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来源:康问答    发布时间:2019年09月20日 16:26:48    编辑:admin         

A baby with a shrunken, misshapen head is surely a heartbreaking sight. But reproductive health experts are warning that microcephaly may be only the most obvious consequence of the sp of the Zika virus.生出一个头部萎缩、畸形的婴儿肯定是让人伤心的情景。但生育卫生专家警告称,小头畸形症可能只是兹Zika)病毒蔓延最为明显的一个后果。Even infants who appear normal at birth may be at higher risk for mental illnesses later in life if their mothers were infected during pregnancy, many researchers fear.许多研究人员担心,即使是出生时看来正常的婴儿,如果他们的母亲在妊娠期间感染了兹卡病毒,他们一生中患上精神疾病的风险也更高。The Zika virus, they say, closely resembles some infectious agents that have been linked to the development of autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.他们表示,兹卡病毒与一些经研究与自闭症、双相情感障碍、精神分裂症的发展有关的致病因子,存在紧密的相似性。Schizophrenia and other debilitating mental illnesses have no single cause, experts emphasized in interviews. The conditions are thought to arise from a combination of factors, including genetic predisposition and traumas later in life, such as sexual or physical abuse, abandonment or heavy drug use.专家在采访中强调,精神分裂症及其他严重影响生活的精神疾病,并非只有单一的原因。这些病情被认为是由一系列因素引发的,包括遗传特质和生活中的创伤,例如性虐待、生理虐待、遭到遗弃或大量用药。But illnesses in utero, including viral infections, are thought to be a trigger.但子宫中的疾病,包括病毒感染,被认为是一个触发条件。“The consequences of this go way beyond microcephaly,said Dr. W. Ian Lipkin, who directs The Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia University.“它的后果远远超出了小头畸形,”哥伦比亚大学感染与免疫研究中心主任W·伊恩·李普W. Ian Lipkin)说。Among children in Latin America and the Caribbean, “I wouldn’t be surprised if we saw a big upswing in A.D.H.D., autism, epilepsy and schizophrenia,he added. “We’re looking at a large group of individuals who may not be able to function in the world.”在拉丁美洲和加勒比地区的儿童中,“如果看到注意力缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)、自闭症、癫痫和精神分裂症大幅增多,我不会感到惊讶的,”他补充道。“我们谈的是一大群可能在世界上无法正常生活工作的个人。”Researchers in Brazil are investigating thousands of reports of microcephalic births. While there is no solid proof that Zika virus is the cause, virologists studying the outbreak strongly suspect it.巴西的研究人员正在研究数千份小头畸形新生儿的报告。尽管还没有确凿的据,但是研究疫情的病毒专家强烈怀疑起因就是兹卡病毒。Although the virus was discovered in 1947, there has been no research into its long-term consequences. Scientists are left to draw inferences from what is known of similar infections.尽管这种病毒是在1947年发现的,但其长期后果并没有得到过研究。科学家只能借助其他相似传染病的已知情况来进行推论。In interviews, psychiatric researchers specializing in fetal development agreed with Dr. Lipkin’s pessimistic prognosis.在采访中,专门研究胎儿发育的精神病学研究人员认同了李普金的悲观预测。A viral attack early in pregnancy can kill a fetus or stunt the growing brain, producing microcephaly, they explained. An infection later in the fetus’s development, when the brain is nearly fully formed, can do damage that is less obvious but still significant.他们解释道,妊娠早期受到病毒感染,可能会扼杀胚胎或抑制生长中的大脑,从而导致小头畸形。如果在胚胎发育后期,大脑几乎完全形成时感染,可能会造成没那么明显但仍然很严重的损害。“It is pretty scary,said Dr. Urs Meyer, a behavioral neurobiologist at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich who studies the consequences of fetal infections in lab animals. “These problems are on a continuous scale, and whether you end up with autism or schizophrenia is complex and we really can’t predict it.”“挺吓人的,”瑞士苏黎世联邦工学Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich)行为神经生物学家于尔·梅Urs Meyer)说。“这些问题在一个连续的量表上,你最终是不是会患上自闭症或精神分裂症是很复杂的问题——我们实际上也并不能预测。”梅耶研究的是实验室动物胚胎感染的后果。Evidence has increased for years that mental illnesses may be linked to exposure during pregnancy to viruses like rubella, herpes and influenza, and to parasites like Toxoplasma gondii.多年来,有越来越多的据显示,精神疾病或许与妊娠期间暴露于风疹、疱疹、流感等病毒,以及弓形虫等寄生虫有关。The effects of Zika mimic those of rubella, some experts noted: Both cause only a mild rash in adults, but can cause stillbirths, microcephaly and eye malformations in newborns.一些专家注意到,兹卡造成的效果与风疹相似。两者对成年人都只会带来轻微的皮疹症状,但却可能会造成死胎,以及新生儿的小头畸形和眼部畸形。In the 1964-65 rubella epidemic, about 20,000 newborns suffered consequences, including 11,000 born deaf, 3,500 born blind and at least 1,800 in whom mental problems were later diagnosed.964年至1965年风疹疫情爆发期间,大约万名新生儿承受了后果,其中包.1万个婴儿出生时即耳聋500个出生时即眼盲,他们当中至少800人后来被诊断出精神问题。That epidemic infected an estimated 12 million Americans. More than 500 million people live in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean to which the World Health Organization has predicted that Zika will sp.那次的疫情大约影响了1200万美国人。世界卫生组织预计兹卡病毒将会在拉美和加勒比海国家传播,那里的总人口超亿。Pathologists in Ljubljana, Slovenia, who dissected a microcephalic fetus aborted at 32 weeks by a European woman who had become pregnant in Brazil reported last week that they found “severe fetal brain injury associated with ZIKV infection with vertical transmissionmeaning the Zika virus had come from the mother’s infection.斯洛文尼亚卢布尔雅那的病理学家解剖了一名欧洲妇女在妊娠32周时堕胎的胎儿遗体。这名妇女是在巴西怀的。专家们报告,他们发现了“与垂直传播的ZIKV感染相关的严重胎儿脑损伤”,这意味着兹卡病毒是由于母亲感染而传给胎儿的。But a pathogen may not even have to reach the fetus to cause damage.但即使病原体不接触到胎儿,也能造成损害。Flu viruses do not cross the placenta, Dr. Meyer of the Swiss Institute noted, but the mother’s immune reaction creates a storm of cytokines, some of which do. Cytokines are small “signalingproteins that can cause cells to stop growing.流感病毒并不能穿透胎盘,瑞士联邦工学院的梅耶说道,但是母亲的免疫反应会催生大量的细胞激素,其中有一部分会进入胎盘。细胞激素是“传导信号”的微小蛋白质,可能会导致细胞停止生长。Reports suggest that Brazil, which was facing economic crises even before the Zika outbreak, has little capacity to cope with a surge of mentally disabled children.报告显示,在兹卡疫情爆发前就已经面临经济危机的巴西,几乎没有应对精神病儿童激增的能力。European researchers initially paid little attention to the South American outbreak, Dr. Meyer said. But that has changed.欧洲研究人员最初对南美洲的疫情爆发没有给予多大的关注,梅耶说。但这一点已经发生了转变。“The information we’re hearing now is just overwhelming,he said. “A whole generation of children might be affected.”“我们现在听到的信息让人难以承受,”他说。“整整一代人可能会受到影响。”来 /201602/427270。

TOKYO —Japan has a rapidly increasingly number of syphilis patients including among young women prompting the health ministry to launch a special research team to find out ways to stop the sp of the sexually transmitted infection.东京报道——日本出现了快速增长的梅毒病例,包括在年轻妇女当中,这促使卫生部发起了一个特别的研究团队以寻找方法来阻止不断扩大的性传播疾病。According to data based on reports filed by hospitals across Japan the number of syphilis patients totaled 4259 as of early December up 77% from 2412 in the corresponding period a year earlier and more than seven-fold from a decade ago.根据全日本医院填写的报告所提供的数据,截止2月初,梅毒患者共4259例,相比去年同期412例,同比上升7%,和10年前相比,翻倍还不止。The infection is believed to have sp mainly through heterosexual intercourse. But the number of mother-to-child transmissions which has been very rare in Japan is also on the rise.这些传染被认为主要通过异性之间的性行为进行传播。但是以往在日本非常罕见的母婴传播的数量也在攀升中。The Ministry of Health Labor and Welfare has been urging people who feel they may have been infected to be tested immediately as the disease can be transmitted despite the absence of symptoms.日本卫生福利部已经敦促那些感觉已经被传染的人立刻接受检测,因为该病可能在没有症状的情况下进行传播。Infections are especially rife in Tokyo’s Shinjuku Ward where numerous entertainment and nightlife businesses operate with the number of syphilis patients reported by hospitals in the ward accounting for 40 percent of Tokyo’s total and 20 percent of cases across the whole of Japan.东京新宿区的传染扩散得尤为严重,这里聚集了大量得夜生活场所,据医院统计这里有着全东0%、全日本20%的梅毒患者。来 /201701/488631。

On my first day as head of presidential personnel for Barack Obama, I woke to the surprising headline that Senator Tom Daschle of South Dakota had withdrawn his nomination to be health secretary.在我担任巴拉奥巴Barack Obama)总统的人事负责人的第一天,我注意到一条令人意外的头条消息:南达科他州参议员汤达施Tom Daschle)退出了卫生部部长的提名。What seemed like a relatively small tax issue was attracting too much media and he decided to bow out. 看上去相对较小的税务问题却引起了媒体的太多关注,因此他决定退出。Each day thereafter was filled with additional shocks and a schedule of back-to-back interviews, 400,000 CVs to review and background checks 后来的每一天都充满更多的震惊和一个接一个的面试,需要评0万份简历,并展开背景调查。all amid constant media predictions, which usually had no connection to reality.同时媒体一直在预测,而这些预测通常都与现实毫无关系。For a new US administration to begin work straight after inauguration day, a daunting number of decisions have to be made within the weeks following the election. 新一届美国政府要在总统就职后马上开展工作的话,必须在选举后的几周之内做出数量惊人的决定。This is particularly true in 2016, where policy differences with the outgoing administration are stark. 2016年尤其如此,因为新政府与即将卸任的政府之间的政策分歧明显。Had Hillary Clinton won, it would have been a friendly process, with less pressure to replace people or policy. 如果是希拉里.克林Hillary Clinton)获胜,这会是一个友好的过程,替换人员或政策的压力较小。Yet even the most professionally managed transitions are chaotic. 然而,即便是管理最专业的过渡也会是混乱的。If Donald Trump hopes to avoid disruption to the work of government, he needs to organise quickly, starting with personnel.如果唐纳特朗Donald Trump)希望避免他的政府工作中断,他需要迅速组织,从人事开始。More than 4,000 White House and executive branch positions need to be filled, including more than 1,000 that require Senate confirmation. 有超000个白宫和行政部门职位需要填补,其中1000多个需要参议院确认。Picking the appointee is merely the first stage and triggers Federal Bureau of Investigation security clearance, political vetting and a review by the Office of Government Ethics to avoid financial conflicts. 物色人选只是第一步,接下来是联邦调查局(FBI)的安全检查、政治审查和政府道德办公Office of Government Ethics)为避免财务利益冲突所做的评估。For some individuals, it comes as a surprise that they must lay bare all of the activities from their adult lives and unwind financial holdings to remove conflicts. 一些个人会吃惊地发现,他们必须报告他们成年后的所有活动,并卖掉金融资产,以消除利益冲突。This takes weeks, where seemingly minor queries cripple the wider appointments process.这需要数周时间,在这个过程中,看似微不足道的调查会拖慢整个任命程序。President-elect Trump’s transition team has to take some key decisions right now. 当选总统特朗普的过渡团队需要马上做出一些重要决定。First, they must be clear with nominees about their redlines on lobbying, representing foreign governments, employing illegal immigrants, infidelity or whether they have used marijuana (even in a state where it is legal). 首先,他们必须让被提名者清楚他们在游说、代表外国政府、聘用非法移民、不忠或者他们是否吸食大麻(即使是在吸大麻合法的州)等方面的红线。They will also need to consider the different standards of Senate committees; the banking committee has higher standards on tax issues for example. 他们还需要考虑各参议院委员会的不同标准;例如,业委员会在税务问题上的标准较高。Being upfront will avoid future embarrassment, as the FBI uncovers everything.开诚布公将避免未来的尴尬,因为联邦调查局会揭露一切。Second, the transition team needs to decide the importance of diversity in its administration. 第二,过渡团队需要确定新政府多样性的重要性。Once one position is decided, it will dictate the make-up of other appointments. 一旦确定某个职务,它将影响其他任命。And third, they will need to decide the balance of power in picking appointees in the cabinet agencies: does the cabinet secretary or White House make the final call?第三,他们需要决定内阁部门人员遴选中的权力平衡:做出最终决定的是内阁秘书长还是白宫?Concerns have been expressed that the Trump transition is behind schedule and is struggling to get organised.有人担心,特朗普政府的过渡工作已落后,而且忙乱没有条理。During the Obama transition, by this stage we had detailed policy plans and agency review teams in place, as well as lists of pre-vetted appointees for the positions requiring Senate confirmation y on election day. 在奥巴马政府过渡期间,到现在这个阶段,我们已经有了详细政策计划和部门评估团队,经过预审的需要参议院确认的岗位人选名单在选举日就准备好了。We still entered a world of organised chaos. 即便这样我们还是进入了一个有序混乱的世界。Our best-laid plans did not survive very long.我们设计最完美的计划也没有坚持很长时间。Given the apparent lack of planning, Mr Trump’s transition will encounter an exacerbated version of these challenges. 鉴于明显缺乏计划,特朗普的过渡团队将遭遇更严峻的挑战。The appointments and confirmation process may be messier, particularly at levels below the cabinet where it seems even fewer preparations have been made. 任命和确认程序可能会更加混乱,尤其是内阁以下职务,特朗普在这方面的准备似乎做得更少。This will have a knock-on effect: without these appointees in place, the administration will not be able to implement its policy and budget priorities.这将产生连锁效应:如果这些被提名人选没有到位,特朗普政府将无法实施其政策和预算优先任务。Perhaps in the coming weeks, we will see a more organised personnel process from Mr Trump. 或许未来几周,我们将看到特朗普制定出一个更有条理的人事任命程序。Failure to do so will mean a less capable leadership and further confusion in Washington. 否则这将意味着领导能力不足,美国政府将更加混乱。Suspicion will increase in foreign capitals too about Mr Trump’s ability to lead the US.外国政府也将更加质疑特朗普领导美国的能力。来 /201612/481654。

A U.S. federal appeals court expects to issue a ruling sometime this week on the governments request to end a temporary pause of President Donald Trumps travel ban.美国一个联邦上诉法院本周将就川普政府请求结束暂停旅行限令一案作出裁决。A lower federal court issued the temporary restraining order last week, saying the government could not enforce the 90-day entry ban on people from seven Muslim-majority countries or the 120-day suspension on accepting refugees.一个联邦下级法院上个星期颁发了一项临时限制令,规定政府不得对来自7个以穆斯林为主的国家的公民实0天的入境限令,也不能暂停120天接收难民。Now the three-judge panel on the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals is deciding whether to uphold that order, strike it down, or potentially send the case back to the lower court for further consideration. No matter their ruling this week, the case is likely to end up at the Supreme Court.由美国联邦第九巡回上诉法院的三位法官组成的合议庭正在考虑持还是驳回这项临时限制令,还是能将案件送回下级法院再审。无论他们本周如何裁决,此案都很可能会被送到最高法院。The judges heard arguments by telephone Tuesday from an attorney representing the states of Washington and Minnesota, which say the travel ban is unconstitutional and should be invalidated, and from a Department of Justice lawyer who said the president has the authority to issue such an executive order and protect national security.法官星期二通过电话听取了一位代表华盛顿州和明尼苏达州的律师以及一位来自司法部的律师的陈述。前者认为旅行限令违宪,应该宣布无效;而后者表示总统有权下达这种政令,以保护国家安全。If the 9th Circuit does rule on the case, rather than ordering it back to the lower court, that decision will have big implications for possible action by the Supreme Court.如果联邦第九巡回法院做出裁决,而不是将案件送回下级法院,那么这一裁决将对最高法院的决定产生很大影响。The nations highest court has been shorthanded since the death last year of Justice Antonin Scalia, and it is now evenly divided between four liberal-leaning justices and four conservative-leaning ones. It would take the votes of five Supreme Court justices to overturn the appellate courts ruling, meaning a 4-4 tie would let stand whatever the 9th Circuit decides.自从安东宁·斯卡利亚大法官去年去世之后,美国最高法院一直没有补缺。现在最高法院里有四名偏自由派的法官,四名偏保守派的法官。要想推翻上诉法院的裁决,需要五名最高法院法官的赞同,而目前四比四的局面意味着最高法院可能会持第九巡回法院做出的任何裁决。The Supreme Court could also decline to hear the case.最高法院也可以拒绝受理此案。For now, enforcement of the order is entirely suspended, and immigration advocates have been encouraging people who have obtained U.S. visas to board airplanes as soon as they can. Each day since the suspension, would-be immigrants have been doing just that.目前,旅行限令全面暂停执行,移民持者一直在鼓励持有美国签的人尽早登机。旅行限令被暂停后的每一天,准备移民的人都在这样做。来 /201702/491172。