the fungus has surged, its supply has dropped sharply. Mycologists studying the fungus point to overharvesting as one reason. But another possible cause, some researchers now believe, is a warmer ecosystem precipitated by climate change, a phenomenon that may be more acute at higher altitudes.虫草的需求迅速上涨的同时,供应量却出现剧烈的下滑。研究虫草的真菌学家认为过度采摘是出现这种状况的一个原因。不过一些研究者现在认为,还有另一种可能的原因:由气候变化引起的生态系统变暖。在海拔高的地方,这种现象或许更加严重。“There are strong theoretical reasons as to why we might expect the rate of climate change to be faster higher up in the mountains than it is at sea level,” said Nicholas Pepin, a geographer at the University of Portsmouth in England.“我们有充分的理论依据认为,气候变化的速率在山区会比在海平面更快,”英格兰朴茨茅斯大学(University of Portsmouth)的地理学家尼古拉斯·佩平(Nicholas Pepin)说。Some of the most compelling data comes from the Tibetan plateau, where from 2001 to 2012, the increase in temperatures was between half a degree Fahrenheit and nearly an entire degree at weather stations above 10,000 feet. In the same decade, global temperatures rose by only about 0.2 degrees.一些最具说力的数据来自青藏高原。自2001年至2012年,那里的气温增长了0.5华氏度(约合0.3摄氏度),在海拔超过1万英尺(约合3000米)的气象站,增幅则达到将近1华氏度。而在同样的十年里,全球平均气温只增长了0.2华氏度左右。Scientists say it is unclear why mountain ranges may be warming more rapidly than other parts of the planet. But Kamaljit Bawa, a biologist at the University of Massachusetts Boston, said failure to better understand warming in the Himalayas could have serious consequences for the region’s unique biodiversity.科学家表示,目前还不清楚为什么山脉地区气温增速会比地球上的其他地区更快。不过,马萨诸塞州大学波士顿分校(University of Massachusetts at Boston)的生物学家卡迈勒吉特·巴瓦(Kamaljit Bawa)表示,倘若无法更好地理解喜马拉雅的气候变暖,可能会给该地区独一无二的生物多样性带来严重的后果。“We have to make very rapid progress,” he said. “We can’t use the slow approach, the traditional, slow scientific approach.”“我们得非常快速地取得进展,”他说。“我们不能采用慢的方式,那种传统的、比较慢的科学方法。”Not for yarsagumba, apparently.显然,用这种方式应对虫草问题是行不通的。As harvesters returned from the pastures to Bagdanda on a recent afternoon, children gathered in the camp’s dusty thoroughfare and divided teams for a volleyball game. A mother held down her squirming daughter to pick lice from her scalp. Men congregated on trash-strewn dirt mounds and peeled strips of kutki, an herb used to treat vomiting and fever.不久前的一个下午,采摘者从牧场返回巴格丹达,孩子们聚集在营地尘土飞扬的大路上,分组玩排球游戏。一位母亲按着她浑身扭动的女儿,给她抓头发里的虱子。男人们聚集在垃圾遍布的土丘上,给胡黄连去皮。这是一种治疗呕吐和发热的草药。In a village below the meadows, Prithvi Budha, 60, a beekeeper who is sitting out the harvest to watch dozens of empty mud and stone huts, said less precipitation may be the cause for the drop in yarsagumba supplies.在位于草原下方的一座村子,现年60岁的养蜂人普里特维·布达(Prithvi Budha)没有参加采摘,而是负责看守那几十座没人的泥石棚屋。他说降水减少可能是虫草产量降低的原因。“We used to have snow up to here and up to here,” he said, pointing to his torso and his shoulders as he recalled a string of childhood winters.“过去这里会下很大的雪,积雪能有这么高,这么高,”他说一边说,一边把手比到自己的躯干和肩膀部位。他在回忆童年时期的冬天。Uttam Shrestha, a researcher at the University of Southern Queensland in Australia, said it was difficult to say why the supply of yarsagumba had dropped. Changes in temperature, he said, could be one of several factors affecting the supply of the fungus.澳大利亚南昆士兰大学(University of Southern Queensland)的研究人员乌塔姆·什雷斯塔(Uttam Shrestha)表示,很难确定为什么虫草的产量会减少。他说气温变化可能是影响虫草供应的多种因素之一。“We can draw some inferences,” he said. “Here, the fungus is very sensitive to the increase in temperature and so that could have an impact, but there is no empirical evidence yet.”“我们可以做一些推论,”他说。“在这里,虫草对气温的上升是非常敏感的,所以它可能会有影响,但目前还没有实践经验的据。”Jir Bahadur Budha, 43, a farmer, said he was disappointed with this year’s harvest. He estimated that his family of six would collect only 400 pieces of yarsagumba, 200 fewer than last year and 500 fewer than the year before. The selling price for a single piece is about .50 in Nepal.现年43岁的农民哥吉尔·巴哈杜尔·布达(Jir Bahadur Budha)表示,他对今年的收成感到失望。他估计今年家里六个人只能采到400株虫草,比去年少200株,比前年少500株。目前虫草在尼泊尔的单株售价约为3.5美元。On a recent morning, Mr. Budha joined dozens of others in a pasture as a heavy fog set in. Within 10 minutes of searching, calls echoed from a few hundred feet away, where a teenager had spotted one of the day’s first pieces. Clawing away dirt from the larva’s body, the boy received a smattering of congratulations. He had found a good piece.不久前的一个上午,布达和另外几十个人在浓雾弥漫之时走进了牧场。开始搜寻不到十分钟,几百英尺远的地方传来喊声,一名少年找到了当天第一株虫草。扒开幼虫尸体上的泥土,他找到了一株品质不错的虫草,得到了零星的祝贺。“Only lucky people find yarsagumba in the morning,” one man said.“只有运气很好的人才能在早上找到虫草,”一名男子说道。Mr. Rokaya, the shepherd, was cautious in his appraisal of the day’s pickings. Whatever the reason for the decline in yarsagumba, he said, it may be too late to salvage what has been lost.对于当天的采摘,牧民罗卡亚的评价比较谨慎。他说不管是什么原因导致虫草产量下降,要挽回这里损失的东西可能都已经太迟了。“No jobs. No money. What to do?” he said, thrumming his fingers on a gnarled cane. “We eat the rice that even donkeys and horses don’t eat.”“没有工作。没有钱。能怎么办?”他一边说,一边用手指连续敲击一根弯曲的手杖。“我们吃的是连驴和马都不吃的大米。” /201606/451779Editing On Films Is Now Being Done On ComputersLike any modern professional, Naomi Geraghty took her laptop with her when she went on a business trip in January. The machine got a lot of use -- but not just for email.1月份出差时,娜奥米#8226;杰拉蒂(Naomi Geraghty)带上了她的笔记本电脑──跟时下所有专业人员一样。她的电脑有很多用途,不仅仅是收发电子邮件。Ms. Geraghty is a film editor and was spending 10 days at the Irish coastal home of Terry George, director of 'Reservation Road,' starring Joaquin Phoenix, which opened across the U.S. last week. Mr. George couldn't travel for the editing, so Ms. Geraghty loaded a copy of Avid editing software on her Apple PowerBook and went to him.杰拉蒂是一名电影剪辑师,这次出差的目的地是《救赎之路》(Reservation Road)一片的导演特里#8226;乔治(Terry George)在爱尔兰的海滨别墅,时间为10天。由于乔治没办法远行,杰拉蒂只好带着已经安装了Avid编辑软件的苹果PowerBook来找他。这部影片最近在全美上映,华金#8226;费尼克斯(Joaquin Phoenix)在里面扮演角色。Most people have a mental image of film editors hunched in the dark over editing consoles with lengths of film pinned to the wall behind them. These days, they sit at computers, moving scenes around as easily as paragraphs in a word processor.提到电影剪辑师,大多数人对他们的印象是:猫在某个昏暗角落的操作台旁,长长的胶片钉在身后的墙上。如今的剪辑师却是坐在电脑桌前,他们在屏幕上移动画面就像用文字处理软件挪动段落那么轻松。Video files are so demanding, editing computers used to cost tens of thousands, even hundreds of thousands, of dollars. But as Ms. Geraghty's tale suggests, even relatively low-end personal computers, laptops included, are now so powerful that Hollywood pros have joined student filmmakers and indies in taking advantage of them.由于视频文件对电脑配置的要求很高,用来剪辑的电脑过去动辄几万甚至几十万美元一台。而现在,即使相对低端的个人电脑,包括笔记本,都已经非常强大。于是,好莱坞的电影专业人士纷纷加入学生制片人和独立制片人的行列,用起个人电脑──杰拉蒂就是一个典型例子。It's one more example -- along with music recording and graphic design -- of the way cheap computers are blurring the distinction between professional and amateur tools. Not that just having software makes you good at something, as a quick trip around the Web makes clear.这个趋势再次说明廉价电脑正在淡化专业工具和业余工具之间的界限,这一点在音乐录制和图形设计领域已经得到体现。但只要在网路上转一转就会发现,仅仅有了软件还不足以成为高手。Ms. Geraghty says that while she enjoys the comfort of her regular editing studio, a notebook is not without its charms. 'I could look out over a fishing harbor,' she says. 'It was the best view I've ever had from a cutting room.'杰拉蒂说,虽然在常规剪辑工作室里感觉很舒适,但使用笔记本工作也别有一番情趣。“从窗户望出去,渔港美景近在眼前,这是过去我在剪辑室内从未享受过的,”她说。Like 'Reservation Road,' the typical Hollywood feature film these days is an analog-digital hybrid. Reels of film might be developed at a lab such as Technicolor, but then .5 million scanners digitize them and put them on a 0 generic USB hard drive. From there, it's on to the editors.如今,一般的好莱坞故事片都是以模拟-数字混合方式制作的,《救赎之路》就是其中之一。一卷卷胶片在Technicolor这样的工作室冲洗出来之后,扫描仪(售价高达150万美元)会对其进行数字化,保存在100美元的普通USB硬碟上,然后才进入剪辑环节。Editing on computers is so much easier than editing physical film that it's how nearly all movies are now cut. USC's film school once had 50 editing consoles; now it has only two. Indeed, editing may have become too easy. 'You can easily recut your movie 10 times a day,' says Matt Furie, who teaches editing at USC. 'Some students go off the deep end and cut, cut, cut. We tell them they need to discipline themselves to push away from the desk, drop the mouse and just think.'剪辑数字影片比剪辑胶片要简单得多,如今差不多所有电影都是用电脑剪辑的。USC电影学校原来有50台剪辑工作台,现在已经缩减为两台了。的确,剪辑可能变得太容易了。“你一天甚至能剪辑10次,”在USC教授剪辑的马特#8226;富里(Matt Furie)说。“有些学生大刀阔斧地剪、剪、剪,我们总是提醒他们要控制自己,暂时离开桌子,放下鼠标,什么都不做,静静地思考。”Like others, Mr. Furie suggests that one of the reasons there are so many rapid-fire cuts in today's movies is that editing software has made them so simple to do.正如很多专业人士指出的那样,富里表示,目前出现大量剪辑粗糙的影片的原因正是在于编辑软件使得剪辑工作变得异常轻松。 /200803/32944Brighton 'Healthiest City' of Britain布莱顿:英国"最健康"城市 Milwaukee 'Drunkest City' of US密尔沃基:美国"头号酒鬼城市" Oslo 'Most expensive' city of the world奥斯陆:世界生活费用最高的城市 Nottingham 'Burglary City' of UK诺丁汉:英国"盗窃之都" Zurich 'Best City' to live瑞士苏黎世:全球最适合居住的城市 Baghdad 'Worst City' to live巴格达:全球最不适合居住的城市 Edinburgh 'Books Literary title'爱丁堡:世界文学之城 Las Vegas 'Wedding Capital ' of the world:世界结婚之都 Twinsburg 'Twin City' of the world特温斯堡:世界双胞胎之城 Miami 'Most frequent phone-use City' of US 迈阿密:美国使用手机最频繁的城市 /200803/28883The 11,700-year-old Holocene epoch is over. We#39;re now living in the Anthropocene epoch.长达11700年的全新世结束啦。我们如今正生活在“人类世”纪元。You don’t need to be paying much attention to the world around you to know that humans are having a massive influence on the planet, but our influence is now on the way to being officially recognised in geologic terms.无需劳神费力,我们都能感受到人类对地球产生的巨大影响。如今,地质学界打算用地质术语来确认这些影响。The 11,700-year-old geological Holocene epoch has ended, scientists say, and we’re now living in the Anthropocene: an era defined by humanity’s influence on the world around us.科学家表示,长达11700年的全新世已结束,我们现在正生活在“人类世”:即人类活动对地球施加影响的时代。In fact, unless you’re over the age of 66, you’ve always been living in it. A 35-strong team of international researchers from the Working Group on the Anthropocene voted 30-3 (two were absent) in favour of the epoch shift, and the starting date is 1950.事实上,66岁以下的人自出生起就生活在这个纪元了。一由35位国际顶尖研究者组成的“人类世”工作小组开展了纪元更变与否的投票,投票结果以30比3(有两位研究人员缺席)的压倒性优势宣布地质纪元进入“人类世”,并将开始时间确定为1950年。The date isn’t random: it matches when the first nuclear tests created a new stratum in the planet’s surface.这个日期可不是随便定的:它与首批核试验对地质表面造成影响的时间相符。Actually, it won’t necessarily be nuclear tests that ended the Holocene. Humanity’s impact on the planet is so great that we’re left “spoiled for choice” in terms of which particular signal to choose.实际上,核试验并非结束全新世的唯一必要条件。人类活动对地球的影响是如此深刻,可供选择的因素简直多到让人“眼花缭乱”,很难定夺到底哪一因素起了决定性作用。Plastic pollution, soot from power plants, concrete and even domestic chicken bones were considered possible contenders.塑料污染,发电厂煤烟,钢筋混泥土,甚至是家养鸡的骨头都被列入可能的影响因素。“The radionuclides are probably the sharpest – they really come on with a bang,” said the Working Group’s chair Jan Zalasiewicz, of the University of Leicester. “But we are spoiled for choice. There are so many signals.”工作组主席、莱斯特大学的简#8226;扎拉斯维奇表示:“放射性核素大概是这其中最厉害的一个因素—— 放射性核素真是伴随着‘砰’声来临,但是可供选择的因素太多了,许多因素都对地质产生了巨大影响。”Now that the vote has been done, we’ll see a few years of site sampling to figure out the best Global Standard Stratigraphic Age (GSSA) to date the start of the Anthropocene, which will then be presented to the International Commission on Stratigraphy.纪元变更的投票结束后,工作组在未来几年会利用现场勘测数据计算出最佳的全球标准低层年龄(GSSA),并确定“人类世”的开始日期,届时会把研究结果呈递国际地层委员会。It will then need ratification from the Executive Committee of the International Union of Geological Sciences.随后还需要国际地质科学联合会的执行委员会正式认可研究结果。So it’s not official yet, but Zalasiewicz believes the team has a “pretty good case” to present.所以现在官方其实还未正式承认人类世的开始,但扎拉斯维奇相信他的团队递交的案例非常棒。“The significance of the Anthropocene is that it sets a different trajectory for the Earth system, of which we of course are part,” he explained.他解释说:“‘人类世’的意义在于,它让地球体系步入了一个与众不同的轨道,在这个新纪元里,人类也参与其中。”“If our recommendation is accepted, the Anthropocene will have started just a little before I was born. We have lived most of our lives in something called the Anthropocene and are just realising the scale and permanence of the change.”“如果我们的提议通过审核,‘人类世’在我出生前不久就开始了。我们大半辈子都生活在‘人类世’中,而且刚意识到地质纪元变更的规模和持久性。”In other words, geologically at least, there will be no denying the influence mankind has had on the planet. And it’s a hard one to put a positive spin upon, no matter how you frame it.换句话来说,至少从地理的角度看,我们将无法否认人类对地球造成的影响。而且无论我们如何定义都很难将这个影响扭转成正面影响。 /201609/466794

Smartphones from Chinese companies now outsell those made in other countries, according to the latest data.据最新数据显示,中国企业们生产的智能手机已经占据了全球最大的份额。According to sales figures, South Korea#39;s Samsung remains the world#39;s largest smartphone maker with a share of 20.7 percent of all devices sold.据销售数据显示,韩国的三星仍是全球最大的手机生产商,其全球市场份额达到了20.7%。In second place is Apple of the USA with 13.7 percent market share.第二名是美国的苹果公司,其占据了全球13.7%的市场份额。The statistics, reported by specialist publication The Register, show that China#39;s Huawei, Oppo and Vivo are in very close third, fourth and fifth positions respectively.据专业出版物《The Register》的统计数据显示,中国的华为、Oppo和Vivo分列第三、四、五名,份额数据非常接近。If you add their totals together, then the Chinese manufacturers have a clear market lead globally.如果把这三家企业的总额加在一起,那么中国的智能手机市场份额就是全球第一了。What#39;s more, the Chinese companies have made staggering progress over the last year, taking a full four percent of sales away from Apple and Samsung.此外,中国企业在过去一年里取得了惊人的成果,共从苹果和三星手中夺走了整整4%的市场份额。Sales of Apple#39;s iPhone in the key Chinese market slipped by nearly nine percent in the first three months of 2017. However, the firm#39;s iPhone 7 models did manage to remain the most popular smartphone sold in China over the period, with a market share of just under 4 percent.在今年的前三个月,苹果iPhone手机在中国市场的销量下滑了近9个百分点。但是在此期间,苹果旗下的iPhone 7却是中国最受欢迎的手机--尽管它的市场份额还不到4%。 /201706/512574

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