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2019年05月22日 10:45:21来源:普及咨询

  • For 45 years, the world has been a strange and uneven place, if the FT’s choices of Person of the Year are anything to go by.如果说英国《金融时报》年度人物(Person of the Year)的评选结果可以为我们对这个世界的判断提供一些参考的话,那么可以说,这个世界45年来一直是一个奇怪的不平衡之地。All but two of the 42 individuals chosen since 1970 — Margaret Thatcher in 1987 and Angela Merkel this year — have been men. The first holder of the title was Jean Rey, an unmemorable president of the European Commission. And it took 13 years for the world’s leading business publication to grant the title to a business figure — John Opel, chairman of IBM, whose tenure in fact marked the high point of the group’s dominance of computing.1970年以来,英国《金融时报》评选出的42位年度人物中,除1987年的玛格丽特鈠切尔(Margaret Thatcher)和今年的安格拉默克尔(Angela Merkel)这两人以外,其余全都是男性。首位年度人物得主是一位不太出名的欧盟委员会(European Commission)主席——让雷伊(Jean Rey)。13年后,这家世界领先的商业刊物才又一次选出一位商界人士——时任IBM董事长的约翰攠楙尔(John Opel)。在奥佩尔任职时期,IBM对计算技术业的主导实际上达到了巅峰。That said, the choices of the past four-and-a-half decades — made annually by FT writers and editors — do have a solid overall shape and logic.尽管如此,过去45年的年度人物评选结果整体上的确有清晰的面貌和逻辑。年度人物每年由英国《金融时报》的记者和编辑选出。The 1970s and 1980s were years of high international politics, dominated by globally recognised diplomats and politicians such as Henry Kissinger, Helmut Schmidt, Mitterrand and Thatcher herself. The FT may have missed Pope John Paul II, who earned a mention in 1979, when it was decided that no one deserved to be Person of the Decade. But 10 years later, it was impossible to argue with the judgment that Mikhail Gorbachev “towered over all others on the international stage” to take that title for the 1980s.上世纪70年代和80年代是国际政治的风云时代,其中唱主角的是亨利蘒魗格(Henry Kissinger)、赫尔穆特施密特(Helmut Schmidt)、弗朗索瓦密特朗( Mitterrand)以及撒切尔本人等享誉全球的外交官和政治家。英国《金融时报》可能漏掉了教皇约翰保罗二世(Pope John Paul II),他在1979年曾获得“十年人物”提名,不过那年的评委们最终认定无人有资格获此殊荣。但是10年后,米哈伊尔戈尔巴乔夫(Mikhail Gorbachev)“击败国际舞台上的其他所有人”,当选上世纪80年代的“十年人物”时,这个结果是无可争议的。Similarly, in the 1990s and early 2000s globalisation, relative political stability and economic growth made it impossible to ignore powerful business figures, from Bill Gates, via Rupert Murdoch, to Steve Jobs and Google’s Sergey Brin and Larry Page. The list also nods to the emergence of ambitious economic powers in China (Deng Xiaoping, Jack Ma) and India (Lakshmi Mittal).同样,在上世纪90年代和2000年代初的全球化时期,政局相对稳定、经济保持增长,让人们无法忽视影响力巨大的商界人物。从比尔盖茨(Bill Gates)、鲁珀特默多克(Rupert Murdoch),到史蒂夫吠布斯(Steve Jobs)以及谷歌(Google)的谢尔盖布林(Sergey Brin)和拉里椠奇(Larry Page),都曾当选英国《金融时报》的年度人物。当选名单中也没有漏掉中国(邓小平和马云)和印度(拉克希米猠呼尔(Lakshmi Mittal))出现的抱负远大的经济人物。Arguably, we went too soon with Tony Blair, George W Bush, even Barack Obama, all of whom were named man of the year early in their terms of office. An understandable and ever-present wariness about rewarding pure evil prevented Osama bin Laden being named in 2001. And the legacy of many of the business people in the list continues to be open to disruption.托尼布莱尔(Tony Blair)、小布什(George W Bush),乃至巴拉克攠巴马(Barack Obama)或许都过早地当选了年度人物——他们都在任期初期就荣获这一称号。出于可以理解、并且始终存在的谨慎,奥萨马本拉登(Osama bin Laden)这个纯粹的恶魔没有成为2001年的年度人物。当选名单上不少商界人物的遗产仍容易被颠覆。But given that this annual election is always hostage to later political, economic, corporate and personal misfortune, it is surprising how many of the choices still stand up to scrutiny.不过还有不少当选人物至今当之无愧。鉴于后来的政治、经济、企业和个人方面的事态发展难以预料,导致这种年度评选总是有其风险,这一点挺让人意外的。Take the coronation of John von Neumann as the FT’s Man of the Century in 1999. It was an unexpected choice. But, as the late Peter Martin wrote in his great portrait of the Budapest-born polymath, von Neumann “devoted himself with ferocious energy… to some of the central issues of the age”, such as mathematical theory, the atomic bomb, economics and the creation of the computer. Given the role technological advances, global conflicts and economic turmoil have played in shaping the 21st century world since, the selection actually looks rather prescient.以1999年约翰冯诺伊曼(John von Neumann)当选英国《金融时报》“世纪人物”为例。这当时是一个出乎人们意料的选择。但是正如已故的彼得氠丁(Peter Martin)用精的文字所描述的那样,这位出生于布达佩斯的学家“以充沛的精力投身于……研究当代一些核心问题”,比如数学理论、原子弹、经济学以及计算机的发明。鉴于自那以后技术进步、全球冲突以及经济动荡在塑造21世纪世界中扮演的角色,那次的评选结果事实上看起来相当有先见之明。 /201512/417788。
  • 5.Hypersomnia5.嗜睡Hypersomnia is a very rare sleep disorder that is said to only affect 200 people in the world today. The disorder is made up of periods of severe sleepiness. These periods of sleep can last for up to 18 hours a day and can go on for days and even weeks. It is said though, that only about 10 attacks occur per year. Before a person is hit with a hypersomnia attack, there are usually flu like symptoms present and a long-lasting headache. The attack itself can cause a person to gain weight and sweat profusely. Kleine-Levin Syndrome is marked by hypersomnia with odd behavior during the attacks, such as binge eating, aggression, confusion, hallucinations, and hypersexuality. There is also Menstrual-Related Hypersomnia which is said to be caused by hormonal imbalances.嗜睡是一种睡眠障碍,目前全球仅有200名患者。这种睡眠障碍是指一段时间内有着严重的睡意。睡意来袭时可持续长达18小时,甚至数天、数星期。但是,患者一年大概只会发作10次。在嗜睡症发作之前,患者通常会有流感和持续性头疼的症状。嗜睡症一旦发作会使人增重并且大量出汗。克莱恩-莱文综合症的特征就是患者在嗜睡症发作期间行为异常,比如暴饮暴食、具有攻击性、意识模糊、出现幻觉和性欲亢进。另外,也有嗜睡症是由女性经期荷尔蒙失调造成的。4.REM-Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD)4.快速眼动期睡眠行为障碍REM-Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is classified under the sleep disorder category of parasomnia. A parasomnia is when undesired events occur while sleeping. This disorder is said to cause people to act out extremely vivid dream while sleeping. RBD is usually confused with sleepwalking, sleep terrors, as well as sleep-talking. A lot of the time these dreams are full of action and sometimes violent. RBD is marked by swearing, shouting, flailing, kicking, and doing actions as if someone is fighting. If not treated, RBD can get worse and more violent. The disorder is mainly seen in men that are suffering from multiple system atrophy or Parkinson#39;s.快速眼动期睡眠行为障碍(RBD)被归为深睡眠状态下的一种睡眠障碍。深睡眠状态下,我们最容易梦到一些不愉快的事件。该种睡眠障碍的患者在逼真的梦境中最容易发病。人们常把这种睡眠障碍与梦游、惊醒、梦呓相混淆。这几种情形的相似之处在于梦境里人们常会做出各种动作,甚至偶尔有暴力动作。但今天所说的这种睡眠障碍以咒骂、大喊大叫、摇摇欲坠、踢脚、以及做一些类似和人打架的动作为标志。如果不治疗,患者病情会愈发严重。这种障碍通常见于多系统萎缩的病人和帕金森病人。3.Exploding Head Syndrome3.爆炸头综合征Exploding head syndrome is another parasomnia that causes the person to hear a loud noise just before falling asleep. Though it sounds like something you#39;d see in a movie, the disorder is real and often occurs while waking up in the middle of the night. Many times the sound reflects the sound of a bomb exploding or a loud banging noise. These sounds cause a lot of distress and often disturb sleep. Not many cases of this disorder are reported, but patients as young as 10 have been diagnosed with it.爆炸头综合征是另一种异睡症,其症状为:患者常会在入睡前听到一声巨响。尽管这听起来像是发生于电影中的情节,但这种障碍是真实存在的,该病经常出现在半夜醒来时。患者常在夜间醒来时听到类似炸弹爆炸的声音或者巨大的砰砰声。这些声音会造成很大的困扰,经常影响睡眠。这种障碍症的实例报道不是很多,根据过往报道,该病患者中有年仅10岁的儿童。2.Sleep paralysis2.睡眠瘫痪症Sleep paralysis is marked by the ability to not move the body when falling asleep or when waking up from sleeping. When sleeping, the body experiences atonia, which is when the body is told to relax and be still. However, in sleep paralysis, atonia occurs when waking up or when falling asleep, instead of during sleep. In some cases people cannot move or even speak, but they are fully aware of what is going on. Sleep paralysis can last for several minutes, but usually goes away on its own. Some believe that the problem is common; saying that up to 40% of the population experiences the disorder. The good news is it isn#39;t harmful and certain actions can sometimes help reduce or eliminate sleep paralysis.睡眠瘫痪症的症状是患者在刚入睡或是将醒未醒时,肢体无法动弹。人在睡眠期间,身体会处于一种张力极低的状态,这种状态常常发生于人体放松且保持静止的时候。但是在患有睡眠瘫痪症的情况下,身体的这种低张力状态不是出现在睡眠中,而是出现在即将醒来或者刚刚入睡的时候。在某些情况下,即使人们在意识上清楚地知道周围发生的一切,身体却动弹不得,也发不出声音。所幸的是,这种睡眠瘫痪在持续了几分钟之后,通常会自己慢慢消失。一些人认为,这样的情况很常见,他们声称,多达40%的人有过这种经历。好在这个问题对人体健康并无不良影响,采取一些治疗手段就可以减轻甚至完全消除这种症状。1.Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Syndrome1.非24小时睡眠-觉醒综合症Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Syndrome is one of the rarest sleep disorders doctors have ever come across. As humans we have a circadian rhythm that is said to roughly correlate with the 24 hours in a day. Of course there are variances from person to person, but usually people have a circadian rhythm of about 24-25 hours. However, people with this disorder do not have stable ;body clocks.; Instead the rhythm becomes delayed and set on 26 hours or longer. Some people even have 72 hour cycles as a regular daily pattern. Someone with a 72 hour cycle would be awake for 48 hours, and those with a 26 hour cycle will usually be awake for about 16. Generally people with the disorder sleep for about 2 hours longer compared to a normal wake time. Those who are blind often suffer from Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Syndrome.非24小时睡眠-觉醒综合症是医生们遇到过的最罕见的睡眠障碍之一。据说我们人类有一种生理节律,大致与一天中的24小时紧密相关。当然了,这个节律也是因人而异,但通常情况下人们的节律周期都是24至25小时。但是有着这种睡眠障碍的人,他们是没有稳定的生物钟的。相反,这类人的节律周期会延迟为26小时,或者是更长的时间。有些人的节律周期甚至达到72小时一循环。这类有着72小时周期节律的患者会保持48小时清醒,而那些以26小时为节律周期的人,他们的清醒时间会比一般人要长两个小时。另外,这种非24小时睡眠-觉醒综合症多发于盲人群体。翻译:风舞落月 前十网 /201511/411789。
  • Soggy bottoms are preferred in the North – but southerners tend to favour a quick dunk。北方人通常把饼干底部都泡得软软的,而南方人则只是蜻蜓点水般稍微泡一下。Yes, England is divided when it comes to eating biscuits, according to a poll showing 65% of those north of Stoke are big dippers。没错,在吃饼干的正确方式这个问题上,英国内部意见不一,一份民调显示,斯托克城以北地区,65%的人都喜欢把饼干泡久一点。They happily wait for the biscuit to go soft before tucking in – risking it ending up in the mug。他们满怀欣喜地等着饼干慢慢泡软之后才吃——虽然有可能一不小心就让饼干在杯子里化掉了。But in the more tentative South, more than 50% of tea and coffee breakers minimise moisture with a brief plunge and delicate first bite。不过在更加谨慎的南方住民里,超过50%的人都只是把饼干稍稍蘸一下茶或者咖啡,再小小地咬下第一口。Custard creams are king in Yorkshire, says the Waitrose Food and Drink report, while chocolate digestives rule in Lancs, Oxford and Cambridge。《维特罗斯(Waitrose)食品和饮料报告》显示,蛋奶冻夹心饼干在约克郡(Yorkshire)的人气无人能敌,而在兰开夏郡(Lancs)、牛津郡和剑桥郡,巧克力消化饼干才是王道。Curiously Oxford prefers dark and Cambridge, milk。令人奇怪的是牛津郡的人喜欢就着只加少量牛奶(或奶油)的咖啡吃饼干,剑桥郡的人更喜欢就着牛奶吃。Ginger nuts are tops in the North East。东北地区人民的最爱是姜汁饼干。Traditional Rich Tea is a favourite in the south west and Wales while Midlands folk enjoy Malted Milk。传统的下午茶饼干是西南地区和威尔士地区人们的心头好,中部地区人民则青睐麦乳精饼干。Cookies are the number one choice in the East of England but bizarrely the Sussex coast breaks with tradition preferring KitKat bars to biccies。曲奇是东英格兰地区人们的首选,但 令人诧异的是,苏塞克斯郡沿岸地区的人们打破传统,他们更喜欢奇巧(KitKat)巧克力棒,而不是饼干。Unsurprisingly, shortb is the top choice in Scotland。黄油酥饼毫无意外地是苏格兰人民的最爱。Waitrose said: “The nation‘s dunking habits produced surprising results。 Choice of biscuit could definitely be linked to your postcode。”维特罗斯表示:“这个国家泡饼干的习惯导致了惊人的结果。你选择的饼干绝对可以和你居住的地区联系起来。”Londoners go for posh “breakfast biscuits”。伦敦居民喜欢更有腔调的“早餐饼干”。But if children did the shopping, we‘d all be eating Jammie Dodgers, according to data from 343 Waitrose stores。不过343家维特罗斯连锁店的数据显示:如果让孩子们购物的话,我们吃到的估计都是果酱夹心饼干。 /201510/405522。
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