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2019年06月16日 04:37:06来源:平安门户

  • What is obesity? We all know it when we see it but do we know what causes it? Many people think that obesity is down to laziness and greed. Obesity is, however, more serious than someone carrying a few extra pounds. It is a medical, life limiting condition and people who suffer from it deserve help and support. Obesity is an issue for one in three Americans and the AMA took the decision in order to impact on the way doctors and other medical professionals approach those suffering from the disease. Many other health issues (Type II Diabetes and Heart Disease) are linked to or made worse by obesity so treating and preventing obesity should have a positive effect on instances of many other conditions. In Sweden it has been accepted that obesity is increasingly prevalent, particularly amongst young people and as such policy makers need to look at targeting the problem and its associated social, personal and economic costs. The American Medical Association (AMA) took the decision, on June 18, 2013, to classify obesity as a disease. This was a controversial decision that is still being debated today. The debate gives rise to strong feelings on both sides. Here are our 10 reasons why obesity is a disease.大家都很清楚什么是肥胖,但是对于产生肥胖的原因,却鲜有人了解。很多人把肥胖的原因归结于懒惰、贪婪。事实上,肥胖远不是身上多长了几磅肉那么简单。严格说来,肥胖是一种医疗疾病,肥胖者的日常生活非常因肥胖变得很不方便,他们应该得到大家的帮助与持。每三个美国人当中就会有一个患有肥胖症,美国医疗学会(AMA)决定要协助医生以及其他医疗工作人员帮助肥胖症患者脱离这种疾病的困扰。肥胖会引发许多其他健康问题,还会使病情恶化(如:2型糖尿病和心脏病),因此在身体患有其他健康问题的情况下预防和治疗肥胖百利而无一害。在瑞典,肥胖症非常普遍,尤其是在青年人中,因此,政府需要着手寻找解决问题的方法,并查明其会牵涉到的社会、个人、以及经济上的代价。2013年6月18日,美国医疗学会将肥胖症列入疾病范畴。一直以来,社会各界对该决定争论不休,引起正反两方强烈反响。以下即为肥胖属于疾病范畴的10个原因。10.Obesity Has Always Been Treated As a Disease10.肥胖始终被社会各界视为一种病As far back as the Ancient Greeks Hippocrates defined obesity as a disease noting that it could case impotence and sexual problems. Plutarch exhorted people to avoid indulging in delicacies and Galen invented the #39;fat camp#39; when he #39;reduced a huge fat fellow to moderates size…by making him run every morning until he fell into a profuse sweat#39;.早在古希腊时期,希波克拉底就已把肥胖列入疾病范畴,且发现其会造成性无能等问题。希腊的历史学家普鲁塔克告诫人们不要纵情于美味佳肴。希腊名医伽林也成立了一个“减肥营”,通过让那些过度肥胖的人每天晨跑至汗流浃背来使他们“从大胖子转变为体格正常之人”。By the 17th Century English Doctors were calling obesity a disease. They thought it was caused by a malfunction of the internal organs. Obesity has always been identified as a problem; however, historically it has been a problem that is the preserve of the rich. As Oliver Twist says in the song #39;Rich gentlemen have it boys…indigestion!#39; Today many parts of the world are, by historic standards, incredibly rich and have a food security that is unparalleled. With this improved food security come related food problems.到了17世纪,英国医生把肥胖症归为一种疾病。他们认为肥胖是由人体内部器官功能“失灵”引起。肥胖一直以来都被视为一种病,但人们一直都认为它是富人专属。就如《雾都孤儿》里的一句歌谣所云:“有钱的老爷都是吃到消化不良呀……” 跟以前相比,现今有钱人太多了,而且食品安全问题也比以前好太多。然而在这种情况下,还是会有饮食问题——肥胖饮食。9.Doctors Say It Is9.医生认为肥胖属于疾病Doctors are experts in disease and how to cure it. If they say something is a disease we should listen to them! The AMA decided it was a disease in 2013 and the FDA, American College of Gastroenterology and the American Heart Association, amongst others, all agree. Nor is the US the only country where doctors make this claim. In Malaysia Dr Tee E Siong o the Nutrition Society of Malaysia and Professor Dr Mohd Ismail Noor of the Malaysian Society for the Study of Obesity say it should be referred to as a disease #39;so that the public can be more aware of the dangers of the condition#39;. Obesity Australia is also campaigning for formal recognition of obesity as a disease to #39;remove stigma and reduce obesity rates.#39;医生是研究疾病并找寻治疗方法的人。所以医生说某一种症状应列入疾病范畴时,我们就应该相信!美国医疗学会于2003年把肥胖列入疾病范畴,对此,美国食品及药物、美国肠胃病学院、美国心脏病协会等组织都十分持这一举措。美国不是唯一一个赞同把肥胖列为疾病的国家。马来西亚营养协会的Tee E. Siong士和马来西亚肥胖研究所的Mohd Ismail Noor教授都认为,将肥胖与疾病联系起来,公众会更容易意识到肥胖的威胁性。澳大利亚肥胖协会也正在努力争取把肥胖症归为正式的疾病,以达到“减少耻辱和降低肥胖率”的目的。8.The World Health Organisation Says It Is8.世界卫生组织说肥胖是病Obesity was aly formally classified as a disease by The World Health Organisation when it was founded (back in 1948). Obesity was, however, ignored for a long time as it was seen to be a problem of the developed world. By 1988 the World Health Organisation Obesity Report showed that obesity was becoming a worldwide problem. WHO#39;s factsheet #39;Obesity and Overweight#39; gives advice to individuals, society and food manufacturers on how to combat obesity and other related #39;noncommunicable#39; diseases.肥胖在1948年的时候就被世界卫生组织列为一种疾病。然而,在相当长的时间里,肥胖一直为人所忽视,它被认为是发达国家才有的问题。直到1988年,世界卫生组织肥胖报告表明,肥胖正成为全球性问题。世界卫生组织的“肥胖与超重”实况报告在关于如何对抗肥胖症和别的相关“非传染性疾病方面给个人、社会和食品制造商列出了许多建议。”7.Obesity Can Be Inherited7.肥胖可以遗传No matter how healthy a lifestyle, how well people eat, some people are simply predisposed to be obese. People who suffer from conditions such as Prader-Willi Syndrome or a congenital condition such as hyperthyroidism are likely to be obese – sometimes from a young age.不论人们生活方式多么健康,饮食多么合理,有些人就是容易胖。患有威利综合症或者先天性疾病的人群,例如,甲状腺机能亢进症患者,更倾向于患有肥胖,有时甚至年纪轻轻就会很肥胖。Even if you do not have markers for any particular syndrome it is possible to be predisposed to obesity. If both your parents are obese you have an 80% chance of being obese yourself. There are more than 41 genes that predispose people to obesity. Why is this? There are survival benefits to obesity – if you can store up energy in the good times you are more likely to survive a period of famine. This so called #39;thrifty gene#39; was a great benefit in century#39;s past. A modern day #39;paleo#39; diet may be all very well but it is not the answer for everyone. Even in prehistoric times there were some people who were predisposed to be obese. Many of the #39;Venus#39; figurines recovered from the time show women with large breasts, stomachs and buttocks. These figurines may demonstrate the #39;desired optimum#39; i.e. large is beautiful but even if that is the case the optimum had to exist for the artists to be aware of it. Put simply some cave men were obese and that genetic predisposition has been passed on to their descendants – us!即使你没有任何特殊症状,你也还是有可能患上肥胖症。如果你的父母都肥胖,那么你有80%的几率患有肥胖症。因为人体本身就有超过41种使人们更倾向于肥胖的基因。怎么会这样?因为肥胖有生存益处——如果平时储存足够能量,就可以在饥荒期间生存下来。这个所谓的“节俭基因”在过去可是非常有益的。现在我们提及的“原始饮食”也许非常好,但不适合所有人。即使在古代,也是有人更易于肥胖的。许多存留下来的“维纳斯时期”女人雕像的特征都是丰乳肥臀。这些雕像展示的也许就是当时的“完美标准”, 例如,“大”即是美。但“最美”的东西也得有懂得欣赏的艺术家。简单来说,一些洞穴人是肥胖的,他们的这种基因特性也遗传给了他们的后代——我们!6.Obesity Has an Impact on Life Expectancy6.肥胖影响寿命If someone who is not obese suffers from a condition that reduces their life expectancy most people would be comfortable labelling that condition a disease or illness. Lung Cancer is a disease whether or not the person who has it was a smoker. Cirrhosis of the liver is a disease whether or not the sufferer is a drinker. WHO states that 3.4 million adults die from obesity each year. Shockingly 65% of the world#39;s population now live in countries where obesity is more of a health risk than being underweight. The sad fact is that obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death worldwide by as much as 10 years in the most extreme cases. If any other condition had this type of major impact there would be no debate about whether or not it should be classified as a disease – indeed there would be an outcry if it was not.无论一个人是否肥胖,只要他因此而寿命缩短,人们自然就会将它标志为“疾病”。不管患者是不是烟民,肺癌都是一种疾病;不管患者是不是酒鬼,肝硬化都是一种疾病。世界卫生组织指出,每年都有340万成年人死于肥胖。让人震惊的是,现在世界有65%的人口都居住在把“肥胖”列为“危害健康”行列的国家,在这些国家肥胖造成的伤害比饮养不良还要大。更令人沮丧的是,在10年中最严重的情况下,肥胖是全球可预防性死亡的诱因之一。如果有什么能和肥胖一样产生如此大的影响,则没有人会反对把它列为“疾病”,否则贸然将肥胖列为疾病必然会引起公愤。审校:哈利 来源:前十网 /201601/420334。
  • Remember that scene in ;My Cousin Vinny; where Marisa Tomei says, ;My biological clock is ticking likes this; and she starts stomping hard on the floor? When someone says that a woman#39;s biological clock is ticking, it usually means that she actively wants to have a baby and feels time may be short. Scientists debate whether this is a real physiological response from the body as fertility decreases or if it#39;s all in the head. While men can feel a biological clock ticking too, it#39;s generally not with the same urgency, as their time to father a child is much longer than a woman#39;s is to have one. At least, that was conventional wisdom. As both men and women are becoming parents at older ages, scientists have discovered that the father#39;s age may have more to do with a child#39;s genetic health than that of his or her mom. That#39;s just one use of the term ;biological clock.; Turns out that every living thing – men, women, animals, plants, insects, and algae – all have internal ;body clocks; determined by a variety of biological rhythms. These physical, mental and behavioral patterns follow a predictable cycle every day, one that is determined largely by the body#39;s response to light and dark. So why do we have these clocks, and what do they do for us? Here are 10 facts that may surprise you.大家还记得电影《我的堂兄文尼》中的一个场景吗?玛丽莎·托梅说:“我的生物钟正在滴答作响!”然后她开始在地板上疯狂地跺脚。当有人提到一个女性的生物钟正在滴答作响,那通常意味着她很渴望生一个孩子而且感到时间实在是太紧迫了。科学家们就这一生物钟是否是因生育能力下降而导致的真实生理反应,亦或是纯粹的心理作用而争论不休。不过男人也可以体会到生物钟滴答作响的感觉,但它通常并不像女人的生物钟那样让人倍感紧迫,因为他们当爹的时间比女人生娃的时间长多了。但不管怎样,这都是一种传统的说法。随着年龄的不断增大,男人和女人终会为人父母,科学家们发现,父亲的年龄对孩子基因健康的影响要比母亲大。这仅仅只是“生物钟”的作用之一。结果表明,每一个生物——男人、女人、动物、植物、昆虫、藻类——它们的身体内部都有一个生物钟——由不同的生物节律决定。这些生理、心理和行为模式绝大部分取决于身体对光线强弱做出的不同反应,每天在可预测的周期内循环。所以我们为什么会拥有生物钟?它们能为我们做什么?下面10个事实大概会让你震惊。10.It#39;s a Complex Clock10.生物钟很复杂The body clock isn#39;t some rinky-dink Mickey Mouse watch. In fact, it#39;s a series of clocks controlled by a single ;master clock; located in the brain. The system works like this: Genes within the body include instructions for making proteins, which are produced in waves that rise and fall over the course of a day in a type of 24-hour cycle.生物钟绝对不是一块破旧的普通米老鼠手表。事实上,它是一系列由大脑的“主时钟”控制的时钟。生物钟系统是这样运作的:身体内的基因,包括那些合成蛋白质的指令都是在一天24小时循环的人体波动中形成的。The master clock manages these circadian rhythms using a group of roughly 20,000 nerve cells called the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), located in the hypothalamus. This section of the brain sits above the optic nerve and produces the hormones that govern body temperature, hunger, sex drive and other workings of the body. The patterns created not only dictate when we eat and sleep, but also control heart rate and the production of blood cells and blood sugar. Although the genes and proteins generally determine individual rhythms, outside factors related to light and dark can also have a significant impact on how your body ;tells time;.主时钟调节这些昼夜节律需使用大约20000个位于下丘脑的神经细胞——视交叉上核。下丘脑位于视神经之上,其产生的荷尔蒙能控制体温、摄食、性欲和身体的其他性能。它不仅指示我们何时吃饭睡觉,还控制心率以及生产血细胞和血糖。一般来说,基因和蛋白质决定个人生物节律,但例如光线强弱等的外在因素也可以对你身体的报时产生较大影响。9.Melatonin Is Our Body#39;s Sleep Aid9.褪黑素有助于人体睡眠Among the many hormones pumped through the body, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) controls the production of the one that makes people want to curl up in a ball on the nearest couch and catch a few zzzs. Melatonin is a naturally occurring chemical that helps regulate the circadian rhythm. The more of it that the body produces, the more likely you are to get sleepy.在人体内的各种激素里,视交叉上核控制的激素可以让人们想要赶紧找个沙发躺下呼呼大睡。褪黑素是一种天然的化学物质,可以帮助人体调节昼夜节律。身体内产生的褪黑素越多,你就越有可能会昏昏欲睡。Your melatonin production schedule varies based on light. Remember that the SCN is located just above the optic nerve, which sends information from the eyes to the brain. The less light that comes in – after the sun goes down and the sky becomes dark, for example – the more melatonin the SCN tells the brain to make. Some folks who suffer from sleep disorders will pop melatonin pills to help them get some rest. The effect of these supplements, which are available without a prescription and not regulated in the same way as pharmaceutical drugs, is still not clear. Experts warn that users should be careful to monitor the size and timing of doses so as not to throw off their natural body clocks.褪黑素利用光来校准生产时间表。记住,视交叉上核只存在视觉神经上方,通过眼睛把信息传递到大脑。举个例子,当太阳下山、天空也暗下来后——进入眼睛的光线变得越来越少,视交叉上核就会提醒大脑生产更多的褪黑素。有些患有睡眠障碍的人会使用褪黑素药物来助眠。但这些无需处方也并不像普通药品一样接受监管的激素到底会对人体产生什么影响还是未知数。专家警告说,药物使用者应仔细监测剂量的大小和用时间,以免打破人体的自然生物钟。8.The Body Clock Adapts to Location Changes8.生物钟会根据位置改变自我调节Think about the body clock as a human version of the one on your smartphone. If you turn off the phone when you board a plane in New York and turn it back on when your flight lands in Los Angeles, you will notice that the clock automatically adjusts the time to reflect that you#39;re now in a different zone. In the same way, your body clock will eventually adjust to the new light/dark cycle on the West Coast.把你的生物钟想作是智能手机里的另一个人类版本。假如你在纽约登机时关闭手机,然后在旧金山降落时再打开手机,你会注意到,手机的时间已随时区变化自动调节并且提示你已身处在不同的时区。同样地,你的生物钟最终也会适应西海岸的昼夜。Anyone who#39;s ever suffered from jet lag knows that the shift doesn#39;t happen right away. Your body has been trained to release melatonin at a certain time each night, and will initially continue to do so even when the optic nerve tells the brain that it#39;s still light outside. Eventually however, and your brain will time the melatonin release to the darkness. In other words, the clock slowly rewinds itself to reflect the rising and falling of the sun and to ensure that you don#39;t spend all of the prime California beach time snoring in your hotel room.任何曾经有过时差反应的人都知道,生物钟的转变是不会立马发生的,因为只有在晚上的某一特定时间,你的身体才会分泌褪黑素。所以在适应期内,即使视觉神经传递给大脑“现在是白天”的信息,你的身体还是会在原定时间内分泌褪黑素。在生物钟完全适应了新时区的时间后,你的大脑才会在夜间传达“分泌褪黑素”的信息。也就是说,你的生物钟会自我调整,以适应新时区的昼夜,确保你在加州海滩度假时,不至于所有的时间都在酒店房间里呼呼大睡。7.But It Doesn#39;t Adapt to Daylight Saving Time7.但生物钟无法适应夏令时Most American, Canadian and European timepieces spring forward every March, when the powers that be move the official time up an hour so as to allow people to make the most of daylight. Thought to be originally cooked up by Benjamin Franklin, daylight saving time took hold during World War I and became the law of (most) of the land in the U.S. in 1966. Then-President Lyndon Johnson signed legislation requiring official timekeepers to move their clocks forward an hour each spring and back an hour every fall.美国、加拿大和欧洲的大多数计时器每年从三月起实行夏令时,政府把官方时间提前一小时,以便人们充分享受日光。夏令时由本杰明·富兰克林提出,在一战期间正式执行。1966年,美国绝大部分地区通过立法,确定使用夏令时。当时的总统林登·约翰逊签署了此项法案,要求官方计时员在每年春季开始时调前一小时,每年秋季结束时调后一小时。The problem is that no one seems to have consulted our body clocks before agreeing to this twice-a-year adjustment. Moving the time ahead an hour does a number on circadian rhythms, particularly in the days immediately after the change when the sun still comes up around the same time. If your alarm goes off at 7 a.m. the day after it springs forward, your body still thinks it#39;s 6 a.m. Because the sun rises later in small increments, it#39;s probably still dark out, and will remain dark for a few months. That means that your body won#39;t shut off the melatonin faucet just yet. One study showed that people#39;s circadian rhythms never fully adjust to daylight saving time and sleep behavior only returns to normal when we go back to regular time.问题是,在同意一年两次的调整前,并没有人考虑过我们的生物钟能否适应夏令时。把时间提前一小时破坏了昼夜节律,尤其是在更改后几天,太阳依旧在相同的时间升起。在夏令时开始后,如果你的闹钟显示的是7:00am,你的身体依然会默认为是6:00am。因为太阳升起得比较慢,外面可能还是一片黑暗,这种情况可能还会持续几个月。那就意味着在此期间,你的身体并不会停止分泌褪黑素。一项研究发现,人们的生理节律无法完全适应夏令时,而且只有当人们回到正常时间,其睡眠习惯才会回归正常。6.Birds Do It, Bears Do It6.万物皆有生物钟It#39;s like the music group Bloodhound Gang says: ;You and me, baby, ain#39;t nothing but mammals.; Other mammals also have rhythm-based body clocks that dictate when they rise in the morning and when they lie down for some shut-eye at night. In fact, bears depend on seasonal circadian rhythms to tell them when to hibernate for the winter and when to come out from their hiding places. Birds similarly fly south for the winter based on circadian (or circannual) rhythms that adapt to changes in temperature and the decreasing amount of sunlight per day.正如血性猎犬帮摇滚乐合唱团唱的那样,“你和我,宝贝,只是哺乳动物而已”。而其他哺乳动物的作息也是依赖于这种有规律的生物钟,早上何时苏醒,晚上又何时入眠。事实上熊也依赖于季节性的昼夜节律,根据时令选择什么时候该去冬眠了,什么时候又该从藏身的地方出来。类似地,鸟类向南方迁徙也是为了适应冬季每日温度下降、光照减少的昼夜节律。It isn#39;t just mammals who keep time naturally either. Internal rhythms drive plants to open their leaves at dawn and close them at night. They also determine when flowers bloom seasonally.并不是只有哺乳动物才会有规律的作息时间,植物的内部生物钟会促使它们在黎明的时候舒展开叶子,在傍晚的时候闭合。此外,这种内部生物钟也会决定季节性开花的时间。审校:围巾、烟囱 编辑:listen 来源:前十网 /201602/426974。
  • Skip the mess and go straight to the fun with these easy no-carve pumpkin decorating ideas! From pretty pastels to colorful confetti, these pumpkins are better than your average jack-o‘-lantern。 Take a look at nine ways you can decorate your pumpkin without carving, brought to you by the Blogger Community at Porch.com!省去那些乱七八糟的步骤,直接体会这些简单、无需任何雕刻的南瓜装饰点子的乐趣吧!从小巧的蜡笔到五的贴纸,这些南瓜要比你那些普通的空心南瓜灯好得多。看一看9种不用雕刻就可以装扮南瓜的法子吧。由Porch网站的客社区为您提供。1、Pastel Pun-kins蜡笔“(南瓜的)双关语亲戚”These pastel “pun-kins” are covered in puns and totally cute! For those of you who can‘t quite master the art of writing on pumpkins, this DIY project uses printables and tattoo paper to create these hilarious pumpkins!这些蜡笔画的“(南瓜的)双关语亲戚”上写满了双关语,真的是超级可爱!对于不能很好地掌握在南瓜上写字技巧的人来说,这一DIY作品用打印出来的纸张和纹身贴纸来做这些富有喜感的南瓜。2、Cactus Pumpkins仙人掌南瓜Dare to be different this Halloween by decorating your home with cactus pumpkins instead of your typical jack-o‘-lantern!今年的万圣节要敢于不同,用仙人掌南瓜而非传统的空心南瓜灯装饰房间吧!3、Vintage Camper Pumpkins古董露营车南瓜Have an awkward shaped pumpkin this year? Turn it into a vintage trailer by painting the outside!今年的南瓜奇形怪状?在南瓜的表面涂上颜料把南瓜做成一个古董推车!4、Pumpkin Ice Cream Cones冰淇淋蛋筒Make this Halloween less scary and more sweet by DIY-ing these no-carve pumpkin ice cream cones!让今年的万圣节少点恐怖多点甜蜜,不要雕刻,把这些南瓜DIY成冰淇淋蛋筒的形状吧!5、Neon Paint Dipped Pumpkin霓虹喷画南瓜Think neon this year with these painted pumpkins that really pop!今年霓虹灯和喷上颜料的南瓜更配哦!6、Sugar Skulls糖果骷髅Add these festive sugar skull pumpkins to your collection of skull decorations this Halloween。 Print the template and start painting to make your own!今年万圣节,将节日糖果骷髅南瓜添到你的骷髅风系列中去吧~可以先画模板,然后开始画上自己的原作。7、Confetti Pumpkin五色纸南瓜You would never guess that these sparkly confetti pumpkins are from the dollar store!你绝对想不到这些炫目的纸屑纸南瓜都是从一元店里淘回来的!8、Marbled Pumpkins大理石南瓜Planning on skipping the fright this Halloween? These pretty pastel marbled pumpkins are just what you need!今年万圣节打算一改恐怖风?这些用蜡笔画的大理石南瓜就是你的菜!9、Party Animal Pumpkins派对萌宠南瓜Bring the party to your pumpkins with these DIY party animal pumpkins。 Create a zebra, elephant, and even a flamingo for darling pumpkins that will keep the party going all night long!将这些DIY派对萌宠南瓜加入到你的南瓜收藏中吧。做上一只斑马、大象、甚至一只火烈鸟,会让派对嗨上整晚哦! /201510/406696。
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