明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月20日 01:03:35
You can see the planet Jupiter on a clear night, but Jupiter ishumongous.在晴朗的夜空下我们能够看到木星,那是因为木星够大;Mars and Mercury are smaller than that, and youcan see them, too.尽管火星和水星比木星要小,但我们依然能看到。Wait a minute, our moon is even smaller,and you can see that.等等,月球更要小一些,我们还是能看到。Could anything smaller than the moon be visible without a telescope?那么,在不使用望远镜的情况下,我们还能看到比月亮更小的天体吗?Actually, yes.事实上,是肯定的。Though it takes a lot of patience and excellent sky conditions, it is possible to see atiny object called Vesta.只要我们足够有耐心,天公也作美,我们还有机会看到一个小天体—它就是被命名为灶神星的小天体。Although it had a molten interior and volcanoes, Vesta isnt a planet or amoon: its an asteroid.尽管它以溶化的金属为核心且地表遍布火山,灶神星却既不是行星也不是月球:它仅仅是一颗小行星。Asteroids are straychunks of rocky or metallic materials that orbit thesun but were never drawn into any of the planets.小行星是由岩石或是金属块构成的小天体,他们绕太阳运动但绝不会卷入其他行星的运行轨道中。Vesta is quite far away.灶神星距地球的距离很远。Like many asteroids, it has an orbit out between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.像其它许多小行星一样,它在火星与木星之间有自己的运行轨道。Astronomers first spotted it when looking for a new planet they thought should existbetween these two.天文学家们首次发现它时是在寻找介于这两大行星间的另一个行星。As I said, Vesta is quite small-about three hundred and twenty-five miles across.正如我所说,灶神星是很小的—它的直径也就只有325英里而已。So if its small and far away, how come we can see it from here?那问题就是,它又小,距离我们又远,我们怎么能从地球上靠肉眼就看到它呢?Vestas surface has a coating of pyroxine and olivine,two minerals that are actually also spewed up by volcanoes here on earth.在灶神星的表面覆盖了厚厚的一层玄武岩和橄榄石,这两种矿物质都是由此处的火上喷发而出的。They give it a whitishexterior that reflects well,这两种矿物质使得灶神星的表面呈白色,且发光的效果相当好。making it just possible to see Vesta with your eyes, even when the onlytwo larger asteroids, Ceres and Pallas, are completely invisible.如此一来,我们便仅凭肉眼就可以看到灶神星了。甚至在比它还大的另外两个小行星—谷神星和智神星都无法看到的情况下,我们还是能看到它。 201407/316601


  Buttonwood梧桐树On their own自力更生What explains the surge in self-employment?是什么样的因素导致了自我雇佣现象激增呢?PERHAPS the future belongs to the self-employed. Steady jobs, after all, are hard to find. The idea that a young graduate should expect to work for 40 years with the same employer until retirement seems quaintly dated.或许,未来就是自我雇佣者的天地。毕竟,稳定的工作是很难找的。寄希望于一名年轻的毕业生只为一个雇主工作四十年直到退休,这样的想法是真的过时了。There has been a structural shift towards self-employment on both sides of the Atlantic as well as a cyclical one. In the fourth quarter of 2013, 90% of the new jobs created in Britain were classed as self-employment. Is the shift a sign of a thriving entrepreneurial spirit or an indicator of desperation? Are we talking Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook or Walter White and “Breaking Bad”?在大西洋的东西两岸,自我雇佣的情况均发生了结构性的转变,并且这种变化是周期性的。2013年的第四季度中,英国90%的新工作岗位是被归为自我雇佣类。这样的转变到底意味着一次创业精神的繁荣成长,还是预示着社会绝望感的产生呢?我们现在所面临的情况到底是马克·扎克伯格与他的网络帝国Facebook,还是沃尔特·怀特与“绝命毒师”呢?Answering the question is made harder by the limitations of the data, drawn as they are from a combination of surveys, tax records and registers of company creation. Some people may incorporate as a business in order to reduce their tax bill; others may fail to report their self-employment income as a way of avoiding taxes. Some may play dual roles, having a full-time job but earning money on the side. Still others may be working for their old employer as contractors, rather than for a salary.基于数据的局限性,我们更加难以回答上述问题。前者通常是由问卷调查、缴税记录和公司注册资料所构成的。一些人或许只是为了减少应交税费而联合成立公司;另一些人或许没有报告登记自己的自我雇佣业务收入以逃避税负。部分人或许同时扮演着两种角色,既是一位有全职工作的人,同时也在其他方面赚取外快。还有其他一些人正在为自己的老雇主做事,但并不是以雇员的形式,而是以合约承包商的身份来工作。Desperation must play a part. A paper by Robert Fairlie of the University of California, Santa Cruz found a close link between the unemployment rate in a given American locality and the rate of new business startups. A survey by the Kauffman Foundation found that the rate of new-business creation in America declined last year, even as the economy turned up; as the report comments, there was “less pressure on individuals to start businesses out of necessity”.绝望感肯定是其中一个原因。来自加州大学圣克鲁兹分校的罗伯特·费尔利的论文发现了在给定美国的地点关于失业率和新公司成立的比率的密切联系。一份来自考夫曼基金会的调查结果显示,就算在经济复苏的环境下,去年美国新公司成立的比率出现下降的情况。正如报告里所的一样,“人们不太会觉得有创业的必要性”。Self-employment may be more socially acceptable than it used to be. Middle-class people can call themselves consultants or freelancers, rather than unemployed. The businesses they create are unlikely to be the growth engines of the future. In Britain, by far the fastest growth in recent years has been in businesses that are one-man bands.目前自我雇佣要比从前更容易被社会所接纳。中产阶级的人们能够称自己为咨询顾问或者自由工作者而不是失业者。这样的事业不太可能成为未来经济增长的引擎。在英国,近几年来增长最快的部门是在一人独立公司。The numbers also show self-employed Britons tend to be male, work longer hours than salaried employees and earn less. Indeed, the real wages of the self-employed fell faster than those in contractual employment between 2007 and 2012. This may help to explain why British productivity has grown only sluggishly in recent years. Setting up a new business involves a lot of time tracking down new clients or handling a host of issues that were previously dealt with by a company.数字还显示出自我雇佣的英国人大多为男性,工作的时间比全职工作的员工长而且赚得少。确实,2007年至2012年间,自我雇佣人的真实薪水要比合同制员工下降得更快。这或许能解释为何英国近几年的生产率只提高了一丁点。开创一个新的事业需要花费大量的时间去构建新的客户网以及处理一堆事务,而这些事务本来是由公司去处理的。The new self-employed are also older. British people aged 50 and above comprised five-sixths of the increase in the category between 2008 and 2012. And there has been a rise of 160,000 in the number of self-employed people aged 65 and over since 2007. Some of that may reflect the need to replace shortfalls in pension income.此外,新晋自我雇佣的人们通常是年龄比较大的。英国50岁及以上的人在2008年至2012年间,构成了六分之五新增的自我雇佣人口。与此同时,自2007年起有160000位年龄在65及以上的人进入到自我雇佣的领域。上述的情况也许反映了退休金短缺所带来的工作需求。But these changes are not all negative. The rise of the service economy means it is easier for people aged 65 and over to find jobs that suit them; retirees are fitter than they would have been 40 years ago, when many had been through a long career in manual labour. Getting people to work for longer is the best way of dealing with the costs of an ageing population. In addition, a survey by the Royal Society of Arts suggests that the self-employed are happier than those in paid employment—independence counts for a lot, as does the feeling that ones work has meaning.但这些转变带来的并不全是负面影响。务业经济的增长意味着年龄在65及以上的人更容易找到一份适合的工作;当退休人员已经进行了很长时间的体力劳动工作,他们现在要比40年前更适合从事务业工作。让人们工作的时间延长,是应对人口老龄化所带来的社会福利成本问题的最好方法。除此之外,一份由皇家艺术学会所进行的调查显示,自我雇佣人员要比全职上班的人更加开心-独立所带来的影响是深远的,正如一个人认为工作是有意义时所带来的感受一样。In the long run, this rise in self-employment will raise some interesting macroeconomic and political questions. Does it mean, as Morgan Stanley suggests in a research note, that the labour market is not as robust as it appears; that many people have been forced into self-employment and will happily take a paid job if offered one? That would imply there is still plenty of slack in the labour market and monetary policy can stay looser for longer.长远来看,在自我雇佣领域的增长会引起一些有趣的宏观经济和政治问题。正如根士丹利的一份研究报告所提到的,上述的增长是否意味着劳动力市场并不像其显示出的一样强健;如果被迫进入自我雇佣境地的人们得到一份全职工作,是否会很开心地选择后者呢?这些问题的肯定将会显示出劳动力市场依旧处于一个低迷时期,并且货币政策可以继续在更长的时间里保持更为宽松的状态。But perhaps the structural trend means those paid jobs will not become available. If so, the economy may have created a vast reserve labour force, akin to the “spinsters” of early 19th-century Britain—single women who were paid piece rates for spinning textiles at home—or the dockers who used to mass outside port gates in the hope of being selected for a days work. That would suggest an economy where wages are permanently kept under pressure and where profit margins remain high. Good news for the stockmarket perhaps, but not so good for the self-employed.但也许这一结构性的趋势意味着全职工作岗位不会出现空缺。如果真的如此,那经济体或许已经制造了大量的劳动力储备,类似于19世纪早期英国的“老姑娘”—单身女人在家进行纺织品制造而获得计件工资---或者是码头工人们拥堵在港口大门处等待被挑选进入工作。这表示经济体当中工资水平长期保持在高度压榨的水平,同时利润空间依然巨大。这对股市来说或许是好消息,但对自我雇佣者来说可就不是那么回事了。 /201404/289237。



  Humans may be one of the smartest animals on the planet, but when it comes to remembering where things are, Clark’s nutcrackers have us beat.人类也许是世界上最聪明的动物之一,但说到记忆,克拉克(新泽西州)的星鸟比我们人类强多了。A relative of jays and crows, nutcrackers hide pine seeds in the ground each autumn so they have a source of food during the Colorado Rocky Mountain winter. They cache as many as 30,000 seeds in 5,000 different locations over a fifteen square mile area. Since they cannot smell the seeds buried in the soil very well, they must use their remarkable spatial memory to find them.星鸟属于松鸟和乌鸦的近亲,它在秋天的时候把松子藏在地底下,这样寒冷冬天的就有食物吃了。它们会储存多达30000颗种子,而且是在十五平方公里内的5000个不同位置。因为不能通过气味辨别埋在土里种子的位置,它们就必须依靠惊人的空间来找到这些种子。Nutcrackers are not the only animals that cache food. Caching behavior is seen in birds, mammals and even insects. Chickadees store collections of seeds, insects and spiders in the bark of trees or under leaves. Red squirrels cut conifer cones from trees and bury them in plant litter on the forest floor. Harvester ants bring seeds back to their nests and store them in chambers, while honey bees save nectar and pollen in their hive.不止星鸟会储存食物。哺乳动物、鸟类,甚至昆虫都会贮藏东西。山雀贮存种子,还有树皮和树叶下面的昆虫,蜘蛛。红松鼠会将针叶树上的果实割下来,然后埋在森林地面的落叶中。红蚁会将种子拖到巢穴内并贮存在室内。蜜蜂也是把花蜜和花粉贮存在蜂房里的。Because nutcrackers are one of the best at remembering cache locations, researchers are studying them to find out why they have such great memories. Scientists know that the nutcracker’s abilities evolved because of environmental pressure. Nutcrackers with poor memories did not likely survive the harsh mountain winters. Now researchers want to find out how the brains of nutcrackers are different from other brains. They are particularly interested in the hippocampus, a small area of the brain that helps form memories. Finding out how the nutcracker’s brain is different from other species may give us clues to why humans have memory problems. It may even lead to a cure for Alzheimer’s disease.因为星鸟是最擅长记住储存位置的动物之一,研究人员正仔细观察它们,想找出星鸟拥有超强的原因。科学家明白星鸟的技能是由于环境形成的。差的星鸟在这么严酷的冬天也许不能生存。现在,研究人员想找出星鸟的大脑有什么不同之处。他们对(脑内的)海马状突起很有兴趣,那是大脑里帮助记忆的很小一个区域。找出星鸟与其他物种大脑结构的区别也许会给出线索,了解为什么人类记忆会出现各种问题。甚至能帮助治疗老年痴呆症。 /201304/235017Happy season 11 everybody!A good number. This is our first show of our brand new season and I have a promise for you right now,right up from Im gonna say it. This season Im gonna work it while I twerk it. Oh,did you have a good summer,everybody?热烈庆祝第十一季开播 真是个好数字 今天是我们新季开播第一天 当着大家的面 我郑重承诺 这一季我会边扭边主持 大家假期过得不错吧Good summer? Yeah? Great. What did you do? All right. my turn. I have a great summer. i had a wonderful summer.很棒的假期 好的 你们都干了什么 好了 该我说了 我这个夏天过的超级精 非常棒的假期Im really happy to be back though, but I got a ... I got a little bit of sun, I relaxed. I a lot of sangria recipes. And I went to two different weddings which are always beautiful.我当然是很高兴能重新站在这 但是这个假期里 我沐浴阳光 放松身心 还看了好几种sangria的调法 我还参加了两场婚礼 婚礼总是那么美好I love weddings. My brother got married. My brother vance got married and this is ...him. With his beautiful bride.我很喜欢婚礼 我哥哥结婚了 我哥哥vance结婚了 这就是...他 和他的漂亮新娘And it was surprise for everybody because they have been together for a long long time,like I dont know, ten,twelve years something like that, a long time.但所有人都很吃惊 因为他俩已经在一起很久了 大概有个10年,12年的样子 很长时间了So...I forget her name,but she is a lovely woman,start with an R or Q.我记不住她的名字 但她是个可爱的姑娘 名字开头字母是R还是Q的But shes so sweet. shes uh...No,its joanna and I love Joanna. So shes my sister-in-law.And that was beautiful. Im so happy for him.但她真的超可爱的 她... 开玩笑啦 她叫joanna 我很喜欢她 她是我的嫂子 婚礼很美 我很为我哥哥高兴And it was fantastic and we danced for hours all night long. This is a photo brought of Portia and i dancing,and this is...I know...I know...I have to photo crop her. I dont know who...I dont know who she is.更让人开心的是我们跳了一晚上舞 这张照片上是我和Portia在跳舞 还有这是 我懂的 我懂的 我得想办法把她p掉 我不知道...我不知道她是谁啊But it looks romantic,we are actually going ;Do I have broccoli in my teeth?; ;No. do you have bro...; We are looking for broccoli.虽然看起来很浪漫 其实我们是在说“我牙上有菜叶子吗” “没有 你有...”其实我们是在看有没有菜叶子So thats my brothers wedding. And then we went to my friend ,Jimmy Kimmel got married,so we went to Jimmys wedding. They got married the same place my brother got married.那是我哥哥的婚礼 接下里是我的好友jimmy kimmel 他也结婚了 所以我们就去参加他的婚礼 他和我哥哥是在同一个地方举行婚礼They got married at the Ojai Valley Inn. And thats Molly of course.Its beautifu place,Ojai. Lets...pan out if we can. I will show you how pretty it is.Oh,there shes again. How did she get both weddings? Thats crazy.都是在Ojai Valley大酒店 这就是Molly Ojai非常漂亮 能不能缩小一下 给你们看下有多好看 怎么又是她 怎么两场婚礼都有她 这不科学啊We had a great time at the wedding as well.We hung out with our friends Jen and Justin. Now,nobody was impressed that was our table card.那场婚礼上我们也玩得很开心 Jen 和Justin也在 当时就没人注意 那个是我们名卡I pulled it out of jens ear and no one was...is impressed that I thought they would have been.我是从jen的耳后变出来的 都没人关注 我还以为会有很多人注意到呢I went to the hamptons,and I had fun at the hamptons.I did some dancing and some singsing.我还去了汉普顿 在那也很开心 又唱歌又跳舞Here I am with Jamie Foxx and Pharrell right there.yead. thats me in the middle.这张是我和jamie foxx 和pharrell 对的 中间那个是我And...we were singsing Pharrells hit song get lucky.我们正唱着pharrell的热歌《get lucky》And they were all up all night to get lucky.I went to bed on eight thirty.so..and I also...it was a star-studded summer.他们疯了一晚就为了“求好运” 但我八点半就睡了 反正这是个群星璀璨的夏天I hung out with Oprah because i moved into a neighbourhood. Im right down the street from where oprah lives.我最近搬到了oprah附近 所以总跟她混在一起 她住街头 我住街尾And she knew that I was in neighbourhood so...she was so nice.she brought over a beautiful basket of like fruits and vegetables from her garden,and thats her bring a...她也知道我搬过去了 所以她 她人超好 所以她就给我送了个蔬果篮 说是自家院子里种的 这就是她送...and I dont wanna say anything bad about oprah,but when I empty the basket,I found a trader joes receipt at the bottom,so, I was like;oh,i wanna see the garden.;其实我不想说oprah的坏话啦 但是当我把东西都拿出来了 篮子底赫然一张trader joes的小票 所以我就说“我去你的果园看看吧”she goes,;not today.; I dont think she has a garden.她却说“今天不对外开放” 我才不相信她有果园呢Its great to be friends with the oprah neighbours, with oprah.当然还是很高兴和oprah以及邻居们做朋友的Its wonderful. one day she came over,she did my hair whcih was really sweet ever since.So thank you for that.很幸福的一件事啊 有一天她过来 帮我做了曾经很流行的头发 太谢谢了 注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201310/260052

  Its no secret that Chinas economy is growing at a rapid pace. 众所周知,中国的经济正在飞速发展。But it may surprise you to learn that some Chinese citizens are growing, too...taller,但可能会让你大吃一惊的是一些中国人也在长高,that is, thanks to the popularity of leg-lengthening surgery.这是由于流行的腿骨延长手术所致。Thats right: were talking about a type of surgery that can make you at least two to three inches taller.是的:我们讨论的是一种能使你至少长高两到三英寸的手术。The details are pretty gruesome.但手术过程可是毛骨悚然。First, the doctor breaks the tibia and fibula--the bones of the lower leg.首先,医生折断小腿骨的胫骨和腓骨。Then, a device comprised of two metal rings connected by extendable rods--the fixator-is screwed into both ends of the broken bone through the skin.然后,一个由伸缩杆连接两个金属环组成的固定架装置通过皮肤拧入骨头折断的部分。About a week later, the stretching begins.大约一个星期后开始拉伸作业。The surgeon lengthens the fixator in small, two millimeter increments.外科医生会以2毫米的增量延长固定器。This slowly pulls the broken bones apart, allowing new bone to grow and fill in the gap.这一缓慢的过程使得折断的骨头分开,允许新骨头生长并填补其中的空白。If all goes well, the three month bone-lengthening period is followed by another three to six months of bone strengthening.如果一切顺利,为期3个月的骨延长期间后紧随而至的是另一个3至6个月的骨增强作业。During this phase the patient is confined to a wheelchair and must undergo physical therapy thats typically described on leg lengthening websites as ;extremely painful.;在这一阶段的病人要以轮椅为伴并且必须接受物理治疗,腿骨延长网站称这一治疗“痛苦之极”。But, barring complications such as infection where the fixator is attached to the bones and nerve injury, after about a year you can be back up and walking around on newly lengthened legs.但是,要是没有固定器附着在骨骼的感染等并发症和神经损伤,大约一年之后你就可以完好如初并且使用加长腿漫步了。The surgery was invented in Russia in the early 1950s to help dwarves and other abnormally short people who wanted to attain a more normal height.俄罗斯在20世纪50年代早期发明这项手术,目的在于帮助矮小人士和其他异常人士获得更为正常的身高。Recently, though, in places like China, leg lengthening surgery has become trendy for people convinced that being taller leads to better jobs and more money.不过,最近在中国这样的国家,腿骨延长手术已成为时尚,人们相信好的身高能够带来更好的工作和更多的收入。201311/265504

  Science and technology科学技术Cell biology细胞生物学On your marks...各就各位…The first cell race in history may further knowledge about how cancers sp历史上的首次细胞赛跑,可能增进了解有关癌症如何扩散的知识IT WILL not come with garden parties, large hats or eager bookies.这次比赛将不会与花园招待会,高职位或急切的赌注登记经纪人一起到来。And the contestants will be too small to see with the naked eye.并且,参赛者也会因过于细小而肉眼无法看到。But the World Cell Race, due to begin at the end of this month, will be the sporting event of the year for cell biologists.但是预计将于本月底举行的世界细胞竞赛将是今年细胞生物学家的体育盛会。The idea of the race is simple.竞赛的想法很简单。Labs from around the world send the runners—whatever sort of mammalian cell they think will do well—to one of six testing sites.世界各地的实验室将把他们的参赛者—无论哪一种他们认为将表现不错的哺乳动物细胞—送到6个测试点之一。There, the cells will be injected onto plates striped with tracks of a chemical they like to adhere to.在这些测试点,细胞将被注入他们喜欢粘附的一种化学制品跑道的条纹板里。Progress will be watched through a microscope, by time-lapse photography. And whichever cell covers a tenth of a millimetre fastest will be declared the winner.显微镜通过延时摄影可以观察到它们的进展情况。然后无论哪种细胞,只要先跑过十分之一毫米的跑道就将被宣布为赢家。The field is wide open.该领域的大门敞开着。Unlike horse-racing, the contest is not restricted to thoroughbreds.不像赛马,该竞赛并不局限于纯种动物。In fact the organisers, Matthieu Piel, Ana-Maria Lennon-Dumenil and Manuel Thery, who all work in France, are particularly encouraging the entry of genetically modified cells,事实上,该次竞赛的组织者—都在法国工作的马修?彼尔, 安娜 - 玛丽?列侬-邓内尔和曼奴埃尔? 西里特别鼓励转基因细胞的参选,as these are likely to be the most successful—and most instructive—competitors.因为这些细胞很可能是最成功的—而且是最有意义的—竞争者。That is because a lot of research on cell movement uses genetic modification to silence or amplify genes thought to be involved in the process.这是因为很多细胞运动的研究使用遗传改造来抑制或增强基因表达。这些改造过的基因被认为参与了这个过程。Many of these genes have been found by looking at cancerous cells.许多基因可以通过观察癌细胞找到。Metastatic tumour cells—those which have sp from the site of the original tumour—migrate faster than other cells.转移性肿瘤细胞—那些已从原发部位扩散开的细胞—比别的细胞移动得要快。If the genes that cause this mobility could be turned off, it would slow a cancers sp.如果导致这种流动性的基因能被关掉,这将减缓癌症的扩散速度。More positively, cell migration is the driving force of embryo development and is, in adults, essential to the immune response and to the healing of wounds.更加肯定的是,细胞迁移是胚胎发育的原动力,而且对成年人来讲,细胞迁移对免疫反应以及伤口愈合非常重要。Understanding cell movement, then, is important.于是,理解细胞运动非常重要。Hence the idea of the race, which Dr Piel and Dr Lennon-Dumenil and Dr Thery came up with at last years meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology.因此,彼尔士和列侬-邓内尔和西里士在去年的美国细胞生物学学会的会议上提出这次竞赛的想法。So far their competition has attracted 30 entrants.到目前为止,他们的竞争已经吸引了30名参赛者。The heats will take place throughout August.整个八月份都将是预赛。Only at the end of the month will the s be analysed to name the winners.只有八月底才有视频来分析决定赢家。The organisers say they are also considering giving a prize to the slowest cell, since lethargic cells would be a boon for cancer therapy.组织者说他们也正在考虑给最慢的细胞一个奖项,因为呆滞的细胞对癌症治疗来说将是非常有用的。For cell biologists it should be an exciting contest.对细胞生物学家来说,这次竞赛应该是一次令人兴奋的比赛。But a word of advice to sports fans: maybe just catch the highlights.但是我要给体育爱好者提个建议:或许恰好碰上最重要的时刻了。 /201305/238031。

  Turkeys president土耳其总统Erdogan on top高高在上的埃尔多安It would be better for Turkey if the presidency remained mainly ceremonial土耳其的总统职务保持礼仪性岂不是更好RECEP TAYYIP ERDOGAN, Turkeys prime minister, certainly knows how to win elections. Since he helped to found the Justice and Development (AK) party 13 years ago, he has scored eight victories in a row. On August 10th he made it nine, winning Turkeys first direct election to the presidency, with a crushing 52% of the vote. Given what have been broadly fair polls, with mostly high turnouts, nobody can seriously challenge Mr Erdogans democratic credentials.自从13年前他帮助筹建了正义发展党(AK)后, 他便连续8次赢得大选。因此,土耳其首相埃尔多安当然知道如何赢得大选。8月10日,他再次获胜,以52%选票的压倒性优势赢得土耳其第一届总统直接选举。鉴于选举一直是广泛公平的,投票率高,没人能真正地质疑埃尔多安的民主资质。His achievements in over 11 years as prime minister are equally impressive. Since AK came to power in November 2002, economic growth has averaged some 5%. Inflation has been tamed. The army has been brought under greater civilian control. Mr Erdogan has made more progress than any previous political leader in giving Turkeys Kurds greater rights. In 2005 he achieved something that had eluded all his predecessors: the start of membership talks with the European Union.11年来,他作为首相的成绩同样斐然。自2002年AK党执政以来,经济年均增长5%左右,通胀得到抑制,军队管理十分民主。与土耳其之前的领导相比,在给予土耳其库尔德人更大的权利方面,他取得了更多的进步。2005年,他成就了一件足以让其他前任相形见绌的伟绩:开启加入欧盟的谈判。What makes this more troubling are Mr Erdogans plans to give the presidency, hitherto a ceremonial job, far more power. He wants to turn it into an executive position, as in France. To do this he must change the constitution, which usually needs a two-thirds majority in parliament. AK is unlikely to achieve that on its own, but it could secure enough votes by doing a deal with the Kurdish party. That would put Mr Erdogan in sight of his goal of an enhanced presidency, backed by a pliable prime minister, in which he could stay up to and beyond 2023, the centenary of Ataturks republic.然而,当埃尔多安意图给予总统这一礼仪性的职位更多权力时,这件事情就变动的不那么简单了。他想将总统职位转变成行政职务,如法国一样。为了达到这一目的,他必须修改宪法,而这需要议会2/3的多数同意。AK党不太可能只身实现这一目标,但是与库尔德党派合作则可能获得足够的票数。而此举,则会使埃尔多安对总统职权加强这一意图昭然若揭。表面上是无所事事的总理,这一职位他可以保持到2023年,恰好是土耳其共和国的百年纪念。Such an outcome is unappealing to those who believe in political pluralism. Powerful presidencies can work, but they need to be constrained by strong institutions of a sort Turkey still lacks. Mr Erdogans own autocratic tendencies compound this problem. But why should he pay any heed? There are two answers: a vulnerable economy and his own legacy.这样的结果对于那些信奉政治多元化的人来说毫无吸引力。强大的总统职权可以发挥作用,但是他们需要的是强有力的凝聚力的约束,而这正是土耳其所缺少的。埃尔多安的独裁趋势使这一问题更加复杂。但是,他为什么要在意这些问题呢?原因有二:经济脆弱,个人政治遗产。The biggest reason for Mr Erdogans poll victories is his delivery of rapidly rising living standards. But the economy is slowing. A gaping current-account deficit makes the country highly dependent on capital inflows; when global interest rates rise, Turkey could suffer. And it is caught in a “middle-income trap”, losing competitiveness in the basic goods it produces, but unable to move up to higher-tech ones. To keep growing, Turkey needs both liberalising reforms and foreign capital. Mr Erdogan has shown scant interest in reform. And although foreign investors stomach autocratic regimes around the world, they dont much care for social instability of the sort that Mr Erdogans type of polarising politics usually portends.埃尔多安选举获胜的最重要因素是他迅速提高了土耳其人的生活水平。但是,经济发展依然缓慢。目前财政赤字的漏洞高度依赖流入的资本,一旦国际利率上调,土耳其就得遭殃。而且,土耳其目前正面临“中等收入困境”,生产的日用品失去竞争力,但又无法像高科技顶端转移。为了保持增长,土耳其不仅需要自由化改革,还要外资注入。埃尔多安对改革已经极力反对。尽管世界范围内,外资与独裁政权水火不容,但外商们也不会在乎埃尔多安的极权政治导致的经常性社会动荡。The hope that Turkey will one day join the EU has also kept investors interested. This is where Mr Erdogan ought to think of his legacy. Building giant infrastructure projects is all very well, but if he is to underpin Turkeys modernisation he needs to pull it back onto its European course. EU membership is a remote prospect just now, but moving away from Europes liberal democratic norms will make it an impossibility.期待某天土耳其加入欧盟的愿望也让投资者们兴趣大增。这就是埃尔多安应该考虑的他留给土耳其的遗产。大兴土木虽然无过,但如果他想为土耳其的现代化奠基,则应该将土耳其拉回欧洲发展的轨道。欧盟成员国的身份目前为时尚早,但偏离欧洲自由民主的规则会使这以目标更加遥不可及。Gul, not Putin古尔,不是普京The first test of Mr Erdogans intentions will be the choice of prime minister. This week Turkeys outgoing president, Abdullah Gul, threw his hat into the ring (see article). Not only is Mr Gul widely respected, both at home and abroad, but he has also briefly held the job before. Moreover, as a co-founder of the AK party, he has enough political clout of his own to stand up to Mr Erdogan. Mr Erdogan should accept that a strong prime minister would be better for Turkey. If he insists on having a puppet instead, people may start to compare him not to Ataturk but to his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin.埃尔多安的意图面临的第一项考验便是总理的人选。本周,土耳其即将卸任的总统——阿卜杜拉?古尔宣布参与竞选。古尔不仅在国内外广受尊崇,而且之前也出任过一段时间的总统。再者,作为AK党的共同创立者,他拥有足够的政治影响力与埃尔多安抗衡。埃尔多安应该接受这一点,即一位强大的总理更适合土耳其。如果他坚持将此视为傀儡,民众将开始把他比作俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔普京,而非与土耳其国父阿塔图尔克相提并论。 /201409/329469

  Fun fact about alligators: they can regrow any of their eightyteeth up to fifty times.关于短嘴鳄的有趣的事实:它们的八十颗牙齿中任一一颗牙都可以重新生长五十次。Which is pretty impressive, especially compared to us relatively dentallychallenged humans:这实在让人惊讶,特别是和我们人类牙齿的相对障碍相比:when we lose adult teeth, theres no regrowing them.当我们失去恒牙便再无重生的可能。But that may change.但这样的情况可能有所改观。Hoping to save the toothless among us from being fated to wearingdentures, scientists are studying how alligators regrow teeth and how the same process may beable to work in humans.为了摆脱我们因没有牙齿而戴上假牙的命运,科学家们正在研究短嘴鳄牙齿再生的机理以及同样的方式如何能够同样作用于人类。Using X rays and tissue samples, plus lab grown gator tooth cells and computer models, scientistshave learned that for each gator tooth there are two tooth precursors, both of which aretriggered to grow when a mature tooth is lost.利用X射线和组织样本,加上实验室生长的鳄鱼牙齿细胞和计算机模型,科学家发现每一颗鳄鱼牙齿上均有两个牙前体细胞,当成熟的牙齿脱落,这两个前体就会触发新牙生长。The growth process begins when a band of tissue called the dental lamina begins to bulge. Thiswakes up stem cells and signaling molecules that kick start new tooth growth. And finally a newtooth grows in to replace the one that was lost.当一组名为牙板的组织开始膨胀,再生的过程就开始了。这一过程唤醒了干细胞和推动新牙生长的信号分子。最后一颗新牙长出并取代原先那颗失去的牙。Now, its difficult to take what nature and evolution have combined to create in one species andsomehow make it happen in another.现在的问题在于,如何让这个在一个物种上结合了自然和进化的产物发生在另一物种身上。But we humans do have remnants of dental lamina.但我们人类仍然有残留的牙板。Andscientists are trying to figure out how to manipulate it to enable tooth growth in people similar tohow it works in alligators.科学家们正试图找出如何操作的方法,使人类牙齿生长的机理和短嘴鳄的相似。We could potentially use that same knowledge to turn off the processesin humans that sometimes cause problems like growing too many teeth or oddly shaped andspaced teeth.我们很可能利用相同的知识结束人类牙齿生长时常产生的问题的过程,例如长了多余的牙齿,或者龅牙以及间隙牙。The alligator research is still in the early stages, so regrowing human teeth is still a ways away.短嘴鳄的研究仍然处于早期阶段,因此人类离牙齿再生的现实还有一定距离。Butbefore too long, replacing a lost adult tooth may be as simple as growing it back.但不久的将来,也许替换一颗掉落的恒牙和新长一颗一样简单。 201401/273723


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