原标题: 哈尔滨市十院在那里飞养生
If I bring a bone over, we can superimpose these two. Its got one big muscle attachment right here and the dinosaurs have a muscle scar just like this. It appears in the first bipedal dinosaurs, this scar on the outside of the fibula and it is not present in earlier animals. So this is another link between dinosaurs and birds. So I must look for that the next time I see ...如果我把那块骨骼带来,这两块骨骼能够重叠。这里附带大的肌肉块,而恐龙也有和这类似的肌痕。第一批双足恐龙就有这样的肌痕,出现在腓骨的外侧,早期的恐龙就没有。因此这是另一个恐龙和鸟相似的地方。等下次再有机会,我一定要仔细地在看看……Yeah, you can see that. Trexes have a huge one of those, a massive scar like this big.是的,你可以看到它们是有关联的。Trexes就有恐龙中最大的肌痕。By estimating the muscle sizes of extinct animals and inputting them into computer models, John is able to get an incredible new insight into how dinosaurs actually moved.通过估算灭绝恐龙的肌肉大小,并把数据输入计算机模型中,约翰能够得到一个令人难以置信的有关恐龙如何移动的新解释。Its basically running a simulation. The computers figuring out what is the best way to use these muscles, given what weve put in to raise the body up. We are not animating it. And we are not saying, ;Do it this way.; We are just giving it some basic rules of biology. This is what kinds of things you should be trying to do overall and let it find the best solution.本质上这是在运行模拟。计算机在得到抬高身体的指示后, 找到了运行肌肉的最好方法。我们没有推动它,也没有指示它“就这样做。” 我们只是赋予它一些基本的生物学规则。这是你应该全面尝试做的事情,然后找到最好的解决方案。Yeah. So John youve actually done right, trying to reconstruct how Trex would have looked, how its muscles would have worked, how he would have run. What kind of results have you got from that?没错,约翰,你这次做得是正确的,试图重建恐龙的模样,然后研究它的肌肉是如何运作的,它是如何奔跑的。你能从中得到什么样的结果呢?Yes. So we found using our computer models that human sprinters which can do 25 miles an hour or a little faster would probably be pretty well matched for a muscular tyrannosaurus or an average human who can run about 15 miles per hour would probably be a pretty good match for a kind of skinnier version of a Trex.通过电脑模型,我们发现每小时25英里甚至更快的短跑选手和肌肉暴龙的奔跑速度匹配,而每小时15英里的普通跑步者可能和相对苗条的恐龙的奔跑速度匹配。John, Ive heard some theories where Trex has been put forward as running very fast, probably faster than that. So has your work basically disapproved that?约翰,我听说过一些理论——恐龙被认为奔跑速度很快,甚至比想象中的还要快。那么你的研究能够推翻这个理论吗?I think its put a lot of doubt in that idea that a Trex could run like as fast as a race horse, or even faster, like forty miles an hour, something like that. I dont think youll need an automobile to outrun a Trex.恐龙能和赛马的奔跑速度媲美,甚至比赛马还要快,比如能达到40英里每小时,我对这一说法深感怀疑。我认为你并不需要拿汽车行驶速度和恐龙奔跑速度比。We do have a chance of outrunning them, running away.我们都可以比恐龙跑得快,会逃跑就行。Never gonna happen, thankfully.不过谢天谢地我们不需要逃跑。The work of scientists like John has allowed us to not only refine our ideas about these extinct animals, but has actually transformed our image of them.像约翰这样科学家的工作让我们不仅能够精炼我们对于灭绝恐龙的想法,还能改变我心中恐龙的形象。If you think about tyrannosaurus, Trexes for example, we used to think of him as standing upright like gorilla, but now we know he couldnt have worked like that.如果你想到了暴龙,比如Trexes,我们过去认为它可以像大猩猩一样直立行走,但是现在我们知道它是不可能做到站立行走的。You treat him like an engineering problem, in format, using comparative anatomy of living animals.你对待它就好像是在处理一个工程问题,采用现存动物的比较解剖学来解决。And how we know that his body was much more horizontal with his tail held up in the air, and our reconstructions are much more robust.我们也由此知道当它把尾巴抬起的时候,它的整个身体处于一个水平的状态,看来我们的重现工作非常强大。We are getting as close as we possibly can to what this longdead animal would have looked like.我们越发能够知道这个早已灭绝的动物最真实的模样。201301/219773

Abe Manhas has been a motorman for 21 years. Today,he is driving his favorite route, the number 3 line.阿比;麦哈斯是一名驾龄已经有21年的驾驶员。今天,他仍旧驾驶着自己最喜欢的线路;;3号线。I think its one of the nicest line in the system, just moving toward through the city, Harlem, Brooklyn, Manhattan,Chinatown;我想这条线路是最好的线路,会穿过市区,哈莱姆区,布鲁克林区,曼哈顿区及唐人街。His route takes in through some of worldrsquo;s most famous real estate: Central Park, a green oasis in a nestful jungle; Broadway, theater capital of the world; The Empire State Building, the worldrsquo;s most famous skyscraper; Greenwich Village, Americans haven for bohemians; Wall Street, New York best in the finance and plot of Hallowed Ground, the open grave of World Trade Center.他的线路通过一些世界最著名的房地产景观:中央公园,这是丛林中的绿洲;百老汇,世界剧院的首都;帝国大厦,世界上最著名的天大楼;格林威治村,美国人的波西米亚;华尔街,纽约最好的金融及神圣之地,世界贸易中心敞开的坟墓。Since the first line opened a hundred years ago, the subway and the city have shared the single fate, their history runs on the same track, whatever lies ahead, city and subway will falter or prosper as one.自从一百年前开通了第一条线路,城市和地铁线路的命运就交织在了一起,他们的历史运行在同样的轨迹下,不管前路如何,城市和地铁终极结伴而行,一起步入繁荣。注:听力文本来源于普特201202/171634

If you are walking on the surface of mercury, you need one heck of spacesuit because if you are in the sun, it will be extremely hot.如果你在水星表面行走,你需要一件了不起的宇航,因为如果你置身于太阳将会非常热。You would see an enormous sun in the sky.你会看到一个巨大的太阳在天空中。That would just, you know, burn you to death if you are, you know, spend any time in it what so every close.你知道,如果距离非常近,你会被烧死。The mercury really climbs on mercury to a toasty 840 degrees Fahrenheit.水银的热度可以达到华氏840度。Thats about twice as hot as your kitchen oven on full heat. You need a bit more than SPF30 sun scream here.这是你厨房烤箱热度全开的两倍。你在这里甚至需要涂抹特定的防晒用品。To escape the heat, you can always head to the dark side, but dress warmly.为了躲避酷热,你可以转向黑暗的一面,但要记住穿着保暖。With virtually no atmosphere to keep the heat in, the temperature plummets to minus 275 degrees Fahrenheit.事实上没有大气的储热、温度就一落千丈降至零下275华氏度。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/174072Business商业Fashion retailers and social media时装零售和社交媒体The buying game购物游戏Can play shopping transform the real thing?在线玩购物能改变零售业的现状吗?A LUXURY handbag by Stella McCartney worth £600 (0) is the prize in an online game to design the best virtual outfit featuring the accessory, using real items on sale in Matches, a real store.价值600英镑(960美元)的斯特拉?麦卡特尼名牌手提包,这是一个在线游戏针对设计出最佳的虚拟装配饰的奖励,而这些配饰在实物店Matches都有销售。Players of a game created by Fantasy Shopper will pick the winner.在这个Fantasy Shopper网站所设计的线上游戏里,赢家由玩家们自己挑选产生。The firm is a pioneer of ;relevant social gaming;. This combines features of online games such as FarmVille and World of Warcraft with data and deeds from the real world.作为;相关社交游戏;领域的先驱,该网站把像开心农场和魔兽世界等线上游戏的特点与现实生活中的实际情况整合成了这样一个游戏。;Gamification; is an ugly word, but it sounds like money to some.;实业游戏化;的字眼并不讨喜,但是对某些人而言却是商机。Online games are fun.在线游戏很有趣。Why not borrow some of that fun and apply it to real life?为什么我们不把游戏中的一些乐趣带到现实生活中了?This can be hard.这确实还是有困难的。Plenty of firms have flopped by trying to bolt a gaming element unconvincingly onto a boring pre-existing website.有不少公司贸然将游戏元素与已有的内容乏味的网站勉强结合在一起,但这些尝试均以失败告终。Fantasy Shopper was designed from the start as a hybrid between game and real-world activity says its founder, Chris Prescott.据Fantasy Shopper网站创始人普雷斯科特称,其建设的初衷就是一个游戏和现实生活行为结合的产物。Players visit a city (London for now, New York and others to follow) and compete to find bargains and assemble the best outfits using virtual money to spend on goods actually sold in shops there.在线玩家选择购物城市(暂时只有伦敦,稍后纽约和其他城市会陆续开放),然后竞相去淘一些特价时装,接着用装配饰自行装搭配,而且这些配饰商品都可以在该城市的线下商店使用虚拟金币购买。The choices can be published on Facebook news feeds, where other players vote on the looks on offer.每件创意搭配组合都会发布到脸谱网(Facebook)的新闻提要,供其他玩家参看投票。Besides the occasional shot at winning an expensive handbag, players are rewarded virtually, with badges and the like to show off to friends, and vouchers they can use at real shops.除了有机会赢得名牌手提包,玩家们还会得到虚拟荣誉勋章和可供炫耀的;赞;,当然还有实物店的代金券。Mr Prescott reckons that Fantasy Shopper will appeal to those who shop as much for the fun of the chase as for the kill.普雷斯科特认为,Fantasy Shopper将会吸引那些喜欢竞争和过关斩将的人们。The game aly has an enthusiastic following among girls aged 20-25, he says.他还说,这游戏已经吸引了一批年龄在20岁到25岁之间的女性追随者。Retailers have been quick to team up with the firm because it helps with promoting products and gives instant feedback from potential customers about what is likely to sell.一些零售商也已很快地和Fantasy Shopper搭成了合作协议,因为该网站除了能够帮助他们推销商品之外,还能让他们得到一些潜在客户的及时反馈,让他们知道应该卖什么样的商品。Soon it is likely to offer stores the ability to lure in players as they pass by with offers on their mobile phones.很快,这样商家就有可能通过发布整合后的商品信息从而吸引在网上浏览的玩家。The main appeal of Fantasy Shopper and similar ;social shopping; firms is their potential to transform fashion retailing by generating vast amounts of data on shoppers tastes.Fantasy Shopper以及类似的;社交购物;网站公司最大的吸引力在于通过充分让经销商们了解消费者的需求,从而潜在地改变着时装零售业。The trick will be to keep adding new players and, even harder, to keep existing ones fully engaged.这个游戏将需要更多新玩家的参与,更困难的是让现有的玩家全身心地投入。For Fantasy Shopper, the big test will come when it opens in America, probably within weeks.对Fantasy Shopper网站而言,当其在美国开通时最大的考验可能就在数周内。So far it has played a deft hand.目前为止, Fantasy Shopper运营甚好。In November, one month after launching, Fantasy Shopper beat 1,500 rivals to win the Amazon Global Start-up Challenge.去年十一月,在投入运营一个月之后,该网站一举击败了其他1500名竞争对手,摘得了;亚马逊全球创业挑战赛;的冠军。It is rumoured to have turned down an offer from Amazon.据说,该网站的创始人拒绝了到亚马逊旗下发展的邀请。In January the company secured funding from Accel Partners and NEA, two Silicon Valley venture-capital outfits.而今年一月份,该网站公司分别获得了硅谷两家风险投资基金—阿塞尔合作基金(Accel Partners)和恩颐(NEA)的注资。Yet Fantasy Shopper is based far from any high-tech hub, in the English town of Exeter.但是Fantasy Shopper公司在埃克塞特德文郡的一个小镇,离任何一个高科技核心区都很远。Thanks to the ubiquity of cloud computing, entrepreneurs can start firms anywhere, says Mr Prescott. Even in Devon, a county better known for cream teas than digital cookies.普雷斯科特这样称,云计算的普及,任何地方都可以创业,即便是在德文郡这样以奶油下午茶闻名而不是数码产品的地方。It is not just traditional shopaholics who may get hooked on Fantasy Shopper.其实, 吸引在Fantasy Shopper网站上的玩家不仅仅是那些传统的购物狂们。Mr Prescott claims that the male geeks in his office have realised that they can reduce the risk of being laughed at for their fashion choices by posting pictures of clothes they want to buy in advance, to see what reaction they get before they splash the cash.普雷斯科特表示,他公司里的极客们(书呆男们)也已经意识到,他们可以通过事先把所欲购买的饰的图片上传至网络,在掏钱购买之前先看看别人的反应,从而降低因为不懂时尚而遭嘲笑的风险。For fashion victims of every kind, ;pre-purchase validation; could be a game-changer.对于所有的时装奴而言,;购前验效;的做法将会成为游戏的变革者。 /201210/206691

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