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来源:安心面诊    发布时间:2019年08月20日 17:57:37    编辑:admin         

THE GOOD TIMES are rolling again in the country#39;s toniest neighborhoods. Property prices in East Hampton, New York City and Beverly Hills were up about 10 percent last year, according to Zillow, a Seattle-based site that estimates home values. Near Miami, on the exclusive Fisher Island-which can be reached only by private ferry, and even then, only by those whose names appear on a special list-home prices are up by about a third.美国的高档社区又迎来了大好时光。根据西雅图房价估算网站Zillow的数据,去年东汉普顿、纽约市和比弗利山庄的房价上涨10%左右。在迈阿密附近有座不对外人开放的费希尔岛(Fisher Island),去岛上只能通过私家渡轮、而且只有一个特别名单上的人能去,那里的房价更是上涨了三分之一左右。Higher real-estate prices normally spell good news for sellers, but there#39;s an associated cost that many tend to forget: A property will probably generate much higher estate taxes upon the owner#39;s death than it would have a few years ago. What#39;s more, estate taxes have been rising faster than property prices and asset values-and, some experts say, they are likely to rise even further. Yet some legal maneuvering may help cushion the blow.房价上涨对于卖家来说通常是好事,但其中也涉及一项很多人总是忘记的成本:到业主去世的时候,房产产生的遗产税恐怕要远远高于几年前的水平。另外,遗产税的上涨一直快于房价和资产价格,而据一些专家说,可能还会进一步上涨。但一些法律上的操作或许有助于缓冲这种负面影响。Today, the federal estate tax kicks in on estates worth more than .34 million, with the rate topping out at 40 percent. Since anyone is allowed to leave an unlimited amount of money to their spouse, the effective exemption per couple comes out to about .7 million. The low point for the estate-tax rate came in 2010, when it was effectively zero-thanks to political dysfunction on Capitol Hill that led to a one-year hiatus on the tax. As a result, the heirs of a handful of billionaires-including late New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner-got to keep hundreds of millions of dollars that otherwise would have gone to Uncle Sam.如今的联邦房地产遗产税针对的是价值534万美元以上的房产,最高税率40%。由于每个人都可以把一笔金额不限的钱留给配偶,每对夫妇事实上的免税额是1,070万美元左右。最低的房地产遗产税率出现在2010年,由于国会山的政治失灵导致该税种出现了一年的空档,当年的税率实际为零。得益于此,包括纽约扬基队(New York Yankees)已故老板乔治#12539;斯坦布莱纳(George Steinbrenner)等在内的好几位亿万富豪的继承人留住了本来要交给美国政府的数亿美元。Of course, those savings are not available today. Indeed, the growing economic inequality in America means that, if anything, estate-tax rates are likely to rise. Even as recently as the 1970s, the top federal estate-tax rate on the richest Americans was 77 percent. If the economic disparity continues to widen, today#39;s 40 percent rate may seem temptingly low to a future Congress.这些钱在今天当然是省不下了。事实上由于美国贫富差距越来越大,遗产税税率不变则已,要变则很有可能是提高。在距今不远的20世纪70年代,针对美国最富人群的联邦房地产遗产税税率最高就曾达到77%。如果贫富差距继续拉大,今天40%的税率在将来的国会看来或许显得实在太低,不得不要上调。The good news? The federal tax code has more loopholes than a 100-foot scarf created by a team of injured knitters, including a couple of big ones that might be especially useful here. The first allows someone to transfer a home to an heir through a temporary trust known as a qualified personal residence trust, or QPRT (pronounced cue-pert). This trust can make time your friend, rather than your enemy, for estate-tax purposes, as it can sharply reduce the taxable value of a home. A million home transferred to an heir via a seven-year QPRT, for instance, would only count as an .6 million home. Since the beneficiary wouldn#39;t get their hands on the property for another seven years, the Internal Revenue Service would allow the estate to discount the value by a few percentage points for each year#39;s delay.好消息是,联邦税法的漏洞比一群带伤的编织工编织出的30米长围巾的漏洞还多。其中的几个大漏洞在这里或许特别有用。第一个漏洞允许人们通过一种名叫“合格个人住宅信托”(qualified personal residence trust,简称QPRT)的临时性基金把房产转让给继承人。这只基金可以让时间成为你在遗产税方面的朋友而不是敌人,因为它可以大幅度地降低房产的应税价值。举个例子:一套价值1,000万美元的住宅通过一只七年期的QPRT转让给继承人,就只会当作一套价值860万美元的房产计税。由于受益人要七年以后才能得到房产,国税局(Internal Revenue Service)会允许这套房产的价值每推迟一年就少计算几个百分点。Even better, once the home is transferred to an heir, all future price appreciation gets excluded from the taxable value. If, for instance, that private-island home increases in value by, say, 7 percent a year and you die 10 years from now, then without the trust your estate would have to pay taxes on a million home. With the trust, the taxes would be on a home valued at .6 million. Depending on your exact circumstances, that difference could end up saving your estate as much as million in taxes. There are some caveats, of course, the main one being that you have to outlive the trust to get the benefit. Otherwise, the full value of the home reverts to your estate. Moreover, once the home is transferred, it is in the hands of your heirs, even if you live for 20 more years.喜上加喜:一旦房产转让给继承人,将来所有增值部分都会排除在应税价值之外。比如,如果上述那套私属岛屿住宅每年增值7%,而你在10年后去世,那么在没有QPRT的情况下,你这套房产作为接受的遗产将被按2,000万美元的价值交税。在有QPRT的情况下,房产的应税价值将只是860万美元。到最后,这之间的差价有望帮助你节省遗产税最多500万美元,具体多少则要看你的具体情况。当然也有一些注意事项,最重要的一条是你要比这只信托基金活得长才能享受到这个好处,不然你自己的遗产又要按住宅的全部价值计税。另外,一旦房产被转让,它便归你的继承人所有,哪怕你再活20年也没有用。Another little-known strategy is to transfer the home to a family-controlled limited liability company and then give shares in the LLC to beneficiaries each year. This could slash a future estate-tax bill a few different ways. First, a person could claim an estate-tax discount on the value of each share in the LLC, because it#39;s a minority stake in a private company. So, even though a 1 percent share in a million beach house in the Hamptons ought to be worth 0,000, for estate-tax purposes, it might be valued at only ,000-or even less. Second, one could slice ,000 more o#172; the taxable value-for each beneficiary, each year-with the federal gift-tax exclusion. That could bring the taxable value of that 0,000 share down to ,000. Finally, once a share is given, it and its future price appreciation are excluded from the estate , up to the ,000 gift-tax exclusion per person. Put another way, even if a home is worth million, its total taxable value to an estate would be considerably less once a person dies in 10 years#39; time-again, saving millions.另外一条鲜为人知的策略是把房产转让给一个由家族控制的有限责任公司,然后一年一年地将有限责任公司的股份送给受益人。这样做可以从几个不同的途径减少将来的遗产税。第一,可以要求对有限责任公司的每股价值折价征收遗产税,因为它是非公众公司的少数股权。所以,对于汉普顿一处1,000万美元的海滩大宅,尽管它1%的股份本来应该是价值10万美元,但在计算遗产税的时候,它可以只被估值为8.5万美元、甚至更少。第二,根据联邦赠予税免税额规定,每位受益人每一年的应税价值可以再砍掉1.4万美元,这样就可以把10万美元份额的应税价值降到7.1万美元。最后,股份一旦送出,其本身和将来的增值部分就会从遗产中扣除,最高可以扣除每人1.4万美元的赠予税免税额。也就是说,即便房产价值2,000万美元,只要人能活过10年,遗产的应税总额会大大减少――依旧省下几百万美元。Some experts prefer the LLC route. Over time, it can allow for a #39;substantial wealth transfer at no cost to the parent,#39;says Eric Rothenberg, a tax attorney with a law fi rm based in Needham, Mass. But the big issue with an LLC is determining how much of a discount can be claimed on each share. In the past, some have claimed a discount of as much as 40 percent, meaning they have transferred 0,000 worth of shares for as little as ,000 in taxable value, #39;but that#39;s aggressive,#39; says Bob Glovsky, a fi nancial planner at Colony Group, a wealthmanagement fi rm that is based in Boston and has around .3 billion in assets under management. He warns that claiming too much might mean a challenge from the IRS. If the government agency succeeds, the investor would lose the savings-and owe additional interest as well as penalties. For these reasons, Glovsky recommends opting for the QPRT instead of the LLC. What#39;s more, the discounts used on a QPRT are based on tables that are published by the IRS-so they aren#39;t open to challenge. And, Glovsky says, the trusts are often simpler to set up as well.一些专家更推荐有限责任公司这条路子。马萨诸塞州尼德姆一律师事务所的税法律师埃里克#12539;罗藤伯格(Eric Rothenberg)说,经过一定的时间,这个办法可以“在不给父母造成代价的情况下实现大额财富转移”。但使用有限责任公司的办法存在一个重要问题,就是确定每一股可以拿到多少折价。波士顿管理约33亿美元资产的财富管理公司Colony Group的理财规划师鲍伯#12539;格鲁夫斯基(Colony Group)说,过去有人最高拿到了40%的折价,意味着转让价值10万美元的股份应税价值最低只有6万美元,但这就比较“激进”了。他提醒,申请折扣幅度太大可能招致国税局的质疑。如果国税局质疑成功,投资者不但省不下这些钱,还要付额外的利息和罚金。有鉴于此,格鲁夫斯基建议选择QPRT而不是有限责任公司。另外,QPRT享受的折扣是以国税局公布的数据表格为基础的,所以不会被质疑。格鲁夫斯基还说,信托基金的成立通常也更加简单。Most well-o#172; folks, of course, remember to get sound legal advice on these kinds of matters. It might help during the process to keep in mind that some say the estate tax is among the least obnoxious forms of taxes, because it is levied neither on toil nor on entrepreneurship, but on the good fortune of inheritance. And even though you might ultimately have to pay the tax in the end, the U.S. tax code-fortunately-contains some breaks for the well-informed.当然,大多数富人都会想到在这些问题上寻求可靠的法律建议。在此过程中记住这样一点或许是有好处的:有人说,房地产遗产税是最不讨人嫌的税种之一,因为它的征税对象既不是辛勤劳动者,也不是创业者,而是继承财产的幸运儿。而且,尽管最终你还是得缴纳税款,但好在美国税法还是有些空子可以让见多识广的人去利用。 /201404/285490。

SAVANNAH, Ga. — Behind the immaculate gray walls of the Customs and Border Protection’s laboratory here stands a cabinet containing three plastic vials filled with a sticky, yellowish substance. Honey, or so an importer has claimed.乔治亚州萨凡纳——在美国海关及边境保卫局(Customs and Border Protection,简称CBP)实验室一尘不染的灰墙后面,立着一个柜子,里面有三个塑料小瓶,装满了一种淡黄色的粘稠状物质。那是蜂蜜,或者说至少一家进口商说那是蜂蜜。The lab’s task: Determine whether the samples are adulterated with sweeteners or syrups, and, if they really are mostly honey, figure out where it originated. If the honey comes from China, often the case, the entire shipment from which the samples came may be subject to additional taxes.该实验室的任务是,确定这些样品中是否掺杂了甜味剂或糖浆,如果真的主要是蜂蜜,弄清楚它们的原产地。如果这些蜂蜜像通常的情况那样,来自中国,那么被抽样检查的整批货可能都要被额外征税。The chemists here regularly test a wide range of imported goods, but they specialize in analyzing agricultural imports. With remarkable precision, these scientists can tell you where the peanuts in your peanut butter came from and where the mangoes in your jam were grown.这里的化学工作者常常会检测品类广泛的进口商品,但他们的专长是分析进口的农产品。这些科学家能极其精确地告诉你,你花生酱中的花生来自哪里、果酱中的芒果是在哪里种植的。But honey, No. 0409 on the 2015 Harmonized Tariff Schedule, has been a focal point for the lab and the source of a long-running international food scam that has challenged even the existing forensic technology.但在2015年的美国海关关税编码(Harmonized Tariff Schedule)中编码为0409的蜂蜜,却是该实验室关注的重点,也是一场存在已久的国际食品骗局的根源。这场骗局挑战着现有的取技术。Americans consume an average of 1.4 pounds of honey a year, about three and a half six-ounce bottles. Some 70 percent of it is imported. In 2001, the Commerce Department enacted a stiff tariff on Chinese honey, nearly tripling the import duty, after American producers complained that Chinese competitors were dumping their products on the market.美国人平均每年食用1.4磅(约合0.6千克)蜂蜜,大致相当于六盎司容量的瓶装蜂蜜的三瓶半。美国大约70%的蜂蜜依赖进口。2001年,在美国厂商投诉中国竞争对手在向市场倾销产品后,美国商务部针对中国蜂蜜征收了严厉的关税,将进口关税几乎提高到了原来的三倍。Then, honey imports from other countries spiked, including from nations not known for large bee populations. According to the American Honey Producers Association, Malaysian beekeepers, for example, have the capacity to make about 45,000 pounds of honey annually, but the country has exported as much as 37 million pounds of honey to the ed States in a year.于是,从其他国家进口的蜂蜜数量飙升,包括一些并不以蜜蜂种群巨大而闻名的国家。比如,美国蜂蜜生产商协会(American Honey Producers Association)称,马来西亚养蜂人每年的蜂蜜产能大约为4.5万磅,但该国一年出口给美国的蜂蜜多达3700万磅。As it turned out, Chinese honey was being shipped through ports such as Shanghai, or Busan, South Korea, and slapped with labels from other nations to skirt American duties. The practice is known as transshipment, or “honey laundering.” Some of it was not even real honey, but a mix that included corn and rice sweeteners.事实是,中国蜂蜜经由上海或韩国釜山等港口运走,再被贴上显示其来自其他国家的标签,从而逃避美国关税。这种做法被称作转运,或者“洗蜂蜜”。其中一些甚至不是真正的蜂蜜,而是一种掺了玉米和大米甜味剂的混合物。In an effort to stanch the flow of illicit honey, chemists at the lab here have tested thousands of samples pulled from barrels and containers at ports across the Southeast. In 2008, the lab demonstrated with about 90 percent accuracy that honey imported from Thailand, the Philippines and Russia had originated in China.为了阻止违法蜂蜜的流入,该实验室的化学工作人员在东南亚各港口,从桶中和集装箱里抽取了数千份样本,并进行了检验。2008年,该实验室以90%的精确度断定,从泰国、菲律宾和俄罗斯进口的蜂蜜,原产地其实是中国。The evidence helped federal prosecutors build a case against two large American importers who were suspected of buying illegal Chinese honey to avoid more than 0 million in duties.相关据为联邦检察官准备起诉两家美国大型进口商的行动提供了帮助。这两家进口商涉嫌采购非法的中国蜂蜜,从而规避超过1.8亿美元(约合11亿元人民币)的关税。But this kind of detective work is daunting. At the C.B.P. lab, the analytic work takes place inside what’s known as the “country of origin” room. Inside are standing metal shelves filled with bags and plastic totes of imported honey, along with peanuts, shrimp, garlic, mangoes and other foods.但这种侦查工作颇为艰巨。在CBP的实验室里,分析工作要在名为“原产国”的房间里进行。房间里摆放着金属架,上面放满了袋子和塑料提包,里面装着进口的蜂蜜,以及花生、小虾、大蒜、芒果等食品。On a recent Tuesday, Robert Redmond and Christopher Kana, two of the lab’s analytic chemists, took a small honey sample and added an acid to digest it. The result looked like muddy water.前不久的一个周二,该实验室的两名分析化学家罗伯特·雷德蒙(Robert Redmond)和克里斯托弗·卡纳(Christopher Kana)拿了一小份蜂蜜样品,并在其中加入了一种酸。结果,那份样品看上去就像泥水一样。In recent years, scientists have demonstrated that subtle chemical variations in many foods, including honey — undetectable to the tongue or the naked eye — can give a strong indication of where it originated. The C.B.P.’s analytic work depends, in part, on these naturally occurring geographic “tracers.”近年来,科学家已明,在包括蜂蜜在内的许多食物中,通过舌头和肉眼均无法察觉的细微化学变化,可以充分表明其原产地是哪儿。CBP的分析工作,在一定程度上靠的就是这些自然出现的地理“标记”。Once a sample is diluted, the liquid is pumped into a device called a mass spectrometer that is about the size of an office copier. Inside, a nebulizer turns the sample into a fine mist over heated argon, a process that yields a distinct signature of trace elements.样品稀释得到的液体会被注入一台叫做质谱仪的设备,该设备和办公室里的打印机差不多大。质谱仪内部有一个喷雾器,可以将样本变成的细小喷雾,这些喷雾经过加热的氩气,就可以检测出用于追踪来源的元素成分。The spectrometer can measure chromium, iron, copper and other elements to several parts per quadrillion. Each combination of trace metals reflects the composition of certain soils: The elements were taken up by flowering plants and then foraged by bees.质谱仪对铬、铁、铜等元素的检测精度可以达到千万亿分之一的数量级。微量元素的构成反映了土壤的成分:这些元素被开花的植物吸收,然后被蜜蜂采集。Soils vary from region to region, and by statistically comparing the presence of some 40 different elements to a reference database collected by C.B.P. attachés and employees, the scientists can ascertain the probable origins of many samples.各地的土壤并不相同,通过将约40种不同元素的含量,与CBP的一个参照性数据库进行数据上的比较,科学家们得以检验出许多样本可能的来源。这个数据库中的信息都是该机构的员工收集来的。In late 2012, Mr. Redmond traveled to Taiwan and India to collect and test honey. His findings were then added to the database, and now lab chemists can compare honey arriving in the ed States and said to be from those countries.2012年末,雷德蒙曾到台湾和印度收集和检测蜂蜜样本,他的发现后来被纳入这个数据库中。这样一来,实验室的化学家就可以检验那些进入美国,并且自称来自这两个地区的蜂蜜了。But it’s only the latest maneuver in a scientific cat-and-mouse game that has stretched on for years.但这只是科学界一场旷日持久的猫鼠游戏中最新的发展。At first, the detection of transshipped honey relied on a simple test for an unapproved antibiotic, chloramphenicol, discovered in Chinese honey. Carson Watts, former director of the C.B.P. lab in Savannah, said, “Very shortly after word got out that we were using chloramphenicol to identify Chinese honey, they stopped using it.”起初,要查出转运蜂蜜,只能靠一个简单的检测,确定蜂蜜中是否含有违规抗生素成分氯霉素,因为在中国的蜂蜜中曾经发现过这种成分。萨凡纳的CBP实验室的前主任卡森·沃茨(Carson Watts)说,“我们用氯霉素来辨别中国蜂蜜的消息传出后不久,他们就不再使用氯霉素了。”Around 2006, unscrupulous importers appeared to be cutting honey with high-fructose rice syrup or disguising cheap, pure honey as an artificial blend. (At the time, the import duty applied to artificial blends that were more than 50 percent honey by weight.)2006年前后,一些不法进口商似乎在蜂蜜中掺入了高果糖大米糖浆,或者用廉价的纯蜂蜜来冒充人工混合的蜂蜜。(当时,进口关税只适用于蜂蜜含量超过50%重量的人工混合蜂蜜。)The problem? Reliably determining the ratio of rice syrup to honey is nearly impossible.但问题在于,想要确定大米糖浆和蜂蜜的可靠比例几乎是不可能的。“An importer could present goods to Customs and say, ‘This is 90 percent rice syrup, 10 percent honey,’ and Customs really has no way of knowing,” said Michael J. Coursey, a lawyer in Washington who has represented American honey producers.“进口商可以把货物交给海关,然后说,‘这里面有90%的大米糖浆,10%的蜂蜜,’海关真的没有办法查,”代理过美国蜂蜜制造商的华盛顿律师迈克尔·J·库西(Michael J. Coursey)说。He added, “For two or three years, C.B.P. was pretty much the Dutch boy with its finger in the dike.”他接着说,“在两三年的时间里,CBP的检验能力实际上力不从心。”In 2011, the government accused three companies of importing millions of dollars’ worth of rice fructose blend that in fact was mostly taxable honey. The importers said the product was less than 50 percent honey.2011年,美国政府指控称,三家公司进口的价值数百万美元的大米果糖混合蜂蜜,实际上都是应该征税的蜂蜜。这些进口商声称,产品的蜂蜜含量不到50%。The scientists at the Savannah lab swung into action, producing evidence that pollen abundance in the blends showed the substance to be mostly honey. But defense lawyers challenged the research on scientific grounds.萨凡纳实验室的科学家迅速采取行动,拿出了据,用混合蜂蜜中的花粉含量表明,其主要成分是蜂蜜。但被告律师们却用科学上的理由,对研究结果提起了反驳。“It’s all well and good to say you need to enforce these regulations,” said Dana Krueger, who owns an independent laboratory in Chelmsford, Mass., and testified as a defense witness. “But if there’s no technology, it puts Customs in a difficult position.”“我们需要执行这些规定,这说起来容易,”辩方人达纳·克鲁格(Dana Krueger)说。“但如果没有技术,海关的处境就十分艰难。”克鲁格在马萨诸塞州切尔姆斯福德拥有一家独立实验室。The judge dismissed the case, and the government dropped the charges.法官驳回了案件,政府也撤销了指控。The most sophisticated chemical analysis may have its limits. But for the moment, the food detectives are undeterred.即使是最先进的化学分析可能也有着种种局限。但到目前为止,这些食品检测人员并没有气馁。“If it’s honey from Malaysia, then we’re testing for China,” Mr. Redmond said.“如果蜂蜜标称来自马来西亚,我们会检测它是不是中国蜂蜜,”雷德蒙德说。 /201501/355722。

China#39;s ;golden week; saw domestic housing sales surge by 64.8 percent in floor space term, spurred by the government#39;s easing policies, according to the China Index Academy.根据中国指数研究院的统计,在政府宽松政策的刺激下,中国国庆黄金周期间国内住房销售,就楼层面积来看激增了64.8%。Owned by SouFun Holding Group Ltd, the China Index Academy said on Monday that during Oct1 to 7, home sales in 23 Chinese cities monitored hit 1.59 million square meters, up 64.8 percent from the same period last year.搜房网控股集团有限公司旗下的中国指数研究院周一表示,10月1日至7日,在该院监测的23个中国城市中,成屋销售收获159万平方米的成绩,与去年同期相比增长64.8%。Hefei in Anhui province saw the largest surge, a 274 percent jump in transaction. It also represented the major gain in third-tier cities, a group to which it belongs to. The third-tier cities group as a whole saw a 152 percent year-on-year advance, the Academy said.该研究院表示,就安徽省合肥市而言,一个三线城市,其涨幅最大,交易量激增274%,这也代表了三线城市的楼市情况,所有三线城市总体年增152%。The second-tier cities saw a much milder increase of 58.3 percent, while the first-tier cities saw the smallest increase of 29.5 percent. Sales in Shenzhen surged 82.3 percent and in Shanghai picked up 45 percent. Sales in China#39;s capital city, Beijing, dropped 6.1 percent.二线城市涨幅比三线城市涨幅稍小,达到了58.3%,而一线城市增幅最小,只有29.5%。深圳市的成交量飙升82.3%,上海市回升至45%。而首都北京的销售额则下降了6.1%。In an attempt to boost housing sales during the golden week, the People#39;s Bank of China and the China Banking Regulatory Commission said on Sept 30 that minimum down payments for first-time home buyers would be cut from 30 percent to 25 percent in cities that do not have restrictions on purchases covering most Chinese cities. The four first-tier cities were not covered.为刺激黄金周期间的房地产销售,中国人民和中国业监督管理委员会9月30日表示,在大多数没有购房限制的城市,首次购房者的首付比例可从30%下降至25%,四个一线城市不涉及此政策。 /201510/403488。

WASHINGTON — A group of Washington investors with high-level political backing and a billion commitment from the Japanese government is pressing ahead with its vision of a high-speed train that could whisk passengers between New York and Washington in about an hour.华盛顿——一群拥有高层政治背景并已赢得日本政府出资50亿美元(约合300亿元人民币)保的华盛顿投资者正在着手推进他们心中构想的高速列车建设,力图将纽约和华盛顿之间的客运时长缩短到大约一小时。The train, which uses a technology called magnetic levitation, or maglev, to float above the track on magnets instead of wheels, would travel at twice the speed of Amtrak’s Acela. It is one of several high-speed rail projects proposed for the heavily trafficked Northeast Corridor, where chronic traffic congestion and flight delays are expected to get worse.这种列车使用一种名为“磁悬浮”的技术,借助磁力悬浮在轨道上,而非使用车轮。它的行驶速度将达到美铁(Amtrak)阿西乐列车(Acela)的两倍。为了给交通繁忙的东北走廊分担压力,目前出现了数个高速铁路项目的提议,而磁悬浮计划是其中之一。据预计,东北走廊长期的交通拥堵和航班延误现象将进一步恶化。At a total estimated cost of 0 billion, critics say a maglev train on the East Coast is little more than a pipe dream. But that has not stopped the investors from pushing the project.鉴于估算的总花费为1000亿美元,批评人士表示,在东海岸建造磁悬浮列车不过是痴人说梦。不过,这未能阻止投资者去推动这个项目。On a test track in Japan on Tuesday, a prototype train whooshed a group of visiting Americans through mountains at a top speed of 314 miles per hour — so fast, in fact, that Christie Todd Whitman, the former New Jersey governor and one of the Americans on the ride, said trips on Amtrak between Washington and New York were “embarrassing” by comparison.周二,一列原型车在日本的测试轨道上,以314英里(约合505公里)的最高时速载着一群美国客人飞速穿越群山——速度非常之快,以致于此次测试的美国乘客之一、新泽西州前州长克里斯蒂·托德·惠特曼(Christie Todd Whitman)禁不住感叹,相比之下,乘美铁列车往返华盛顿和纽约有些“令人难堪”。To Ms. Whitman, the train is a solution to transportation problems back home, where the Acela — the fastest train in the ed States — takes 2 hours 45 minutes to travel between New York and Washington.在惠特曼看来,这种火车可以解决美国国内的交通问题。在美国,乘坐阿西乐——美国最快的列车——往返纽约和华盛顿,单程需要2小时45分钟。Ms. Whitman is part of a high-powered advisory board for the Northeast Maglev, a private Washington-based company with a goal of building the Washington-to-New York line. The group, which regularly visits Japan to pursue the project and has taken at least three test rides on the train, is trying to convince skeptical American policy makers and investors that the maglev makes financial and political sense.惠特曼是东北磁悬浮公司(Northeast Maglev)一个充满权势人物的顾问委员会的成员。这是一家设在华盛顿的私营企业,其目标是修建华盛顿至纽约的磁悬浮铁路。这群顾问经常前往日本推进项目,而且已至少三次试坐这种火车。他们试图使持怀疑态度的美国决策者和投资人相信,磁悬浮列车在经济和政治上都行得通。The advisory board includes former Gov. George E. Pataki of New York; Tom Daschle, the former Senate majority leader, who also rode on the train in Japan on Tuesday; former Gov. Edward G. Rendell of Pennsylvania; and Mary Peters, who was a secretary of transportation in the George W. Bush administration. Since 2010, the group has spent .4 million lobbying Congress and meeting with state and local officials to build support for the project.该顾问委员会的成员包括纽约州前州长乔治·E·帕塔基(George E. Pataki)、周二也在日本乘坐了火车的前参议院多数党领袖汤姆·达施勒(Tom Daschle)、宾夕法尼亚州前州长爱德华·G·伦德尔(Edward G. Rendell),以及乔治·W·布什(George W. Bush)政府的运输部长玛丽·彼得斯(Mary Peters)。从2010年开始,为了争取对该项目的持,他们已经斥资140万美元来游说国会并与州级和地方官员举行会晤。To try to win public support, the group has commitments from the Japanese government to invest about billion to pay part of the cost of construction of the first leg, an estimated billion route between Washington and Baltimore. The maglev would enable travelers to go between the two cities in as little as 15 minutes.为了尽力赢得公众持,他们获得了日本政府出资50亿美元的承诺。这笔钱将用来付第一段铁路线的部分建设费用。这段铁路将连接华盛顿与巴尔的,预计造价为100亿美元。在磁悬浮技术的帮助下,乘客只需最少15分钟就能在这两座城市之间穿梭。But large obstacles remain.不过,现实中还是存在一些巨大障碍。Given the project’s cost, the maglev company would need support from the federal government, but transportation advocates are skeptical that it will be forthcoming. And the U.S. High Speed Rail Association, which supports more conventional high-speed rail systems, has dismissed the maglev train as too expensive and experimental.由于项目开巨大,东北磁悬浮公司将需要联邦政府提供持,但交通行业的活跃人士对此表示怀疑。持更传统的高铁系统的美国高速铁路联合会(U.S. High-Speed Rail Association)认为,磁悬浮列车过于昂贵且处于试验阶段,不宜考虑。In addition, the maglev company would have to secure rights of way to build the specialized tracks, a serious financial undertaking on some of the most expensive real estate in the country. The company plans to build a large part of its route underground, which would add to the cost.此外,这家磁悬浮公司还必须获得在美国某些最昂贵的地段上修建专用轨道的通行权,而这是一项重大经济负担。公司计划把很大一部分路线建在地下,将令成本进一步增加。But Wayne Rogers, an investor in renewable energy and other projects and chairman and chief executive of Northeast Maglev, said the train makes more sense than current proposals to fix transportation problems in the Northeast, including building more roads and fixing tracks to make Amtrak trains go faster. Adding more highways in the region would increase congestion, he said.然而,东北磁悬浮公司的董事长兼首席执行官韦恩·罗杰斯(Wayne Rogers)表示,和当前为解决东北地区的运输问题而提出的其他建议相比,磁悬浮列车更合理。相关提议包括,修更多公路,以及升级轨道,以便让美铁列车行驶得更快。身为可再生能源等项目的投资人的罗杰斯说,在该地区多修公路会加剧拥堵。As for fixing existing tracks to speed up Amtrak trains, “It’s like putting a Ferrari on the crowded Beltway around Washington: It’s not going to make it go any faster,” Mr. Rogers said.至于升级现有轨道,以便让美铁列车提速,罗杰斯说,“就像把法拉利放在绕华盛顿的环形公路上一样:根本不会让它跑得更快。”(Amtrak has its own plans to provide high-speed rail on the corridor: a 1 billion proposal to upgrade its existing system to make it easier for trains to travel at 220 m.p.h., which would reduce the trip between New York and Washington to about 90 minutes. Congressional critics and some transportation experts have called the proposal too costly.)(在为东北走廊提供高速铁路方面,美铁有着自己的计划:一项耗资1510亿美元的提议要求升级现有系统,以便让列车更易于以220英里的时速运行。这将使纽约与华盛顿之间的交通时间减少到大约90分钟。国会的批评人士和部分运输专家称,该方案成本过高。)Another supporter of the maglev, James P. RePass, chairman of the National Corridors Initiative in Boston, which supports increased federal and private investment in rail projects, said he was previously skeptical of the train project, but has changed his mind.同样持磁悬浮的还有全美走廊倡议组织(National Corridors Initiative)主席詹姆斯·P·里帕斯(James P. RePass)。该组织位于波士顿,提倡联邦和私人增加对铁路项目投资。里帕斯表示,他以前对磁悬浮列车计划持怀疑态度,但现已改变主意。“If you had asked me two years ago, I would have said not a chance,” Mr. RePass said. “But this proposal, which seemed unlikely in the past, is gaining credibility. The reason is that unlike a lot of projects, this one actually has money.”“如果两年前问我,我会说根本不可能,”里帕斯说。“但过去看似不太可能的这个提议,现在越来越可信。原因在于,不同于许多项目,这一个实际上自带资金。”Mr. Daschle, who heads the advisory board for Northeast Maglev, dismisses concerns about the maglev technology.东北磁悬浮公司顾问委员会主席达施勒驳斥了对磁悬浮技术的担忧。“You can’t be a skeptic on the technological side anymore, because it’s been shown to work,” he said after his ride on the train.“你无法再在技术方面质疑了,因为它已经被明是可行的,”他在试坐完磁悬浮列车后说。Mr. Rogers said the company was moving ahead with its plans: It has filed an application with the Maryland Public Service Commission to transfer the franchise rights of the defunct Washington Baltimore amp; Annapolis railroad to Northeast Maglev, the first step in getting the project off the ground. The company will need additional approvals from the Surface Transportation Board and the Federal Railroad Administration. Without the transfer of the franchise rights, the company would have to ask the Maryland General Assembly to approve a new franchise agreement, a process that could take years.罗杰斯表示,公司正在推进自己的计划:它已向马里兰州公共务委员会(Maryland Public Service Commission)递交了申请,请求将现已停止务的华盛顿至巴尔的再到安纳波利斯铁路的特许经营权转让给东北磁悬浮公司。这是启动项目的第一步。公司另外还需获得地面运输委员会(Surface Transportation Board)和联邦铁路(Federal Railroad Administration)的批准。如果不能通过转让获得特许经营权,公司将不得不提请马里兰州议会批准一项新的特许经营协议。这一步可能需要花费数年时间。“We can’t wait around until political and financial conditions are perfect,” Mr. Rogers said. “The transportation infrastructure on the Northeast Corridor is in bad shape. We need to get moving.”“我们不能一直等到政治和财务状况都完备,”罗杰斯说。“目前东北走廊的运输基础设施状况很糟糕。我们需要行动起来。” /201410/337770。

BACK in the late 1980s, when I was a co-editor of Spy magazine, we published a cover story about the 1970s. Spy being Spy, it was a grand feast of love-hate celebration: “A Return to the Decade of Mood Rings, Ultrasuede, Sideburns and Disco Sex-Machine Tony Orlando.” One of its implicit premises was the silliness of the pandemic of American nostalgia, especially for a culturally dubious decade that had ended less than a decade earlier. Over the last half century, we Americans have come to create and consume automatically and continuously a kind of recent-past wistfulness.20世纪80年代末,我还是《密探》(Spy)杂志的主编之一,我们发表了一期关于70年代的封面故事。《密探》就是《密探》,这是一个爱恨交织的庆典与精的盛宴:“回到情绪戒指、麂皮绒、连鬓胡子和迪斯科性感机器托尼·奥兰多(Tony Orlando)的十年里。”其中一个暗含的前提是美式怀旧蔓延的愚蠢,特别是对于一个文化上非常模糊的十年的怀旧,而它的终结甚至还不到十年。在上个世纪的下半叶,我们美国人无意识地创造与消费着对“不久前的过去”的怅惘之中,并且持续不断地处于这种状态。But what about the 1990s? Nostalgia for the era in which you were young is almost inevitable, so people born between 1970 and 1990 feel a natural fetishistic fondness for that decade. But even for the rest of us, the ’90s provoke a unique species of recherche du temps perdu, not mere bittersweet reveling in the passage of time. No, looking back at the final 10 years of the 20th century is grounds for genuine mourning: It was simply the happiest decade of our American lifetimes.但90年代又怎样呢?对自己年轻时代的怀旧是不可避免的,所以生于1970年到1990年的人肯定会对这十年产生一种盲目的天然亲切之感。但是即便对于我们其他人来说,90年代也能唤起一种独特的“追忆似水年华”之感,这不仅仅是对时光流逝的苦甜参半的回忆。不,回溯20世纪的最后十年是一种真正的哀悼:那是我们美国人生活中最快乐的十年。This isn’t (mainly) fogeyishness on my part. No. It is empirically, objectively, broadly true. I am not now nor have I ever been a Clintonite, but when Jeb Bush reportedly said a few weeks ago, apropos of 2016 and the probable Democratic presidential nominee, that “if someone wants to run a campaign about ’90s nostalgia, it’s not going to be very successful,” I think he was being wishful.这并不(主要)是出于我个人的守旧。不,这是有事实根据的,是客观的、普适的真相。我从来不是克林顿的拥趸,现在也不是,但当杰布·布什(Jeb Bush)几个星期之前说起2016年,以及可能的民主党总统候选人时,他说“如果有人能够发起关于90年代怀旧的政治宣传,肯定不会成功”,我觉得他过于一厢情愿了。Let’s begin with the quantifiable bits. America at large was prospering in the ’90s. The ed States economy grew by an average of 4 percent per year between 1992 and 1999. (Since 2001, it’s never grown by as much as 4 percent, and since 2005 not even by 3 percent for a whole year.) An average of 1.7 million jobs a year were added to the American work force, versus around 850,000 a year during this century so far. The unemployment rate dropped from nearly 8 percent in 1992 to 4 percent — that is, effectively zero — at the end of the decade. Plus, if you were a man and worked in an office, starting in the ’90s you could get away with never wearing a necktie.我们还是从量化的数据开始吧。在90年代,美国从总体而言非常繁荣。从1992年到1999年,美国经济平均每年增长4%(从2001年起就再也没有超过4%;从2005年起,全年增长率就再也没有超过3%)。每年平均增加170万个就业机会,本世纪以来,平均每年约增长85万个就业机会。到90年代末,失业率从1992年的8%降低到4%(这事实上等于零)。此外,如果你是做文职工作的男性,从90年代开始,你就可以不用西装革履地去上班了。From 1990 to 1999, the median American household income grew by 10 percent; since 2000 it’s shrunk by nearly 9 percent. The poverty rate peaked at over 15 percent in 1993, then fell to nearly 11 percent in 2000, more or less its postwar low. During the ’90s, stocks quadrupled in value — the Dow Jones industrial average increased by 309 percent. You could still buy a beautiful Brooklyn townhouse for 0,000 or less. And so on.从1990年到1999年,美国家庭收入的中位数增长了10%;自从2000年以来,降低了约9%。贫困率在1993年达到最高,超过15%,到2000年下降到接近11%,近乎“二战”后的最低点。在90年代,股价翻了四倍,道琼斯工业平均指数增长了309%。你仍然可以用50万美元乃至更少的钱就买下一栋漂亮的布鲁克林联排别墅。等等。By the end of the decade, in fact, there was so much good news — a federal budget surplus, dramatic reductions in violent crime (the murder rate in the ed States declined by 41 percent) and in deaths from H.I.V./AIDS — that each astounding new achievement didn’t quite register as miraculous. After all, the decade had begun with a fantastically joyful and previously unimaginable development: The Soviet empire collapsed, global nuclear Armageddon ceased to be a thing that worried anyone very much, and the nations of Eastern Europe were mostly unchained.到90年代末,事实上,有那么多的好消息——联邦预算出现剩余、暴力犯罪大幅度减少(美国的谋杀率降低了41%),HIV/艾滋死亡率也大幅度减少——这些惊人的新成就在当时并为被视为奇迹。毕竟,这十年刚一开始,就发生了一个令人快乐而又难以置信的成就——苏联帝国解体,人们不再为全球核末日而担忧,东欧国家也大都获得了解放。A tide of progress and good sense seemed to be sweeping the whole world. According to the annual count by Freedom House, the tally of the world’s free countries climbed from 65 at the beginning of the decade to 85 at the end. Since then, the total number of certified-free countries has increased by only four.进步与善意的大潮似乎席卷了整个世界。根据“自由之家”(Freedom House)组织的年度统计,90年代初,全世界共有65个自由国家,到了90年代末,变成了85个。自那以后,被承认的自由国家只增加了四个。Between 1990 and 1994 South Africa dismantled apartheid surprisingly peacefully. With the Oslo Accords, Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization had come together at last to negotiate a framework for coexistence and eventual peace. The civil wars in the former Yugoslavia ended and an enduring peace was restored. China became normal, reforming its economy, tripling its gross domestic product and easing its way into the world order.从1990年到1994年,南非以惊人的和平方式废除了种族隔离制度。根据奥斯陆协议,以色列与巴勒斯坦解放组织终于走到一起,谈判共存与持久和平的框架。前南斯拉夫国家的内战结束了,持久的和平得以恢复。中国成了正常国家,开始进行经济改革,国内生产总值翻了三倍,开始融入世界秩序。During the ’90s, the only American-led war in the Middle East was the one that drove Saddam Hussein’s invading army out of Kuwait with a ground campaign that lasted a mere 100 hours.在90年代,美国在中东的唯一一场战争是派遣地面部队,把萨达姆·侯赛因(Saddam Hussein)的侵略军赶出科威特,战争仅仅持续了100个小时。Peace, prosperity, order — and American culture was vibrant and healthy as well. There were both shockingly excellent versions of what had come before and distinctly new, original forms. Wasn’t the release of Nirvana’s “Nevermind,” in 1991, pretty much the last time a new rock ’n’ roll band truly, deeply mattered, the way rock ’n’ roll did in the ’60s and ’70s? Wasn’t hip-hop, which achieved its mass-market breakthrough and dominance in the ’90s, the last genuinely new and consequential invention of American pop culture?和平、繁荣与秩序——美国文化也同样健康活跃。文化中既有承袭自过去的东西,也有崭新的原创形式,二者都很精。1991年,“涅槃”(Nirvana)发行了《别在意》(Nevermind), 一新的摇滚乐队能像六七十年代的摇滚乐那样,产生真正深远的影响,这难道不是最后一次吗?嘻哈乐在大众市场获得突破,主宰了90年代,这难道不是美国流行文化中最后一次产生真正新颖而重大的创新吗?What is the most remarkably successful literary creation of the last several decades? The Harry Potter novels, the first three of which appeared in the ’90s. Supertalented literary youngsters appeared — David Foster Wallace (“Infinite Jest”), Donna Tartt (“The Secret History”), Jonathan Lethem (“Motherless Brooklyn”) and Dave Eggers (McSweeney’s). And supertalented literary geezers — Philip Roth (“American Pastoral”), John Updike (“Rabbit at Rest”), Alice Munro (“The Love of a Good Woman”), Don DeLillo (“Underworld”) — produced some of their best and most successful work as well.说说过去十几年来最成功的文学创作?哈利·波特(Harry Potter)系列小说的前三部都是在90年代出版的。那十年间,天才文学新星开始出现:写出了《无尽的玩笑》(Infinite Jest)的大卫·福斯特·华莱士(David Foster Wallace)、写出《秘史》(The Secret History)的唐娜·塔特(Donna Tartt)、写出《布鲁克林孤儿》(Motherless Brooklyn)的乔纳森·勒瑟姆(Jonathan Lethem)和写出《麦克斯维尼》(McSweeney’s)的戴夫·艾格斯(Dave Eggers)。此外还有那些天才的老人家们——菲利普·罗斯(Philip Roth)写出了《美国牧歌》(American Pastoral)、约翰·厄普代克(John Updike)写出了《兔子歇了》(Rabbit at Rest)、爱丽丝·门罗(Alice Munro)写出了《好女人的爱》(The Love of a Good Woman),唐·德里罗(Don Delillo)写出了《地下》(Underworld)——他们都献上了最精、最成功的作品。The quality of television radically improved. “Seinfeld” and “The Simpsons” had their premieres in 1989, and in the ’90s they blew up, along with “Friends” and “NYPD Blue” — all of them broadcast network series, none of them reality shows. HBO, before the ’90s a channel for movies, boxing and soft-core porn, decided to swing for the fences. First with “The Larry Sanders Show” and then with “The Sopranos,” it proved that episodic television could accommodate major ambition and actual brilliance, ushering in an enduring new (cable) TV era.电视节目的质量急剧上升。《宋飞传》(Seinfeld)和《辛普森一家》(The Simpsons)都于1989年首次亮相,在90年代兴盛一时,之后是《老友记》(Friends)和《纽约重案组》(NYPD Blue)——它们都是公共台电视剧,都不是真人秀。HBO台在90年代之前是个专放电影、拳击和软色情的频道,90年代,它决定转型。先是制作了《拉里·桑德斯秀》(The Larry Sanders Show),之后又有了《黑道家族》(The Sopranos),这部剧集明电视剧也可以承载远大的抱负,成为真正精的节目,从而引领了一个长盛不衰的(有线)电视新时代。In feature films, it was the decade of “Pulp Fiction” and the indie movement, thanks to which idiosyncratic, more-commercial-than-art-house masterpieces like those by Wes Anderson, Alexander Payne and Richard Linklater became plausible. It was also the decade in which traditional Disney animation came back from the dead and in which Pixar, with the first two “Toy Story” movies, reinvented the form magnificently.在电影界,这是属于《低俗小说》(Pulp Fiction)与独立运动(indie movement)的十年,韦斯·安德森(Wes Anderson)、亚历山大·佩恩(Alexander Payne)与理查德·林特莱克(Richard Linklater)拍摄的那些怪异而又有商业气质,不那么孤芳自赏的杰作开始为大众所见。这十年里,传统迪斯尼动画起死回生,皮克斯也带来了《玩具总动员》(Toy Story)系列的前两部,革新了动画片这种形式。THE digital age, of course, got fully underway in the ’90s. At the beginning of the decade almost none of us had heard of the web, and we didn’t have browsers, search engines, digital cellphone networks, fully 3-D games or affordable and powerful laptops. By the end of the decade we had them all. Steve Jobs returned to Apple and conjured its rebirth.当然,90年代,数码时代也在酝酿之中。在90年代初,我们大家几乎都没有听说过互联网,我们也没有浏览器、搜索引擎、数字手机系统、3-D游戏或便宜好用的笔记本电脑。到90年代末,这一切全都成了现实。史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)回归苹果公司,令它获得新生。And it was just the right amount of technology. By the end of the decade we all had cellphones, but not smartphones; we were not overconnected or tyrannized by our devices. Social media had not yet made social life both manically nonstop and attenuated. The digital revolution hadn’t brutally “disrupted” whole economic sectors and made their work forces permanently insecure. Recorded music sales nearly doubled during the decade. Newspapers and magazines were thriving. Even Y2K, our terrifying end-of-the-millennium technological comeuppance, was a nonevent.而且这些都是适度的技术。90年代末,我们都有了手机,但还不是智能手机;我们还没有被设备过度连接,或者受到技术的控制。社交媒体还没有令社交生活变得病态般无休无止,一方面又弱化了社交生活。数码革命还没有粗暴地“瓦解”整体经济环节,令它们的工作变得再也不那么安全。90年代,音乐唱片的销量几乎增加了一倍。报纸和杂志也繁荣昌盛。就连可怕的千禧年技术危机——千年虫——到最后都根本不成问题。Indeed, the ’90s were a decade of catastrophes that didn’t happen. The Clinton tax increases did not trigger a recession. Welfare reform did not ravage the poor. Compared with Sandy, every hurricane that touched New York — Bob! Bertha! Danny! Dennis! Floyd! — was a dud.事实上,90年代里根本没有发生任何大灾难。克林顿政府的增税并没有引发衰退。福利改革没有掠夺穷人。与桑迪飓风相比,那时候经过纽约的那些飓风——鲍勃!伯莎!丹尼!丹尼斯!弗洛伊德!——全都是小菜一碟。Were there real problems in the ’90s? Of course. But they weren’t obvious, so ... we were blissfully ignorant! Almost none of us were suitably alarmed by carbon emissions and the warming planet. According to a 1995 article in this newspaper about climate change, “most scientists say the amount of warming so far, about one degree Fahrenheit in the last century, is still too small to be distinguished from the climate system’s natural fluctuations.” So why worry?90年代有什么真正的问题吗?当然有,但它们并不是那么明显,所以……我们真是处于有福的无知之中!我们都没有充分意识到碳排放与全球变暖问题。《纽约时报》1995年的一篇文章中谈到气候变化,“全球气温与上个世纪相比提高了一华氏度,大多数科学家认为,考虑到气候系统的自然波动,这个变化并不大。”所以我们干嘛还要担心?When the House and Senate passed by overwhelming bipartisan majorities and President Clinton signed the Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, doing away with the firewalls between investment banks and commercial banks, the change seemed inevitable, sensible, modern — not a precursor of the 2008 Wall Street crash. When a jihadist truck bomb detonated in the parking garage below the north tower of the World Trade Center in 1993, we were alarmed only briefly, figuring it for a crazy one-off rather than a first strike in a long struggle.1999年,参众两院以两党多数通过了金融务业现代化法案,并由克林顿总统签署生效,撤销了投资与商业之间的防火墙,在当时,这个改变看来不可避免,是明智而现代化的——而不是2008年华尔街金融危机的前奏。1993年一个伊斯兰圣战者用卡车炸弹引爆了世贸中心北塔的停车场,我们只是短暂担心了一阵,觉得这是疯狂的一次性行为,而不是长期战斗的开端。Americans have never much liked paying attention to foreign countries and their problems (see Rwanda, 1994), so the decade between the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the war on terror was very much our cup of tea.美国人从来不喜欢关注外国和外国人的问题(看看1994年的卢旺达吧),所以从冷战结束后到与恐怖主义作战之间的这十年正是最合我们的口味的那杯茶。No: I mean our cup of coffee. You can’t talk about the ’90s without talking about the sudden availability of excellent coffee — espresso in Idaho! — all over America. This was thanks to Starbucks, of course, which went from nearly 100 outlets in the ed States at the start of the decade to 2,000 at the end. But as it goes with so many good things in America — easier credit and financial innovation and electronic connection and all the rest — that just wasn’t enough.不对,我是说,它是最合我们口味的那杯咖啡。谈到90年代,不说那些突然出现的好咖啡怎么行——爱达荷特浓咖啡——一下子遍及全美。当然,这要感谢星巴克,90年代初,它在全美只有100家分店,到90年代末就变成了2000家。但当时美国还有那么多的好东西——放松信贷与金融创新,还有电子通讯等等等——这么多家星巴克还远远不够。Today there are more than 13,000 Starbucks in the ed States. And each of them, to my eye, looks exactly as it did when the rollout began — 13,000 ubiquitous and faintly melancholic time-capsule museums of the last best American decade.如今美国有13000多家星巴克点。在我看来,每一家都和它最初的样子差不多——13000个无处不在、略带忧郁的时光胶囊物馆,封存着上一个美国的黄金十年的样子。 /201502/360139。