楼主:知道新闻 时间:2019年08月26日 07:16:44 点击:0 回复:0
With hope fading that Microsoft Corp.#39;s new Windows 8 software will reignite computer sales, attention is aly shifting to the company#39;s next big effort to regain relevance: Windows Blue.对微软(Microsoft Corp.)新操作系统Windows 8重振电脑销售的希望变得越来越渺茫。市场注意力也已经转向该公司重振旗鼓的下一个主要项目:Windows Blue。Microsoft has yet to formally define the software project. But Windows Blue is expected to mark a major change in the company#39;s development methodology, replacing major launches of products every several years with frequent updates of features in operating software and applications such as Office.微软还没有正式定义这个软件项目。但是Windows Blue预计将标志着公司发展方式的一个重大改变,不再每隔数年发布重大产品,而是频繁地对操作系统和Office等应用程序进行更新。That model is common in Internet services and apps, markets where Microsoft is determined to play a larger role. Some analysts think Windows Blue will help bring together efforts such as Windows 8─which is targeted at tablets and personal computers─and the Windows Phone software for smartphones.这种模式在互联网务和应用程序中十分常见,微软正下定决心在上述市场中扮演更大的角色。一些分析人士认为,Windows Blue将有助于整合Windows 8和Windows Phone的优势。Windows 8针对的是平板电脑和个人电脑,而Windows Phone针对的则是智能手机。#39;Windows 8 was about birthing a new model of applications, essentially a tablet model,#39; said IDC analyst Al Hilwa. #39;Blue is the next milestone in this plan. It brings the phone and PC platform closer together and makes both more compelling.#39;国际数据公司(IDC)的分析师席尔瓦(Al Hilwa)说,Windows 8是为了催生一个应用程序的新模式,尤其是一个平板电脑的模式。Blue是该计划的下一个里程碑。它使手机和个人电脑平台的关系更加紧密,让这两种产品都更有吸引力。The stakes for Windows Blue rose this week when two market research firms reported that shipments of PCs fell by double-digits percentages in the first three months of this year.Windows Blue的重要性本周进一步上升。两个市场研究公司发布报告说,今年前三个月,个人电脑的出货量出现了两位数的降幅。Figures from IDC and Gartner Inc. released Wednesday showed Windows 8 hasn#39;t spurred much demand for PCs or tablets running the software. IDC leveled particularly harsh criticism at the software, saying some consumers were turned off by its touch-based interface.国际数据公司(IDC)和Gartner Inc.周三公布的数据显示,Windows 8还没有能够刺激人们对搭载该软件的个人电脑或平板电脑的太多需求。国际数据公司对这款软件提出了尤其严厉的批评,称这款软件的触屏交互界面让一些消费者选择放弃购买。The surprisingly steep drop─IDC called it the worst since it began releasing quarterly numbers for the software in 1994─caused a selloff in PC-related stocks Thursday. Microsoft#39;s stock price slipped 4.9% Thursday afternoon to .82, after the company#39;s stock price had touched a six-month high Wednesday.国际数据公司说,这是1994年开始公布这款软件的季度数据以来最糟糕的表现。个人电脑出货量令人惊讶的大幅下降也导致个人电脑相关股票暴跌。微软的股价周四下午下跌了4.9%,至28.82美元。此前,该公司股价曾于周三触及六个月高点。A spokesman for Microsoft had no immediate comment Thursday.微软的一名发言人周四没有立即置评。Hewlett-Packard Co., the largest PC maker and a major Microsoft customer, showed the steepest decline in shipments in the first quarter, with a 24% drop, according to IDC. H-P#39;s stock fell 6.4% to .86 in recent trading.根据国际数据公司的数据,惠普(Hewlett-Packard Co.)第一季度的出货量降幅最大,达到24%。该公司是全球最大的个人电脑制造商,也是微软的主要客户。惠普股价最近下跌了6.4%,至20.86美元。But executives at Microsoft and partners such as Intel Corp. have acknowledged there is more work to do to encourage a wider array of touch-screen computing devices powered by Windows 8, and at lower price points.但是微软以及英特尔(Intel Corp.)等合作伙伴的高管们承认,要想鼓励电脑厂商们推出更多更便宜的Windows 8触屏电脑设备,还有很多工作要做。Intel, which supplies microprocessors that serve as calculating engines in most PCs, is emphasizing a new line of battery-conserving chips that is known by the code name Haswell. The chips are expected to display much more sophisticated graphics and extend battery life on portable computers to eight to 10 hours.英特尔为大多数个人电脑提供微处理器,微处理器相当于电脑中的计算引擎。英特尔目前正在专注于一个代号为Haswell的新型节电芯片产品系列。这些芯片预计将能够展示更复杂的图形,将便携电脑的续航时间延长到八至10小时。Microsoft also has offered price breaks on its Windows software meant for a new class of simple PCs known as netbooks and seems to be responding to a market shift in consumer demand toward smaller tablets.微软还下调了一些Windows软件的价格。这些软件针对的是被称作上网本的新一类简化个人电脑。与此同时,该公司似乎正在对消费者需求转向更小尺寸的平板电脑做出回应。The company last year entered the market itself with the tablet known as Surface, just as products such as Apple Inc.#39;s iPad Mini spurred demand for smaller models. Microsoft is now preparing a similarly small model with a seven-inch display, The Wall Street Journal reported Wednesday.微软去年凭借Surface平板电脑进入这一市场。当时,苹果公司(Apple Inc.)的iPad Mini等产品刺激了消费者对更小型号平板电脑的需求。《华尔街日报》周三报道说,微软正在准备一款类似的小型平板电脑,这款平板电脑将拥有7英寸的显示屏。Executives at Intel and Microsoft have said they expect new computer chips and other advancements to drive down the cost of touch-screen laptops to as low as 0 or 0. For now, there are very few Windows 8 touch-screen computers on the market for less than 0.英特尔和微软的高管说,他们预计新的电脑芯片和其他方面的改进将使触屏笔记本电脑的成本降至500美元或600美元。目前,市场上几乎没有价格低于550美元的Windows 8触屏电脑。Some on Wall Street aren#39;t waiting for a new spark for PC and tablet demand. Analysts at Goldman Sachs and Nomura Securities downgraded their recommendations on Microsoft shares on Thursday, contributing to a selloff in the company#39;s shares.华尔街的一些人并没有耐心等待个人电脑和平板电脑需求获得新的提振。高盛(Goldman Sachs)和野村券(Nomura Securities)的分析师周四下调了对微软股票的评级,导致该公司股票被抛售。Goldman said investors should sell Microsoft shares, while Nomura downgraded the stock to #39;neutral#39; from #39;buy.#39;高盛说,投资者应卖出微软股票。而野村券则将这只股票的评级从“买进”下调至“中性”。Goldman Sachs said Microsoft needed to do more to court consumers rather than the corporate customers that are Microsoft#39;s major source of profits.高盛说,微软需要采取更多行动来迎合消费者,而不是作为微软主要利润来源的企业客户。 /201304/234716FOR decades, the overuse of antibiotics has encouraged the evolution of drug-resistant bacteria which, though they have never broken out and caused an epidemic in the way that was once feared, have nevertheless been responsible for many deaths that might otherwise have been avoided. Now something similar seems to be happening in agriculture. The overuse of drugs against parasitic worms which infest stock animals means that these, too, are becoming drug-resistant. That is bad for the animals#39; health and welfare, and equally bad for farmers#39; profits.几十年来,广泛使用抗生素促进了耐药病菌的进化。尽管它们从来没有失控,爆发人们一度为止恐惧的大规模瘟疫,但还是造成了大量本来可以避免的死亡。现在畜牧业中似乎也有类似现象。人们对家畜身上的寄生虫过分使用药物,这让它们也有了抗药性。这对动物的健康与安乐绝非好事,同样也会减少饲养它们的农民的利润。This, at least, is the conclusion drawn by Ray Kaplan, a parasitologist at the University of Georgia who has just published a review of research on the problem. His results, which appear in Veterinary Parasitology, make grim ing.这至少是乔治亚大学(University of Georgia)寄生虫病学家雷?卡普兰(Ray Kaplan)在他最近发表的有关这一问题的研究综述中得出的结论。他发表在《兽医寄生虫学》(Veterinary Parasitology)上的文章读来让人心情沉重。Sheep and goats are the worst affected. Studies in Australia, Brazil and the ed States suggest that animals in half or more of farms in many parts of those countries are infested with drug-resistant worms. In some cases the parasites are resistant to every drug that can be thrown at them. The proportion of infested farms is lower in New Zealand, a country that has a huge population of sheep, but even there it is rising at a worrying rate.绵羊与山羊受的影响最大。在澳大利亚、巴西和美国所做的研究表明,在这些国家的许多地区,一半或更多的农场中的家畜身上有耐药寄生虫。有些农场的寄生虫对所有可用药物有抗药性。新西兰的农场饲养着大量绵羊,它们受到影响的比例比较低;但即使在该国,受影响农场比例的增长速度还是令人担心。Cattle, too, are afflicted. Dr Kaplan cites work done in Argentina, Brazil and New Zealand. And horses suffer as well, with resistant worms turning up in both America and Europe.家牛也身受其害。卡普兰士引用了在阿根廷、巴西和新西兰所做的研究工作。马也是受害者,美国与欧洲的马身上都发现了抗药寄生虫。The root of the problem is what Dr Kaplan refers to as ;global worming;-giving drugs prophylactically to all livestock rather than reserving them for use as a treatment when an animal actually becomes infested. It is common sense, of course, to try to prevent infestation rather than merely treating it once it has arisen.问题的根源是卡普兰士称为;全球防虫;的现象——预防性地对所有家畜用药,而不是在动物身上真正出现了寄生虫时投药治疗。当然,防病胜于治病是常识。Unfortunately, such promiscuous use of drugs is the best way to put selection pressure on the worms and encourage the evolution of resistant strains.不幸的是,这样的预防性用药是在寄生虫身上施加选择压力的最佳方法,能够促进抗药品种的进化。What is needed, says Dr Kaplan, is more selective drug use, and better management. Worms are not evenly distributed. Instead, a minority of animals play host to most of them. Aiming treatment at those animals would reduce the likelihood of resistance emerging without harming a farmer#39;s ability to control infestations. Better husbandry might help, too. Not grazing so many animals on a given patch of land would discourage transmission.卡普兰士认为,现在需要做的是加强管理与更有选择性地用药。寄生虫并非均匀寄生在各种动物身上。有少数动物是大多数寄生虫的寄主。集中治疗这些动物则会降低耐药性发生的可能性,同时也不会损害农民控制虫害的能力。改进饲养方法或许也有益处。不在一块草地上过量放牧动物会减轻虫害传播。That, though, would bring problems of its own, as it would reduce the number of animals which could be raised on a given farm. Which leads to the nub of the issue: it is hard to work out exactly how much damage resistant worms are doing, and thus how much effort should be put into trying to stop the sp of resistance-not least because, as Dr Kaplan found out when he conducted his survey, the data are pretty sporadic. But they are worrying enough to be worth following up, for if resistance did get out of hand the consequences could be very expensive indeed.但这本身也会带来问题,因为这会减少一座农场能饲养的家畜数目。这就引出了问题的症结:人们很难确定抗药寄生虫会造成多大的危害,因此也不知道该花多少代价来阻止抗药性蔓延,因为很重要的是,卡普兰士在纵观研究结果时发现有关数据相当零散。但这些数据还是很令人忧虑,值得进一步跟踪,因为一旦人们无法控制抗药性,就确实可能会付出惨重的代价。No one farmer is to blame. This is a tragedy of the commons, in which sensible individual decisions have led to a collective difficulty. But it might behove farmers to think more about how they use anti-worm drugs. If they do not, they may find that those drugs have become useless.无法就此责备某个农民。这是一个公地悲剧 [注],许多明智的个人决定导致了群体的困难。但或许农民们有责任多想想他们应该如何使用抗寄生虫药物。如果放弃这一责任,他们或许有一天会发现这些药物变得全然无用。 /201208/193576China and the US have announced a major agreement to slash tariffs on electronic goods around the world, bringing a successful close to what had become a major test of the world’s two biggest economies’ ability to negotiate trade agreements.中美两国宣布达成了一项意义重大的协议,同意大幅削减全球各地电子产品的关税,给两国长期的贸易谈判划上了成功的句号,两国能否达成贸易协议已经成为对全球两大经济体能力的重大考验。The deal unveiled in Beijing on Tuesday ends an almost 18-month stand-off that had frozen negotiations among more than 50 countries to update the 1996 Information Technology Agreement.周二在北京宣布的协议,结束了一场将近18个月的僵持。这场僵持曾导致50多个国家旨在修订1996年《信息技术协议》(Information Technology Agreement,ITA)的谈判被冻结。Speaking in Beijing president Barack Obama said the US and China have reached an “understanding” on expanding the pact that “will contribute to a rapid conclusion to the broader negotiations in Geneva”.美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)在北京表示,美中两国已在扩大ITA协议问题上达成“谅解”,此举“将有利于在日内瓦举行的更广范围谈判快速完成”。The agreement has yet to be signed off by other countries involved in the ITA talks, which have been taking place within the World Trade Organisation. That approval is expected to come within weeks, although the US-China deal does not cover flatscreen televisions or monitors which may prove a further irritation for big producers such as Japan and South Korea.该协议还需要得到ITA谈判的其他参与国的签字,此前ITA谈判一直在世贸组织(WTA)框架内进行。预计该协议在未来几周内将获得批准,不过,美中协议范围不包括平板电视。这可能引起日本、韩国等平板电视生产大国的更大不满。Once implemented the ITA update will substantially lower tariffs and liberalise the trade in more than 250 categories of high-tech products ranging from wireless headsets to new semiconductors and medical devices.一旦执行之后,新版ITA将大幅降低关税,使得逾250个种类的高科技产品——从无线耳麦到新型半导体和医疗设备——能够自由贸易。Beijing drastically reduced its list of excluded products to a few dozen earlier this year. The discussions with the US in recent weeks focused on fewer than 10 product categories including next-generation semiconductors, sophisticated measurement tools used in manufacturing and point-of-sale cards for downloading electronic games and other software.今年,中国方面大幅缩短了例外产品清单的长度,减少到几十种。最近几周与美国的谈判集中于不到10个产品类别,包括下一代半导体、加工中使用的先进测量工具,以及用于下载等软件的POS机点卡。As recently as last week US officials were expressing frustration with China. But over the past few days discussions resumed in Beijing and by Monday the two sides were exchanging final texts and translations of an agreement.就在最近的上周,美国官员对中国表示了失望。但过去几天里,谈判在北京重启,到周一双方就在交换一项协议的最终文本和翻译版了。The only late outstanding issue came over whether to announce the deal on Tuesday as part of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation summit or during a state visit on Wednesday by President Barack Obama.唯一悬而未决的问题是这一协议该如何宣布——是作为周二在亚太经合组织(APEC)峰会成果,还是在美国总统于周三举行的国事访问时宣布。 /201411/341778

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