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2019年11月21日 14:22:17来源:百科知识

  • MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif. — For more than a half-century, a small group of astronomers has sought intelligent company among the stars. They’ve done so by turning large radio antennas skyward, hoping to eavesdrop on signals from an advanced society. It’s a program known as SETI, the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.加利福尼亚山景城——半个多世纪以来,一些天文学家一直在探寻星际中的智慧生命,探寻我们的同伴。他们为此架设朝向天空的大型无线电天线,以期捕获来自科技先进的世界的信号。人们称这一探索计划为“地外文明搜寻计划”(Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence,简称SETI)。But now some researchers propose that we should do more than simply don headphones and await E.T.’s call: We should make serious efforts to encourage a response from putative aliens by deliberately transmitting our own messages. It’s a simple idea, akin to tossing a bottle into the cosmic ocean. But recent arguments for what’s termed active SETI have loosed a storm of controversy, one that has even washed into the halls of academe.不过,现在有一些研究者建议,我们不能只是侧耳倾听,等待外星人的召唤,而要做更多、更积极的努力,主动传递出自己的信息,鼓励可能存在的外星人做出回应。这是个简单的想法,如同向浩瀚的宇宙扔一只瓶子。不过最近,被称作“主动探寻地外文明”的想法引发了诸多讨论,刮起了一场争议的风暴,甚至蔓延到了学术界。Why is this? Why has the sending of dispatches to worlds many trillions of miles distant suddenly become a hot-button issue? The simple answer is that there’s now a perception that advertising our existence could be a mortal threat to the planet.这是为什么呢?为什么向远在万亿英里之外的世界发送信息会骤然成为热点话题?很简单,因为现在有一种看法认为,广泛宣示人类的存在可能会对我们的星球造成致命威胁。The reasoning is this: While no one has yet offered decisive proof for life beyond Earth, in the past two years astronomers have learned that tens of billions of habitable planets suffuse our galaxy. Consequently, to believe that only Earth has spawned intelligence is to insist that our world is the site of a miracle. That point of view rarely appeals to scientists.原因在于:尽管尚未有人能给出存在地外生命的确凿据,但过去两年间,天文学家们了解到,我们的系遍布着数以百亿的宜居星球。因此,让人相信只有地球产生了智慧生命就等于坚持认为我们生活的世界全然是一块奇迹之地。科学家不喜欢这种假设。The aliens could very well be out there. And that realization has spurred a call by some for broadcasts intended to elicit a communication from at least the nearest other star systems. But we know nothing of the aliens’ possible motives or behavior. Therefore, it’s conceivable that betraying our existence might prompt aggressive action from space.地球以外很可能存在外星人。这种认识引起一些人呼吁发出广播信号,意在引发至少与最近星系的交流。不过,我们对外星人的动机和行为一无所知。因此可以想像,泄露人类的存在可能会激起来自太空的侵略行动。Broadcasting is likened to “shouting in the jungle” — not a good idea when you don’t know what’s out there. The British physicist Stephen Hawking alluded to this danger by noting that on Earth, when less advanced societies drew the attention of those more advanced, the consequences for the former were seldom agreeable.向地外发送广播信号就像“在丛林中大声叫喊”,如果你不知道周围存在着什么,那么这样做可能很不明智。英国物理学家史蒂芬·霍金(Stephen Hawking)便暗示过这种危险——他指出,在地球上,如果较落后社会引起了较先进社会的注意,那对前者来说很少是件好事。It’s a worry we never used to have. Victorian-era scientists toyed with plans to use lanterns and burning pools of oil to contact postulated Martians. In the 1970s, NASA bolted greeting cards onto spacecraft that will leave our solar system and wander the vast reaches between the stars. The Pioneer and Voyager probes carry plaques and records with information about what humans look like and where Earth is, as well as a small sampling of our culture.过去,我们从来没有这种担心。维多利亚时代的科学家设想过用点亮灯盏和大量燃油的方式与设若存在的火星人取得联系。到了20世纪70年代,美国国家航空航天局将问候贺卡栓牢在航天器上,并随航天器离开太阳系、在恒星之间的广阔空间漫游。“先驱者”号和“旅行者”号探测器则携带镀金铝板和镀金铜质唱片,承载着人类长什么模样和地球位于何方的信息,还包括一个人类文化的小样本。Those messages move at the speed of rockets. But in 1974, a three-minute encoded pictogram was transmitted using the large radio antenna at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. It moves at the speed of light, 20,000 times faster. More recent radio transmissions include a Beatles song beamed by NASA to the North Star, a Doritos advertisement launched to a planetary system in the Big Dipper, and a series of broadcasts sent to nearby stars using an antenna in Crimea.上述这些信息的传递速度与火箭相同。不过1974年,波多黎各的阿雷西天文台(Arecibo)用大型无线电天线发送了一个3分钟的编码图片符号,运行速度已达光速,比之前的信息快2万倍。更近期发送的无线电信息有:美国宇航局向北极星传送的一甲壳虫乐队的歌,向北斗星座一个行星系发送的一段“立体脆”食品广告,以及通过在克里米亚的一部天线向近地恒星发送的一系列无线电信号。When most people believed that aliens were no more than easy black hats for Hollywood, the idiosyncratic nature of these messages could be easily dismissed. But if cosmic company is a legitimate possibility, shouldn’t we offer up something more edifying than pop music and snack food? A deliberate transmission should represent all of humanity — not short-circuit the important question of who will speak for Earth.在大多数人认为外星人不过是好莱坞的噱头的时代,人们很容易对这些怪怪的选择不以为然。但如果真的有可能存在外星生命,我们难道不应当发送比流行音乐和小吃零食更有助益的信息吗?深思熟虑后发送的信息应当能代表全体人类——而不能回避谁可以代表地球这一重要问题。Consequently, recent conferences on the merits of active SETI have sought the advice of social scientists. Among their worries is whether to be up front about humanity’s seamy side: Should we tell the extraterrestrials about war and injustice?所以,最近就“主动探寻地外文明”的好处方面,有讨论会开始向社会科学家寻求意见。诸多担忧中有一条,是否要诚实展现人类丑陋的一面。我们需要告诉地外文明我们有战争和不公正现象吗?Personally, I think this concern is overwrought. Any society that can pick up our radio messages will be at a level of development at least centuries beyond our own. They would be no more incensed by our bad behavior than historians who learned that Babylonians attacked one another with spears. It seems na#239;ve to imagine that, by shielding aliens from the less flattering aspects of humanity, we would somehow lessen any incentive to do us harm. If there’s a danger, mincing words is unlikely to eliminate it.就个人而言,我认为这种担忧过虑了。能接收到地球无线电信息的社会必定处在比我们先进至少几世纪的发展水平。他们对人类的不良行为产生的愤怒不会比历史学家发现巴比伦人自相残杀更严重。认为只要对他们掩盖我们不光的一面,就可以降低他们加害我们的动机,这种想法似乎太天真。如果确有危险存在,我们不太可能通过文过饰非把这种危险消除。A better approach is to note that the nearest intelligent extraterrestrials are likely to be at least dozens of light-years away. Even assuming that active SETI provokes a reply, it won’t be breezy conversation. Simple back-and-forth exchanges would take decades. This suggests that we should abandon the “greeting card” format of previous signaling schemes, and offer the aliens Big Data.一种更好的做法,是先认识到离我们最近的地外智慧生命可能至少也隔着几十光年的距离。即使主动SETI的行为引起了一个回应,那也不会是顺畅的聊天。简单的一问一答也要几十年。这意味着,我们要放弃以前那种“问候卡”式的信号发送模式,向外星人发送大数据。For example, we could transmit the contents of the Internet. Such a large corpus — with its text, pictures, s and sounds — would allow clever extraterrestrials to decipher much about our society, and even formulate questions that could be answered with the material in hand. Sending the web on its way would take months if a radio transmitter were used. A powerful laser, conveying bits much like an optical fiber, could launch these data in a few days.比如,我们可以发送互联网内容。文本、图片、视频和音频汇编的大型数据库可以让聪明的外星人破解更多有关人类社会的信息,甚至思考出一些用手头资料能够解答的问题。采用无线电广播发射机传送网络信息需要几个月时间;而用强激光传送这些数据只需几天,很像用光导纤维传输。Sending messages — even big ones — is technically feasible. However, there’s still the highly controversial matter of whether to broadcast at all. Who decides? One could simply let the public weigh in, but doing so wouldn’t address the security issue. Even if a majority is comfortable with a transmission, how does that mitigate the possible danger?向地外传送信息乃至大量信息,从技术角度来讲是可行的。不过,要不要向地外发送信息还是一个争议极大的问题。谁来做这个决定?我们完全可以让公众参与决策,但这并不能解决安全问题。即便多数人愿意发送信息,那就能消除潜在危险了吗?The inability to gauge this peril prompts some critics to argue that, given the possibly existential threat posed by active SETI, we should choose the side of caution. We should simply forbid powerful transmissions to the skies. Indeed, a small consortium of academics in California has drafted a petition urging this.由于无法测量这种危险,一些批评者提出,考虑到主动寻找地外文明可能造成的威胁,我们宁可慎重,应当禁止向外太空进行大功率传输。事实上,加州一小部分学者已经就此起草了请愿书,呼吁这么做。It’s a wary approach. It’s also poor insurance. Any extraterrestrials with technology advanced enough to threaten us will surely have antennas larger than our own, instruments that can pick up the television and radio signals broadcast willy-nilly since World War II. We are aly shouting into the jungle, albeit with less volume than a deliberate signal. But the dangerous creatures may have good hearing.这种做法虽谨慎,却也不是万无一失。技术发达程度足以威胁我们的地外文明必定拥有比我们更大的天线等强大设备,能够接收二战以来人类发送的杂乱的电视信号和无线电信号。我们已经在对着丛林大喊了,只不过音量没有主动发送的信号那么大。但危险生物的耳朵也可能很尖。Additionally, if we forbid high-powered transmitters aimed at the sky, we shut out such obvious future technologies as better radars for aviation and tracking dangerous asteroids. Do we really want to hamstring our descendants this way?此外,如果禁止高功率设备向天空发射信号,我们显然就阻断了未来技术的发展,研制不出在航空飞行及追踪危险小行星领域性能更加优越的雷达。我们真的要就此束缚后世儿孙的发展吗?A decision to engage in active SETI has not been made. The benefit — learning our place in the cosmos — is only hypothetical, and so is the danger. But I, for one, would hesitate to let a paranoia based on nothing more than conjecture shackle the activities of our children and our children’s children. The universe beckons, and we can do better than to declare that future generations should endlessly tremble at the sight of the stars.是否应当开展主动SETI还没有定论。这么做的好处——了解我们在宇宙中的位置——只是一种假设,但其风险也是假设。但就个人而言,我会犹豫是否让一种只有猜想做基础的疑神疑鬼心理束缚住我们的孩子、孩子的孩子的行动。宇宙在召唤,我们应该能做得更好,而不是让未来一代人看到星星就陷入无尽的恐惧战栗中。 /201504/370005。
  • Why do some travelers squabble about overhead bin space? Or feud over an armrest? Why, when a passenger reclines his seat, does another respond with rage befitting the pages of “Lord of the Flies”?为什么有些旅客会为舱顶行李箱或扶手发生口角?为什么前排乘客把椅背向后调,后排乘客会用简直可以写进《蝇王》(Lord of the Flies)式的狂怒去回应?What makes rational travelers like you and me suddenly explode?为什么你我这样理智的旅客会突然之间勃然大怒?Some factors are environmental (packed planes, teeming gates); others are internal (stress, fatigue). Together, they can make a perfect storm. Last month at least three flights were diverted because passengers got into fights about reclining seats (and that’s to say nothing of the other unruly passenger incidents that regularly transpire). While the percentage of flights diverted each year is low — it’s been well under 0.40 percent since at least 2004, according to the Bureau of Transportation Statistics — even a handful of diversions due to passengers who can’t play nice is too many. We may be animals, but need we prove it on a flight to West Palm Beach?有环境方面的原因(拥挤的机舱和入口处的排队等候);也有旅客自身的原因(压力、疲惫)。这些因素结合在一起很容易让人发怒。上个月,至少有三个航班因为有乘客向后调节椅背导致打架而改变航线(更不必说其他难以约束的的乘客事件也经常发生)。虽然每年航班改道的比率很低——据美国运输统计局称,至少从2004年起,远低于0.40%)——但就算只有几起改道航班事件是由不友好的乘客引起的,也还是显得太多了。我们也许真的是动物,但我们需要在飞往西棕榈滩的航班上明这一点吗?One of the most obvious catalysts is, of course, a crowded cabin. Many seats are thinner and narrower than in the past, and planes like some 777s, which used to have only nine seats across in coach, now cram 10 across.当然,一个最明显的催化剂是拥挤的机舱。很多飞机的座位比过去更窄,比如,波音777的某些飞机过去一排有九个座位,现在却挤了十个。“When you crowd people together, there is a point at which they are no longer able to function appropriately,” said Leon James, a professor of psychology at the University of Hawaii who has studied road and air rage. Crowding breeds feelings of alienation, cynicism and anonymity. It leads, as Dr. James put it, to “a breakdown of ordinary social inhibitions” — such as controlling one’s explosive emotions.“如果你让人们挤在一起,到了一定程度,他们就不再能做出适当的行为,”夏威夷大学研究路上和机上愤怒的心理学教授利昂·詹姆斯(Leon James)说。拥挤会滋生异化、利己和匿名的感觉。就像詹姆斯士说的,它会导致“普通社交控制力的崩溃”——诸如控制情绪爆发等能力。Planes today are, in a word, antisocial, he said. Little wonder that people recline their seats without a friendly warning. “They just do it,” said Dr. James, adding that it’s a sign of “impersonal hostility among passengers,” an atmosphere “created by the airlines by the way they manage the passengers.” Most airlines don’t encourage social cabin environments (more on how to do that later). Rather, he said, their service changes have reinforced the hostile climate. By increasing fees for checked bags, passengers on a budget have had to compete for overhead bin space. By eliminating hot meals in coach, travelers have resorted to carrying on their own sometimes odoriferous food at the expense of their seatmates’ noses.他总结说,如今的飞机是反社交的。难怪人们调节座椅时不会友好地提醒后座的人。“他们就这么做了,”詹姆斯说。他补充说,这是“乘客间冷漠敌意”的一个表现,这种气氛是“航空公司对待乘客的方式造成的”。大部分航空公司不去营造彼此交流的机舱氛围(我后面再具体谈谈如何改善这一点)。他说,相反,航空公司务的改变强化了这种敌意气氛。由于托运行李费用增加,节省的乘客们不得不争夺舱顶行李箱。由于取消机上热餐,乘客们就自带食物,有时食物的味道不太好闻,邻座的鼻子就会遭罪。I find myself thinking of John B. Calhoun’s seminal overpopulation research, published in Scientific American in the 1960s, which found that as rats were increasingly crowded together they became ever more aggressive and exhibited “behavior disturbances” from “frenetic overactivity” to “pathological withdrawal.”我想起了20世纪60年代约翰·B·卡尔霍恩(John B. Calhoun)在《科学美国人》(Scientific American)上发表的一项关于人口过剩的重要研究。他发现,老鼠所在的空间越拥挤,它们就越好斗,表现出“疯狂的过度活跃”或“病态退缩”等“行为障碍”。In a congested plane, it’s not just other passengers from whom we feel estranged, though.不过,在拥挤的飞机上,我们不只是对其他乘客感到疏远。“You feel a distance from your sense of self,” said Emma Seppala, the associate director of the Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education at Stanford University School of Medicine. “You lose self-awareness,” she continued, referring to one interpretation of a psychological theory known as deindividuation, “and it’s been shown to lessen rationality.”“你对自己的自我意识感到疏远,”斯坦福大学医学院同情与利他研究教育中心的副所长艾玛·斯帕拉(Emma Seppala)说。她继续说道,“你失去自我意识”——这是对“去个体化”(deindividuation)心理学理论的一种解释——“有据表明,这会降低理性”。The cabin is perhaps the most glaring environmental factor contributing to air rage, but there’s also the theater of getting to the airport and checking in: stop-and-go traffic, the obstacle course of suitcases on the curb, noise bouncing off the terminal walls, snail-like security lines, endless pings from your smartphone as work emails continue to land even as you remove your shoes and shove them into an X-ray machine.机舱可能是最明显的导致机上愤怒的环境因素,但是去机场、办理登机手续也让人烦躁:交通状况不好,路边的行李箱带来障碍,航站楼中回荡的噪音,安检队伍像蜗牛爬行一样缓慢,智能手机的提示音不停作响——因为工作邮件还是会不断到来,就算你脱掉鞋子,把它们塞进安检机后,手机还是响个不停。“Evolutionarily we’re currently experiencing more stimulation than we ever have before,” Dr. Seppala said. Many people feel overtaxed and depleted, especially when traveling, and “that really impacts our self-control and willpower,” she said.“从进化角度看,我们现在感受到的刺激超过之前任何时候,”斯帕拉士说。很多人感到负担过重,筋疲力尽,特别在旅行时,她说,“那真的会影响我们的自控力和意志力。”Self-control, however, is not a neat, unitary concept. It’s not as if some people have it and some people don’t.不过,自控不是个简单、单一的概念。不是说有些人有,有些人没有。“There are multiple ways to fail at self-control, and each of these are supported by different brain circuits,” said Joshua W. Buckholtz, an assistant professor in the department of psychology and center for brain science at Harvard. “As it turns out self-control is this heterogeneous construct, and we’re only now beginning to parse it and understand what these distinct faculties are.”“很多因素会让我们失控,每个因素由大脑的不同回路控制,”哈佛大学心理系和脑科学中心副教授约书亚·W·巴克霍茨(Joshua W. Buckholtz)说,“结果发现,自控是个包含很多因素的复杂机制,我们现在刚开始分析它,想弄清它由哪些不同的机能组成。”What we do know is that certain things can affect our capacity for self-control, particularly stress and sleep deprivation — which tend to be as much a part of travel as luggage.我们确切知道的是,某些因素会影响我们的自控力,特别是压力和睡眠不足——它们和行李一样,是旅行的一部分。A study by neuroscientists at New York University, published last year in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that “even mild stress can make it difficult to control your emotions.” Other studies have shown that stress can make you more self-focused, said Dr. Seppala, resulting in tunnel vision for whatever it is you want, and woe be to anyone who gets in the way.纽约大学的神经系统科学家们去年在美国国家科学院学报上发表了一项研究。他们发现“甚至连轻微的压力都会让人很难控制情绪”。斯帕拉士说,其他一些研究表明,压力会让你更专注自我,视野狭隘,只关注自己想要的东西,厌烦任何妨碍你的人。Being jet-lagged, or simply not having had a good night’s rest, also makes you vulnerable.时差或睡眠不足也会让你变得脆弱。“Sleep deprivation can play a really important role in making people act much more emotional,” said Iris Mauss, an associate professor in the department of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. A study by her colleague Matthew Walker, director of the university’s Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory, found that “without sleep, the brain had reverted back to more primitive patterns of activity,” he said in a news release, “in that it was unable to put emotional experiences into context and produce controlled, appropriate responses.”“睡眠不足真的会让人变得更情绪化,”加州大学伯克利分校心理系副教授艾丽斯·莫斯(Iris Mauss)说。她的同事、该校睡眠与神经影像研究室主管马修·沃克(Matthew Walker)做过一项研究,他在新闻发布会上说,“大脑在缺乏睡眠的情况下回到更原始的运行模式,无法把情绪体验放在具体环境中思考,无法做出克制的适当反应。”Stress and sleep deprivation also hurt our ability to interpret other people’s intentions and mental states. For instance, you might jump to the conclusion that the person who reclined his seat onto your lap is a jerk, when in fact maybe he’s a tired soldier returning from duty, or someone with a disability. “The very rich representations of other people’s minds become degraded and impoverished when we are stressed and sleep deprived,” said Dr. Buckholtz of Harvard. “Your predictions about other people are wrong.”压力和睡眠不足还会影响我们对他人意图和精神状态的理解。例如,前排的人把椅背向后调,压到你的手提电脑,你可能会马上认定他是个蠢货,而实际上他可能是个疲惫的退伍士兵或者残疾人士。“在有压力、缺乏睡眠的情况下,你会简单粗暴地理解他人头脑的丰富表现,”哈佛大学的巴克霍茨士说,“那时你对他人的理解是错误的。”Even those who pick fights at 35,000 feet?甚至包括那些在3.5万英尺的高空寻衅滋事的人?“They may be really nice people, but in that situation they got really deindividuated,” said Dr. Seppala of Stanford, referring to a loss of self-awareness. When we see another person act badly, we conclude, often incorrectly, that he or she is a bad person. Psychologists call this “fundamental attribution error.” After all, when we ourselves act badly, we simply say, “I had a bad day,” or “I wasn’t myself.” We don’t define ourselves as bad.“他们可能是很好的人,但是在那种情况下,他们真的失去了自我,”斯坦福大学的斯帕拉士说。她指的是自我意识的丧失。当我们看到有人行为恶劣时,经常会错误地认定他/她是个坏人。心理学家们称之为“基本归因错误”。毕竟,我们自己表现恶劣时会说,“我今天心情不好”或者“我平常不是这样的”。我们不认为自己是坏人。In a heated exchange, it can help to view the other person as someone who is fundamentally good, yet going through something stressful. Some people are obviously better at doing that — and at regulating their emotions — than others. They’re resilient, able to distance themselves from a stressful situation while others in the same situation fall apart. Are these stoics just born that way? Scholars like Dr. Mauss of the University of California, Berkeley, are still trying to find out. But she said being good at regulating emotion seems to be something that’s learned either early in life from, say, your parents, or later in life through conscious reflection on yourself as well as analysis of situations in which you learn to think, “this will pass,” or “it’s not relevant in the grand scheme of things.”在激烈争吵时,想想对方本质上是个好人,只是现在有些压力,会对情况有所帮助。有些人明显更擅长于此,能控制住自己的情绪。他们更有弹性,能让自己从紧张情况中脱离出来,而其他人在同样的情况下可能已经崩溃了。这些镇定的人是天生如此吗?加州大学伯克利分校的莫斯士等学者仍在努力弄清这个问题。不过她说,善于控制情绪似乎是早年从父母那里学来的,或者是后来在生活中通过有意识的自我反省或者通过分析情况养成的——在这个过程中你学会这样想:“这会过去的”或者“从更广阔的角度看,这无关紧要”。When our emotions are high and we’re physiologically aroused, however, it’s difficult to reason with ourselves. Thankfully, there are other ways to control the mind. Take breathing, for instance. Dr. Seppala cited a study that showed that different emotions such as joy, anger, fear and sadness, each have distinct patterns of breathing (like faster and shallow when afraid, she said). What’s revolutionary, she added, is that the study also showed that by breathing in different ways, people were actually able to generate different emotions.不过,当我们在情绪上和生理上很激动时,我们很难理智思考。幸好还有其他方法来控制大脑。比如,深呼吸。斯帕拉士说,一项研究表明,处于高兴、生气、恐惧和悲伤等不同的情绪之下,会有不同的呼吸方式(她说,比如恐惧时呼吸会更快、更浅)。她补充说,具有革命意义的是,这项研究还发现,用不同的方式呼吸真的能产生不同的情绪。“It’s the only autonomic process that can be controlled,” said Dr. Seppala, who is also the lead author of a study published last month in The Journal of Traumatic Stress that found that a breathing-based meditation was able to decrease post-traumatic stress in American military veterans. “We can learn to have an impact on our nervous system,” she said.“它是唯一可控的自发过程,”斯帕拉士说。她也是上月发表在《创伤压力杂志》(The Journal of Traumatic Stress)上的一项研究的主要作者。那项研究发现,以呼吸为基础的冥想能减轻美国退伍军人的创伤后压力。“我们能学会对自己的神经系统施加影响,”她说。The breathing-based meditation that was used by the researchers is known as Sudarshan Kriya Yoga, and it has also been shown to increase self-reported “optimism and well-being” in college students, and to decrease self-reported anxiety in people with general anxiety disorder. Don’t have time for meditation or yoga? Experts say to make time, because the better you are, the better your fellow travelers will be.研究者们所使用的呼吸冥想被称为净化呼吸法,大学生练习后自称变得“更乐观、健康”,有焦虑障碍的人练习后自称焦虑减轻。没时间冥想或做瑜伽?专家们说,那就腾出时间来,因为你变得更好,跟你同行的旅客们也会变得更好。“Taking care of yourself,” Dr. Seppala said, “is the most unselfish thing you can do.”斯帕拉士说,“照顾好自己是你能做的最无私的事情。”There’s plenty the airlines could be doing, too (aside from configuring planes with seats that actually fit their ticket holders). For example: Improve the cabin atmosphere.航空公司也有很多方面需要提高(除了把机舱座位设计得可以真正容纳购票者之外)。比如,改善机舱气氛。“They have to think of the crowd as a potential community,” said Dr. James of the University of Hawaii, and enact certain community-building principles. One simple tactic is what he refers to as live demography: a flight attendant standing in front of the cabin asking questions like “How many of you are going home?” or “Raise your hand if you’ve never been on an airplane before.” It may sound like a kindergarten exercise, but it encourages passengers to relax, be friendly and communicate with one another. “It breaks the anonymity and the hostility,” Dr. James said.夏威夷大学的詹姆斯士说,“他们必须把机上乘客当成一个潜在团体”,并且采取某些团体建设的方法。一个简单的方法是他所谓的现场人口统计:一位空乘人员站在机舱前问一些问题,比如“你们中间有多少人是返乡?”或者“以前从未坐过飞机的请举手”。这可能听起来像幼儿园活动,但它能帮助乘客放松,让他们更友好,愿意相互交流。“它能打破隔膜和敌意,”詹姆斯士说。Airline personnel also need to be trained, or better trained, to be more compassionate in how they handle people, he said, be it demonstrating sympathy when problems arise or simply being specific when asked about delays, saying “20 minutes” instead of just “a few more minutes,” which creates uncertainty and increases frustration.他说,航空公司的人员还需要接受更多培训,以便在对待乘客时更有同情心,不管是在问题出现时表现出同情心,还是在乘客询问延误时间时具体地说“20分钟”,而不是“几分钟”,后面这种说法给人一种不确定的感觉,让人更沮丧。“The airlines have to learn how to help people cope,” he said. “If they don’t, it’s going to get a lot worse.”“航空公司必须学会如何帮助乘客应对糟糕情况,”他说,“否则,情况会变得糟糕很多。” /201412/349716。
  • NEW DELHI — FOR weeks the breathing of my 8-year-old son, Bram, had become more labored, his medicinal inhaler increasingly vital. And then, one terrifying night nine months after we moved to this megacity, Bram’s inhaler stopped working and his gasping became panicked.新德里——在接连几周的时间里,我八岁的儿子布拉姆(Bram)的呼吸变得越来越吃力,他的药用吸入器也变得越来越重要。然后,在我们搬到这个大都市九个月后的一个可怕夜晚,布拉姆的吸入器不再管用,他开始喘不过气来。My wife called a friend, who recommended a private hospital miles away. I carried Bram to the car while my wife brought his older brother. India’s traffic is among the world’s most chaotic, and New Delhi’s streets are crammed with trucks at night, when road signs become largely ornamental. We undertook one of the most frightening journeys of our lives, with my wife in the back seat cradling Bram’s head.我妻子打电话给一个朋友,她推荐了一家数英里之外的私立医院。我把布拉姆抱进车,我妻子带着布拉姆的哥哥也上了车。印度是世界上交通最混乱的地区之一,新德里夜间的街道上挤满了卡车,交通标志基本上是摆设。妻子在后座上揽着布拉姆的头,那是我们这辈子最可怕的旅程之一。When we arrived, doctors infused him with steroids (and refused to provide further treatment until a ,000 charge on my credit card went through). A week later, Bram was able to return home.我们到达医院后,医生给布拉姆输了类固醇(并且拒绝提供进一步的治疗,直至我用信用卡付的1000美元到账)。一周后,布莱姆才得以回家。When I became a South Asia correspondent for The New York Times three years ago, my wife and I were both excited and prepared for difficulties — insistent beggars, endemic dengue and summertime temperatures that reach 120 degrees. But we had little inkling just how dangerous this city would be for our boys.三年前,当我成为《纽约时报》的南亚通讯员时,妻子和我感到很兴奋,同时也做好了迎接困难的准备——纠缠不休的乞丐,四处肆虐的登革热,高达华氏120度的夏季温度。但我们全然没有料到,这个城市对我们的孩子会有多么危险。We gradually learned that Delhi’s true menace came from its air, water, food and flies. These perils sicken, disable and kill millions in India annually, making for one of the worst public health disasters in the world. Delhi, we discovered, is quietly suffering from a dire pediatric respiratory crisis, with a recent study showing that nearly half of the city’s 4.4 million schoolchildren have irreversible lung damage from the poisonous air.我们逐渐了解到,德里真正危险的地方是它的空气、水、食物和苍蝇。在印度,这些危险因素每年导致数以百万计的人患病、残疾和丧生,这是世界上最严重的公共卫生灾难之一。我们发现,德里正悄无声息地遭遇着一场可怕的小儿呼吸道疾病危机,最近的一项研究显示,在该市440万学龄儿童中,有将近一半因有毒的空气遭受了不可逆转的肺部损伤。For most Indians, these are inescapable horrors. But there are thousands of others who have chosen to live here, including some trying to save the world, others hoping to describe it and still others intent on getting their own small piece of it. It is an eclectic community of expatriates and millionaires, including car executives from Detroit, tech geeks from the Bay Area, cancer researchers from Maryland and diplomats from Dublin. Over the last year, often over chai and samosas at local dhabas or whiskey and chicken tikka at glittering embassy parties, we have obsessively discussed whether we are pursuing our careers at our children’s expense.对于大多数印度人而言,这些恐怖之处是不可避免的。但也有数以千计的人们选择居住在这里,其中就包括一些试图拯救世界的人,一些希望讲述这里的故事的人,还有一些热衷于在这里拥有一片自己的小天地的人。这是外籍人士和富豪组成的混杂社区,他们中有来自底特律的汽车高管,湾区的科技业人士,马里兰州的癌症研究人员,以及都柏林的外交官。过去一年里,我们在本地饭馆品尝印度奶茶及三角饼时,或者在五颜六色的使馆派对上享受威士忌和鸡肉串时,常常着了魔似地讨论一个话题:我们是否罔顾孩子的利益,来追求自己的事业?Foreigners have lived in Delhi for centuries, of course, but the air and the mounting research into its effects have become so frightening that some feel it is unethical for those who have a choice to willingly raise children here. Similar discussions are doubtless underway in Beijing and other Asian megacities, but it is in Delhi — among the most populous, polluted, unsanitary and bacterially unsafe cities on earth — where the new calculus seems most urgent. The city’s air is more than twice as polluted as Beijing’s, according to the World Health Organization. (India, in fact, has 13 of the world’s 25 most polluted cities, while Lanzhou is the only Chinese city among the worst 50; Beijing ranks 79th.)当然,数百年来一直有外国人在德里居住,但空气和越来越多的关于其影响的研究已经变得如此触目惊心,以至于有些人觉得,如果有人有选择的机会,却情愿在这里抚养孩子,那是不道德的。类似的讨论无疑也正在北京等亚洲大城市展开,但在德里——地球上人口最稠密,污染最严重,最不卫生,病菌肆虐最甚的城市之一——这个问题似乎最为紧迫。世界卫生组织的资料显示,该城市的空气污染程度超过北京的两倍。(世界上25个污染最严重的城市中,有13个是印度城市。兰州是前50名中唯一的中国城市;北京位列第79位。)So many of our friends have decided to leave that the American Embassy School — this city’s great expat institution — is facing a steep drop in admissions next fall. My pastor, who ministers to a largely expat parish here, told me he feared he would lose 60 percent of his congregants this summer.因此,我们的很多朋友都决定离开。美国使馆学校(American Embassy School)是德里一家很棒的外籍生学校,今年秋天它面临着生源的急剧下降。我的牧师负责这里一个主要由外籍人员构成的教区,他告诉我,他担心今年夏天自己会失去60%的教众。We nearly left two years ago, after Bram’s first hospitalization. Even after his breathing stabilized, tests showed that he had lost half his lung function. On our doctor’s advice, we placed him on routine steroid therapy and decided that as long as his breathing did not worsen again, we could stay in Delhi.两年前,在布拉姆的首次住院之后,我们也几乎离开了这里。但他的呼吸状况稳定下来后,测试结果显示他已经失去了一半的肺功能。在医生的建议下,我们让他进行常规的类固醇治疗,并决定只要他的呼吸状况没有再次恶化,我们可以就留在德里。Or at least I decided that. My wife seriously considered flying home immediately, and at the end of a summer visit to the ed States with the kids months later, sobbed for hours on the return flight to Delhi.或者至少我决定这么做。我妻子当时就认真考虑过立即飞回家去;而且在数个月后,当我们与孩子结束了回美国探访的夏季行程,在回德里的返程航班上,她抽泣了好几个小时。But after our second year here, Bram seemed fine. His earlier difficulties, though, led me to call some leading air pollution experts. The conversations were sobering.不过,我们在这里度过了第二年之后,布莱姆显得一切安好。但是鉴于他之前遇到的状况,我和一些顶尖的空气污染专家通了电话。我们之间的交谈发人深省。“Knowing that I was putting my kids in a place that compromised their health for their lifetimes would be very difficult given all of the scientific evidence,” said W. James Gauderman, a professor of preventive medicine at the University of Southern California. He is the co-author of a landmark 2004 study showing that children raised in parts of Los Angeles — where pollution levels are a fraction of Delhi’s — face significant and probably permanent losses of lung function. Even children who move to less polluted places during childhood never seem to entirely recover from earlier high pollution exposures, another study found.“考虑到有各种科学据,知道自己让孩子住在某个地方,可能损害他们一生的健康,会让我非常难受,”南加州大学的预防医学教授W·詹姆斯·高德曼(W. James Gauderman)说。他是2004年一份具有里程碑意义的研究的合著者,该研究显示,在洛杉矶部分地区——污染程度远低于德里——长大的儿童,遭受了明显的、可能是永久性的肺功能损失。另一项研究发现,如果孩子早年在高污染环境中生活,即使在儿童时期搬迁到了污染较低的地方,他们似乎也无法完全恢复健康。Sarath Guttikunda, one of India’s top pollution researchers, who moved to Goa, on the west coast of India, to protect his two young children, was unequivocal: “If you have the option to live elsewhere, you should not raise children in Delhi.”为了保护两个年幼的孩子,印度最顶尖的污染研究人员之一萨拉斯·古提昆塔(Sarath Guttikunda)举家搬迁到了印度西海岸的果阿。他明确地说:“如果你可以在别处居住,就不该在德里抚养子女。”These and other experts told me that reduced lung capacity in adults is a highly accurate predictor of early death and disability — perhaps more than elevated blood pressure or cholesterol. So by permanently damaging their lungs in Delhi, our children may not live as long.他们和其他专家告诉我,成人肺活量不足,对于预测早逝和残疾来说准确度非常高——可能高于血压或胆固醇升高。因此,由于在德里遭受了永久性的肺损坏,我的孩子的寿命可能缩短了。And then there are nascent areas of research suggesting that pollution can lower children’s I.Q., hurt their test scores and increase the risks of autism, epilepsy, diabetes and even adult-onset diseases like multiple sclerosis.在一些方兴未艾的领域,研究表明:污染可能会让儿童智商降低,影响他们的考试成绩,并增加罹患自闭症、癫痫、糖尿病的风险,甚至像多发性硬化症等成年后才发作的疾病,患病风险也会提高。C. Arden Pope III, a professor of economics at Brigham Young University and a leading expert on the health consequences of air pollution, noted that accurate pollution monitors have existed only since the 1980s. “If Delhi’s ings aren’t the highest ever, they’re among the highest ever,” he said. “Certainly no city in the ed States, including Los Angeles, has ever come close.”杨百翰大学(Brigham Young University)的经济学家C·阿登·波普三世(C. Arden Pope III)是研究空气污染对健康的影响的权威专家,他指出,准确的污染监测仪器直到20世纪80年代才出现。“就算德里的读数值不是有史以来最高的,也是有史以来最高的之一,”他说。“包括洛杉矶在内的任何美国城市肯定都与那样高的读数值相距甚远。”That means the extent of the damage Delhi is doing to our children can only be guessed, he said. Several medical ethicists said it would be impossible to get approval for a clinical trial to send a group of children to Delhi to monitor their health. “Not a chance,” said Adil E. Shamoo, editor in chief of Accountability in Research and a bioethicist at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. “It’s O.K. to survey people aly there, but moving children into harm’s way? No.”这意味着,我孩子在德里遭受的损害严重程度只能靠猜测,他说。几位医学伦理学家称,送一群孩子到德里去,并监测他们的健康状况,这样的临床试验是不可能得到批准的。“绝对不可能,”《研究中的问责》(Accountability in Research)的主编、马里兰医学院(Maryland School of Medicine)的生物伦理学家阿迪尔·E·萨莫(Adil E. Shamoo)说。“调查已经在那里的人是可以的;但把孩子搬迁到有危害的地方?不行。”And children are by no means the only ones harmed. Many adults suffer near-constant headaches, sore throats, coughs and fatigue. Arvind Kejriwal, Delhi’s chief minister, had to leave the city for 10 days in March to cure a chronic cough.受到危害的不仅是孩子。很多成年人几乎常年头痛、喉咙痛、咳嗽,以及疲劳乏力。今年3月,德里首席部长阿尔温德·凯杰里沃(Arvind Kejriwal)为了治疗慢性咳嗽,不得不离开了这里十天。It’s not just the air that inflicts harm. At least 600 million Indians, half the total population, defecate outdoors, and most of the effluent, even from toilets, is dumped untreated into rivers and streams. Still, I never thought this would come home to my family quite as dramatically as it did.危害健康的不只是空气。至少有六亿印度人在户外排便,占总人口数量的一半,而大部分的污水,甚至来自厕所的污水,都未经处理就倾倒入江河。但是,我从来没有想过,它们会戏剧性地来到我的家中。We live in a four-year-old, five-story apartment building that my wife chose because its relatively new windows could help shut out Delhi’s appalling nighttime air. Its cookie-cutter design — by the same developer who built dozens of others in the neighborhood — gave us confidence that things would function, by no means assured for new construction here.我们住在一栋四年前修建的五层公寓楼里,我的妻子选择这里是因为它配备了相对较新的窗户,有助于将德里的可怕夜间空气隔绝在外。公寓楼平凡无奇的设计——同一家开发商在附近修建了数十栋这样的建筑——给了我们信心,觉得它的设施会运行良好;不是所有德里的新建筑都能保这一点的。About six months after we moved in, one of our neighbors reported that her tap water suddenly smelled like sewage. Then the smell hit another neighbor and another. It turned out that the developer had dug open channels for sewage that had gradually seeped into each apartment’s buried water tank. When we pulled up the floor tiles on the ground floor, brown sludge seemed to be everywhere.搬进去大约半年后的一天,一名邻居说她的自来水突然散发污水味道。然后邻居们一个接一个遇到这种情况。原来是开发商把下水道挖开了,污水逐渐渗透到每间公寓埋在地下的水箱里。当我们揭开一楼的地砖时,褐色污泥似乎到处都是。I was in the shower when this sewage mixture arrived in our apartment. Sounds horrible, but I shrugged and toweled off because that smell is such a frequent presence here.混合了污水的自来水抵达我们公寓时,我正在淋浴。这听起来很可怕,但我只是耸耸肩,擦干了身体,因为那种味道在这里经常都能闻到。For much of the year, the Yamuna River would have almost no flow through Delhi if not for raw sewage. Add in the packs of stray dogs, monkeys and cattle even in urban areas, and fresh excretions are nearly ubiquitous. Insects alight on these excretions and then on people or their food, sickening them.如果不是未经处理的污水倾倒入亚穆纳河,那么在一年中的很多时候,这条河在德里几乎是断流的。再加上德里城区中也时常看到的一群群流浪、猴子和牛,新的排泄物几乎随目可见。昆虫在这些排泄物上落足,然后再在人类或他们的食物上停留,传染疾病。Most piped water here is contaminated. Poor sanitation may be a crucial reason nearly half of India’s children are stunted.这里的大多数自来水都遭受了污染。恶劣的卫生条件,可能是近一半印度儿童发育迟缓的一个关键原因。The list of health threats sounds harrowing when considered together, but life goes on and can be quite nice here. Our apartment building eventually installed aboveground water tanks. My children’s school and travel in the region are terrific, and many expats are far more influential here than they would be in their home countries.综合考虑这些威胁健康的因素,你会感到痛心疾首,但这里的生活还在继续,而且也可以过得相当不错。我们的公寓楼最终把水箱安装在了地面上。我孩子的学校和在该地区进行的旅行都很棒。很多外国人在这里拥有了比在本国远远更大的影响力。Yet one afternoon this spring, someone in our neighborhood burned something toxic, and an astringent cloud sp around our block. My wife was out walking with a friend, and their eyes became teary and their throats began to close. They bolted back inside our apartment where they found Bram gasping again, for the first time in two years. In some places in Delhi, the levels of fine particles that cause the most lung damage, called PM2.5, routinely exceed 1,000 in winter in part because small trash and other fires are so common, according to scientists. In Beijing, PM2.5 levels that exceed 500 make international headlines; here, levels twice that high are largely ignored.然而,今年春天的一个下午,有人在居民区里焚烧有毒物质,气味酸涩的浓烟在我们的街区蔓延。我妻子和一位朋友当时在外面散步,她们被呛出了眼泪,感觉快要窒息。于是狂奔回我们的公寓,结果发现布拉姆又在喘息,这还是两年里的第一次。在德里有些地方,名为PM 2.5的细颗粒物的水平导致了非常严重的肺损伤,在冬季,该数值经常超过1000,科学家表示,部分原因是对小件垃圾和其他东西的焚烧在这里极为普遍。在北京,PM 2.5水平超过500会成为国际头条新闻;而在这里,比北京高出一倍的污染水平基本上被人们无视。But Bram notices.但布拉姆注意到了。He spent the next five days at home, with my wife giving him heavy doses of inhaled steroids through a mask. He has a quiet sadness during these crises, perhaps because they force him to accept the idea that his health is more fragile than that of his brother or friends.接下来的五天里,他一直待在家里,我妻子让他透过口罩用了大量吸入性类固醇。在这些危机期间,他有一种静默的忧伤,因为他要被迫接受,自己的健康比哥哥或朋友更脆弱。Before coming to Delhi, Bram had had a couple of breathing episodes that doctors assured us he would most likely outgrow. Now he has full-blown asthma and must take powerful daily medications.来德里之前,布拉姆也出过几次呼吸方面的问题。医生曾向我们保,布拉姆很有可能会随着年龄的增长而摆脱那些问题。但现在,他真的得了哮喘病,每天都必须用强效药物。Would he have developed asthma if we had stayed in the ed States? Pediatric asthma is far more likely to start and worsen in polluted locales. The sidelines at kids’ soccer games here are littered with inhalers.如果我们留在美国,他还会得哮喘吗?在受污染的地方,小儿哮喘发病和恶化的可能性要大得多。在这里的足球场外,散落着许多吸入器。Ruth R. Faden, director of the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, said children have a special claim to protection. “First, because they are so dependent on us for their well-being, and second because deprivations in childhood have such an outsize effect,” she said.约翰·霍普金斯大学伯曼生物伦理学研究所(Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics)主任鲁斯·R·费登(Ruth R. Faden)说,孩子特别需要保护。“首先,因为他们的健康很依赖我们,其次因为童年时期健康受损的影响非常大,”她说。There is a growing expatriate literature, mostly out of China, describing the horrors of air pollution, the dangers to children and the increasingly desperate measures taken for protection. These accounts mostly end with the writers deciding to remain despite the horrors.外籍人士撰写的相关文章越来越多。它们大多来自中国,描写了对空气污染的恐惧、对孩子的危害以及所采取的越来越夸张的保护措施。在这些文章的结尾,虽心怀恐惧,但作者大多还是决定留下。Not this one. We are moving back to Washington this week.但本文不同。我们将于这周返回华盛顿。The boys are excited. Aden, 12, wants a skateboard and bicycle, accouterments of freedom in a place he is allowed to wander by himself. His younger brother’s wish may be harder to realize.孩子们很兴奋。12岁的亚丁(Aden)想要滑板和自行车。在一个允许他独自闲逛的地方,那是享受自由的装备。他弟弟的愿望则可能更难实现。“My asthma will go away,” Bram said recently. “I hope so, anyway.”“我的哮喘会消失,”布拉姆前不久说。“总之,希望如此。” /201506/378749。
  • Kelly McGonigal is a convert. A health psychologist who teaches at Stanford University, for years she had held to the conventional view that stress is bad for you.凯莉#8226;麦戈尼格尔(Kelly McGonigal)改变了自己的观点。作为一名在斯坦福大学(Stanford University)任教的健康心理学家,她很多年里一直秉持传统的看法,即压力对人不好。But when a few years ago she came across research which suggested that stress is bad for you only when you believe it to be damaging, she had to reconsider. Indeed, the same research found that people who lived with stress but did not view it as harmful were the healthiest people of all.但几年前,她无意中看到了一项研究结果,认为压力只有在你相信它有害时才对你不好,之后她不得不重新思考自己的观点。事实上,同一项研究还发现,那些生活在压力之下但不把压力视为有害的人才是所有人中最健康的。McGonigal started digging deeper into the subject and the result is this book, which argues that by recognising and working with stress, rather than trying to ignore or suppress it, we can perform better and achieve more.麦戈尼格尔于是开始深入研究这一课题,成果就是这本书——《压力的好处》(The Upside of Stress)。书中认为,通过承认压力并在压力下工作——而非试图忽视或压制它——我们可以做得更好,取得更大成就。It is a bold and counter-intuitive thesis, and she makes quite a good case for it. In particular, she forces the er to take a more nuanced view. For example, there is more than one kind of response to stress. There are alternatives to “fight or flight”. We can also rise to the challenge.这是一个大胆且与直觉相反的论点,而且她为之提出了相当充分的理由。尤其是,她极力劝说读者接受一种更加微妙的观点。例如,对于压力有不止一种反应。除了“或战或逃”之外,还有其他选择。我们也可以接受挑战。What is more, some of our fundamental concepts could be misconceived. The Hungarian endocrinologist Hans Selye carried out significant research into the subject in the 1930s, studying the behaviour of rats in experiments. But, as McGonigal points out, some of these tests involved randomised electric shocks and near-death by drowning, hardly the common experience of many humans. The stress the rats endured was of the worst kind. What safe conclusions should we draw from that?更重要的是,我们的一些基本观念可能都是错误的。匈牙利内分泌学家汉斯#8226;谢耶(Hans Selye)上世纪30年代对这一课题开展了重要研究,观察了实验中小白鼠的行为。但是,正如麦戈尼格尔所指出的,其中一些测试涉及随机电击以及溺水造成的濒死体验,这些并非很多人共有的体验。那些小白鼠承受的是最极端类型的压力。我们能从中得出什么可靠结论呢?McGonigal says that stress is an important signifier, not something to be ignored. “You don’t stress out about things you don’t care about, and you can’t create a meaningful life without experiencing some stress,” she writes.麦戈尼格尔称,压力是重要的信号载体,是不应被忽视的。“你对不关心的事情不会感到有压力,不经历某种程度的压力,你无法创造出有意义的人生,”她写道。She suggests a three-step approach to change our “mindset”: acknowledge stress when you experience it, welcome the stress by recognising that it is a response to something you care about, then make use of the energy it gives you.她建议采取一种三步法来改变我们的“心态”:感受到压力时,你要承认它;欢迎压力,明白压力是你对所关心之事的反应;然后利用压力给你带来的能量。McGonigal has the zeal of a convert, which possibly leads her to believe she has cracked the problem. There are some big claims. Working better with stress “could even mean the difference between having a heart attack at 50 or living into your nineties,” she says.麦戈尼格尔拥有一名皈依者的热情,这可能使她相信自己攻克了这个难题。她说了一些大话。能否在压力下更好地工作“甚至可能意味着50岁心脏病发作与活到90岁的差别,”她说。She acknowledges that not all life events can be managed away: “Not every trauma has an upside#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;you shouldn’t force a positive interpretation on every instance of suffering.” But only a few pages on she writes: “Choosing to see the upside in our most painful experiences is part of how we can change our relationship with stress.”她承认,并非生活中的所有事都能被妥当处理:“不是所有心理创伤都有积极的一面……你不应对每一种痛苦经历都强迫作出积极解释。”但就在几页之后,她又写道:“选择从我们最痛苦的经历中看到积极的一面是改善我们与压力的关系的一种方式。”“Stress is harmful, except when it’s not,” she concludes. But something is missing: any reference to the large body of work carried out by Sir Michael Marmot over recent decades. He has shown that stress can be hard to avoid, or deal with, especially for those with lower status in an organisation.“压力是有害的,除非它不是压力,”她总结道。但本书有所欠缺的是没有参考迈克尔#8226;马莫爵士(Sir Michael Marmot)近几十年来所做的大量工作。他的研究表明了,压力很难避免或应对,尤其是对那些组织中地位较低的人来说。McGonigal does concede that stress can be harmful when three things are true: you feel inadequate to it, it isolates you and it feels meaningless and against your will. Unfortunately, for quite a lot of people at work, that unholy trinity can apply all too often.麦戈尼格尔的确承认,在三种情况下压力是有害的:你觉得无法应对它,它使你孤立,它的存在毫无意义而且违背你的意愿。不幸的是,对于职场中相当多的人来说,这种邪恶的三位一体往往都可以适用。 /201505/376128。
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