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思明区一般做双眼皮多少钱福建省厦门人民医院上环WASHINGTON — In an investigation involving guns and drugs, the Justice Department obtained a court order this summer demanding that Apple turn over, in real time, text messages between suspects using iPhones.华盛顿——今年夏天,在一起涉及和毒品的调查中,美国司法部获得了法院命令,要求苹果(Apple)实时提交使用iPhone的嫌疑人之间的短信。Apple’s response: Its iMessage system was encrypted and the company could not comply.苹果的回应是:iMessage系统是加密的,所以公司无法提交。Government officials had warned for months that this type of standoff was inevitable as technology companies like Apple and Google embraced tougher encryption. The case, coming after several others in which similar requests were rebuffed, prompted some senior Justice Department and F.B.I. officials to advocate taking Apple to court, several current and former law enforcement officials said.在此之前的多个月里,政府官员就不断发出警告:随着苹果、谷歌(Google)等科技公司开始采用更加严格的加密方案,这种僵局是不可避免的。一些现任和前任执法人员表示,在此案发生之前,还有其他几次类似的要求也遭到拒绝,导致司法部和联邦调查局(FBI)的一些高级官员主张把苹果公司告上法庭。While that prospect has been shelved for now, the Justice Department is engaged in a court dispute with another tech company, Microsoft. The case, which goes before a federal appeals court in New York on Wednesday and is being closely watched by industry officials and civil liberties advocates, began when the company refused to comply with a warrant in December 2013 for emails from a drug trafficking suspect. Microsoft said federal officials would have to get an order from an Irish court, because the emails were stored on servers in Dublin.虽然此事被暂时搁置到一边,司法部却正在与另一家科技公司微软(Microsoft)对簿公堂。位于纽约的一家联邦上诉法院本周三将审理该案,行业人士和公民自由权益提倡者正在密切关注。该案的起因是2013年12月,法院开出一份搜查令,要求微软提供一名贩毒嫌疑人的电子邮件,但微软拒绝从,表示联邦官员必须获得爱尔兰法院的命令,因为那些邮件储存在都柏林的务器里。The conflicts with Apple and Microsoft reflect heightened corporate resistance, in the post-Edward J. Snowden era, by American technology companies intent on demonstrating that they are trying to protect customer information.政府与苹果和微软之间的这些冲突,反应了企业在“后爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)时代”施加的阻力有所加大,因为美国科技公司想要表明,自己在努力保护用户的信息。“It’s become all wrapped up in Snowden and privacy issues,” said George J. Terwilliger III, a lawyer who represents technology companies and as a Justice Department official two decades ago faced the challenge of how to wiretap phone networks that were becoming more digital.“这些事都演变为围绕着斯诺登和隐私问题,”代表科技公司的律师乔治·J·特威利格三世(George J. Terwilliger III)说。他二十年前在司法部任职,当时电话网络正变得日益数字化,因此他曾面临如何窃听的挑战。President Obama has charged White House Homeland Security and cybersecurity officials, along with those at the Justice Department, the F.B.I. and the intelligence agencies, with proposing solutions — some legislative, some not — to the technology access issue. They are still hashing out their differences, according to law enforcement and administration officials.奥巴马总统让白宫的国土安全和网络安全官员,连同司法部、联邦调查局及各情报机构的官员一起,提出一些方案——部分涉及立法,部分不涉及——来解决从科技公司获得信息的问题。根据执法官员和奥巴马政府内部人士的说法,目前他们还在努力消除彼此间的分歧。Some Justice and F.B.I. officials have been frustrated that the White House has not moved more quickly or been more outspoken in the public relations fight that the tech companies appear to be winning, the law enforcement officials said, speaking only on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the private conversations.多名执法官员表示,司法部和联邦调查局的一些官员感到不快,他们觉得白宫行动太慢,在公关大战中不够慷慨陈词,似乎被科技公司占据了上风。由于没有获得私下讨论的许可,这些官员不愿具名。The White House, after months of study, has yet to articulate a public response to the argument that a victory in the Microsoft case would provide authoritarian governments, particularly the Chinese and Russians, with a way to get access into computer servers located in the ed States.有人提出,如果微软这次败诉,那么极权政府——尤其是中国和俄罗斯——就可能会获得一条途径,从位于美国的计算机务器上取得信息。白宫已经研究了数月之久,但尚未公开阐明对这种观点的回应。“Clearly, if the U.S. government wins, the door is open for other governments to reach into data centers in the U.S.,” Brad Smith, Microsoft’s general counsel, said in a recent interview. Companies and civil liberties groups have been sending in briefs of their own, largely opposing the government’s surveillance powers.“很显然,如果美国政府获胜,大门就会敞开,其他国家的政府就可以从美国的数据中心获取数据了,”微软的总法律顾问布拉德·史密斯(Brad Smith)在近期的一次采访中说。公司和公民自由组织在散发自己的宣传资料,主要是表示反对政府掌握监视的权力。At issue are two types of encoding. The first is end-to-end encryption, which Apple uses in its iMessage system and FaceTime, the conversation system. Companies like Open Whisper Systems, the maker of Signal, and WhatsApp have adopted such encryption for stand-alone apps, which are of particular concern to counterterrorism investigators.问题关乎两种类型的编码。一种是端到端加密,苹果公司在iMessage和视频聊天务FaceTime中就使用了这种方式。Signal所属的Open Whisper Systems公司和WhatsApp在单独的应用上也采用了这种加密方式,而此类应用是反恐调查人员尤其关注的一个问题。With Apple, the encryption and decryption is done by the phones at either end of the conversation; Apple does not keep copies of the message unless one of the users loads it into iCloud, where it is not encrypted. (In the drug and gun investigation this summer, Apple eventually turned over some stored iCloud messages. While they were not the real-time texts the government most wanted, officials said they saw it as a sign of cooperation.)在苹果公司,加密和解密都是由其中一方的通话手机来进行的。苹果没有相关讯息的备份,除非一方用户将其上传到不加密的iCloud上。(在今夏那起毒品和调查中,苹果最后还是移交了存储在iCloud上的部分讯息。尽管它们不是政府最想要的实时短信,但官员表示,他们认为这是合作的标志。)The second type of encoding involves sophisticated encryption software on Apple and Android phones, which makes it all but impossible for anyone except the user of the phone to open stored content — pictures, contacts, saved text messages and more — without an access code. The F.B.I. and local authorities oppose the technology, saying it put them at risk of “going dark” on communications between terrorists and about criminal activity on city streets. The American military is more divided on the issue, depending on the mission.第二种编码涉及苹果和Android手机上的复杂的加密软件。有了它们,除手机用户外,任何人在没有访问码的情况下几乎都不可能打开存储内容,如照片、联系人、保存下来的短信等。FBI和地方当局反对这项技术,称它让自身面临对通讯信息一无所知的风险,而相关通讯会涉及恐怖分子,以及街头犯罪活动。美国军方在这个问题上则存在一定的分歧,具体情况视任务而定。Officials say a court fight with Apple is still an option, though they acknowledge it would be a long shot. Some object that a legal battle would make it harder for the companies to compromise, the law enforcement officials said. They added that Apple and other companies have privately expressed willingness to find common ground.官员称,与苹果对薄公堂依然是选择之一,但他们承认,成功的可能性很小。执法官员称,一些人持反对意见,认为打官司会导致科技企业更难妥协。他们还表示,苹果等公司私下里表示愿意寻找共同点。Apple declined to comment on the case for this article. But company officials have argued publicly that the access the government wants could be exploited by hackers and endanger privacy.苹果拒绝为本文该案。但公司领导层曾公开表示,政府希望获得的访问权限可能会被黑客利用,危及隐私。“There’s another attack on our civil liberties that we see heating up every day — it’s the battle over encryption,” Tim Cook, the company’s chief executive, told a conference on electronic privacy this year. “We think this is incredibly dangerous.”“我们看到,又一场针对公民自由的攻击每天都在升温,它就是围绕加密展开的斗争,”苹果首席执行官蒂姆·库克(Tim Cook)在今年的一次有关电子隐私的会议上说。“我们认为这种情况极其危险。”Echoing the arguments of industry experts, he added, “If you put a key under the mat for the cops, a burglar can find it, too.” If criminals or countries “know there’s a key hidden somewhere, they won’t stop until they find it,” he concluded.接下来,他重复了行业专家的观点,“如果为了给警察行方便而把钥匙放在门垫下,那么窃贼也能找到。”如果罪犯或某些国家“知道有一把钥匙藏在某个地方,那么他们不找到钥匙是不会罢休的,”他总结道。The Microsoft case centers on whether the fact that data is stored around the world relieves American firms of turning it over. The government, which won in Federal District Court, has argued in its brief to the appeals court that where the data is stored is irrelevant because the company still has control of email records. The White House declined to comment because the case is in litigation.微软一案的核心是,数据存放在世界各地这个事实,是否能免除美国公司移交数据的责任。在联邦地区法院胜诉的政府在给上诉法院的案情摘要中称,数据存放在哪里无关紧要,因为微软依然控制着电子邮件记录。因为案件正在诉讼过程中,白宫拒绝置评。“People want to know what law will be applied to their data,” Mr. Smith of Microsoft said. “French want their rights under French law, and Brazilians under Brazilian law. What is the U.S. government going to do when other governments reach into the U.S. data centers, without notifying the U.S. government?”“大家想知道他们的数据会适用什么法律,”微软的史密斯说。“法国人希望用法国的法律保护自己的权利,巴西人希望用巴西的法律。假如其他国家的政府无需通知美国政府就能进入美国的数据中心,美国政府会怎么做?”Chinese firms aly have plans to build facilities on American soil that would store electronic communications, so the question may be more than hypothetical. In its brief, Microsoft argues that Congress will ultimately have to weigh in on the issue, since it is as much a political matter as a legal one: “Only Congress has the institutional competence and constitutional authority to balance law enforcement needs against our nation’s sovereignty, the privacy of its citizens and the competitiveness of its industry.”中国公司已经打算在美国境内修建设施,用以存放电子通讯信息,所以这个问题并非凭空想象。在案情摘要中,微软认为国会最终将不得不介入此事,因为这既是一个政治问题,也是一个法律问题:“只有国会拥有相应的制度能力和宪法权力来平衡执法需求与国家主权、公民隐私和业界竞争力之间的关系。” /201509/397738厦门腋下副乳手术哪家医院好 This door handle kills germs这样的门把手能杀死细菌Diseases sp in many ways. An infected person can cough or sneeze on someone nearby. Or, they can transfer germs through a handshake. But sometimes we pick up germs indirectly. A sick person might leave behind bacteria or viruses when they touch a doorknob, handrail, shopping cart handle or countertop. Anyone else who touches that surface may pick up the microbes. But what if those surfaces could disinfect themselves?细菌能通过很多途径传播,一个被传染的人咳嗽或者打喷嚏,然后传染给附近的人。这些细菌会也通过握手进行传播。但有些时候,我们总是间接地被传染,比如说一个生病的人可能会通过门把手,栏杆,购物车把手或面板遗留下细菌或病毒,而其他人可能会通过接触这些物体表面而染上细菌。但假如这些物体表面可以自清洁,那么结果又是什么样的呢?Two teens from Hong Kong asked themselves the same question. Now they#39;ve developed a door handle that can knock out germs on contact.两个来自香港的少年也同样问了自己这个问题,现在他们研发了一种门把手,可以清除在接触过程中产生的细菌。The glow from this door handle activates a microbe-killing coating. That could help reduce the transmission of diseases from germy hands.该门把手发出的光能激活杀死细菌的涂料,这样就会大大减少因细菌手引起的细菌传播The concept is simple. Every time the door is opened, the movement creates power that triggers a germ-killing reaction on the handle. In lab tests, their system killed about 99.8 percent of the germs that they sp onto lab dishes coated with their material.概念很简单,每次当门打开时的运动会产生能量,这些能量触发门把手上的杀死细菌反应。实验室试验中,这一系统消灭了约99.8%实验室盘中的细菌,当然,这些盘中也涂有他们的材料。Research by others has shown that door handles in public areas often host lots of bacteria and viruses, notes 17-year-old Sum Ming (;Simon;) Wong. The tenth grader attends Church of Christ in China Tam Lee Lai Fun Memorial Secondary School in Tuen Mun, China. He and schoolmate Kin Pong (;Michael;) Li, 18, wanted to design a coating for door handles that would be hostile to germs.;其他人的研究发现公共场所的门把手上驻有大量细菌和病毒;,17岁的孙明说道。这个10年级的学生参加了中国香港屯门谭李丽芬纪念中学的中华基督教会,他和他的18岁同班同学金鹏一同设计了这种包衣,用在门把手上可以杀死细菌。After doing some research, they learned that a mineral called titanium dioxide is known to kill bacteria. It#39;s aly used for other purposes in many products, from paints to sunscreens to edible puddings.做过一些研究之后,他们发现一种叫二氧化钛的矿物质可以杀死细菌。这种矿物质也用于其他许多产品上,如涂料,遮光剂,以及可实用布丁中等等。译文属 /201506/379484福建中心医院网站

在厦门人民医院绣眉多少钱Two Israelis and an American with ties to Russia have been charged in connection with an alleged hacking scheme against 10 financial institutions, news organisations and others including JPMorgan Chase, Fidelity Investments and the Wall Street Journal.两名以色列人和一名与俄罗斯有关联的美国人被指控涉嫌参与进行黑客攻击,攻击对象包括根大通(JPMorgan Chase)、富达投资(Fidelity Investments)和《华尔街日报》(WSJ)在内的10家金融、新闻及其他机构。The men are believed to have stolen personal information for more than 100m people, including data in last year’s hack of JPMorgan, the biggest hack of a US financial institution. The indictments from the US attorney’s office in Manhattan come amid a marked increase in corporate breaches .据信这些人窃取了逾1亿人的个人信息,包括美国金融机构黑客攻击案中最大的一起——去年的根大通遭黑客攻击案中被窃取的数据。曼哈顿检察官办公室的起诉,适值企业攻击行为出现显著上升之际。Gery Shalon and Ziv Orenstein of Israel were arrested there in July and prosecutors are seeking their extradition. US citizen Joshua Samuel Aaron, who has lived in Moscow and Tel Aviv, is still at large.格里餠虬(Gery Shalon)和齐夫攠伦斯坦(Ziv Orenstein)7月在以色列被捕,检察官正在寻求引渡这两人。涉案的美国人乔舒亚帠缪尔阿龙(Joshua Samuel Aaron)曾在莫斯科和特拉维夫居住,目前仍然在逃。Mr Shalon is alleged to be the leader of a “sprawling cybercriminal enterprise” that employed hundreds of people and operated in more than a dozen countries. None of the three could be reached for comment.据称,沙隆是一个“庞大的网络犯罪集团”的领袖,该集团雇佣了数百人,在十多个国家活动。记者未能联系到三人中的任何一人予以置评。Mr Orenstein was Mr Shalon’s deputy, while Mr Aaron is accused of hacking and manipulating the market. The hacks, which took place from 2012 to mid-2015, were aimed at aiding stock manipulation schemes that generated tens of millions of dollars, prosecutors said.奥伦斯坦是沙隆的副手,而阿龙则被控进行黑客攻击及操纵市场。检查官们表示,这些黑客攻击发生在2012年到2015年年中,旨在协助股市操纵行为,这些操纵获利数千万美元。As part of that effort, the suspects sought to market the stocks they were allegedly manipulating to customers of the companies they had hacked. They also launched cyber attacks to help them process payments for illegal drug suppliers, counterfeit software, malicious malware distributors, illegal online casinos and an illegal bitcoin exchange known as Coin.mx.据称,犯罪嫌疑人的部分做法是向他们入侵的企业的客户兜售他们操纵的股票。他们还为了处理付款流程而发起网络攻击,付款对象包括非法药品供应商、盗版软件、恶意流氓软件分销商、非法在线和非法比特币交易所Coin.mx。Mr Shalon told an unnamed co-conspirator that his manipulative trading in the US was “a small step towards a larger empire” and said getting clients of hacked companies to buy stock was “like drinking freaking vodka in Russia”, according to the indictment.根据起诉书,沙隆告诉一位未披露姓名的同谋者,他在美国的操纵交易是“朝着更大帝国的一小步”,他还说,让被入侵公司的客户购买股票“就像在俄罗斯喝该死的伏特加”。 /201511/409347福建省厦门第三人民医院玻尿酸多少钱 In 1997, scientists found the first scrap of Neanderthal DNA in a fossil. Since then, they have recovered genetic material, even entire genomes, from a number of Neanderthal bones, and their investigations have yielded a remarkable surprise: Today, 1 to 2 percent of the DNA in non-African people comes from Neanderthals.1997年,科学家在化石中第一次发现了尼安德特人DNA的碎片。此后,他们从陆续出土的多块尼安德特人的骨头中提取了基因物质,乃至完整的基因组。他们的研究收获了一个惊人的发现:今天,在除了非洲人之外的人类身上,有1%到2%的DNA来自尼安德特人。That genetic legacy is the result of interbreeding roughly 50,000 years ago between Neanderthals and the common ancestors of Europeans and Asians. Recent studies suggest that Neanderthal genes even influence human health today, contributing to conditions from allergies to depression.这份基因遗产,是大约5万年前尼安德特人和欧亚人的共同祖先混种繁殖的结果。近期的研究表明,尼安德特人的基因甚至影响到当今人类的健康,与包括过敏和抑郁在内的多个病状有关。Now scientists have found that the genes flowed both ways. In a study published on Wednesday in Nature, a team of scientists reports that another instance of interbreeding left Neanderthals in Siberia with chunks of human DNA.如今,科学家发现基因的流动是双向的。在《自然》杂志(Nature)周三发布的一篇研究论文中,一组科学家提交的案例表明,混种繁殖使得西伯利亚的尼安德特人带有部分人类DNA。This exchange, the scientists conclude, took place about 100,000 years ago. That’s a puzzling date, because a great deal of evidence indicates that the ancestors of today’s non-Africans did not expand out of Africa until 50,000 to 60,000 years ago.这群科学家得出结论,这种交融发生在约10万年前。这一日期令人困惑,因为大量据显示,直到5万到6万年前,如今不在非洲的人类的祖先才走出了非洲大陆。It’s possible, then, that these Neanderthals acquired DNA from a mysterious early migration of humans.那么,这些尼安德特人有可能是从一群早期的神秘人类迁徙群体身上获得了DNA。“I think at this point we’ve convinced everybody the observation is real,” said Adam Siepel, a geneticist at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and a co-author of the new study. “But the story behind the observation is still very much in dispute.”“我认为,现在我们已经让所有人信,我们的观测结果是真实的,”来自美国冷泉港实验室(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory)的遗传学家亚当·西佩尔(Adam Siepel)表示。他是这项新研究的共同作者。“但观测结果背后的解释,依然争议重重。”Humans and Neanderthals split from a common ancestor in Africa about 600,000 years ago. At some point afterward, the ancestors of Neanderthals sp to Europe, the Middle East and Central Asia.在大约60万年前,拥有非洲共同祖先的人类和尼安德特人分道扬镳。此后的某个时刻,尼安德特人的祖先扩散到欧洲、中东和中亚地区。Along the way, Neanderthals took on a distinctive anatomy — a stocky, powerful build — and became impressive hunters of big game. The last Neanderthals appear to have died about 40,000 years ago.迁徙途中,尼安德特人演化出矮壮而有力的独特体型,并成为狩猎大型动物的佼佼者。最后一代尼安德特人似乎在大约4万年前灭亡。In 2010, scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, recovered about 60 percent of a Neanderthal genome from fossils found in a Croatian cave. Neanderthals shared certain mutations with living Europeans and Asians, the scientists found — but not with modern Africans. They concluded that humans must have interbred with Neanderthals after leaving Africa.2010年,德国莱比锡马克斯·普朗克演化人类学研究所(Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology)提取了尼安德特人的一个大约60%的基因组,所用样本来自克罗地亚一处洞穴中发掘出的化石。科学家发现,尼安德特人和如今的欧亚人共享一定的基因突变,但与现代非洲人并无共通之处。科学家得出结论,人类一定是在离开非洲大陆后和尼安德特人进行了混种繁殖。Three years later, the Max Planck team reconstructed the complete genome of a male Neanderthal from a toe bone dating back at least 50,000 years, which had been discovered in the Altai Mountains of Siberia. Comparing the Altai genome to modern human DNA confirmed the interbreeding.三年后,马克斯·普朗克的研究团队重构了一名男性尼安德特人的完整基因组。这些基因来自西伯利亚阿尔泰山脉发掘的一块距今至少5万年的趾骨。通过比较阿尔泰山脉尼安德特人的基因组和现代人类的DNA,确认了混种繁殖的存在。Recently, the researchers harvested more DNA from European Neanderthal fossils, putting together very detailed reconstructions of a single chromosome, Chromosome 21.近期,研究者从欧洲尼安德特人化石上收获了更多DNA信息,重构出非常详尽的单条染色体——第21号染色体。Sergi Castellano, a geneticist at Max Planck Institute, set out to compare this European Neanderthal DNA to the genes from Siberia. He was curious about how isolated the populations of Neanderthals were from one another, and how they were related to humans alive today.马克斯·普朗克研究所的遗传学家塞尔吉·卡斯特利亚诺(Sergi Castellano)着手比较了欧洲尼安德特人的DNA和西伯利亚尼安德特人的基因。让他感兴趣的是,尼安德特人群体相互隔离的程度,以及他们与当今人类的关联。He was joined by Dr. Siepel, who has developed powerful statistical models in recent years to trace how DNA changes over time. He and his colleagues are able to compare genomes and infer their common history: how their ancestors split apart, for example, and how large the populations of their ancestors were.他邀请了西佩尔士加入。在过去数年里,西佩尔构建出强大的统计学模型来追踪DNA如何随时间而演化。于是,他和同事能够比较这些基因组,推断他们共同的历史:比如,他们的祖先是如何分化的,祖先的人口规模又有多大。Dr. Siepel, Dr. Castellano and their colleagues used these models to analyze the Neanderthal DNA and that of humans. Their analysis confirmed previous studies: Some Neanderthal DNA did indeed end up in modern Europeans and Asians.西佩尔、卡斯特利亚诺及同事利用这些模型分析了尼安德特人和人类的DNA。他们的分析结果实了之前的研究:尼安德特人的DNA片段的确出现在了现代欧亚人的身上。But they also found another example of so-called gene flow, and an unexpected one at that: The Altai Neanderthals in particular shared some mutations with living Africans, but not with Europeans and Asians.不过,他们还发现了“基因流动”的又一个例子,而且是个出人意料的例子:具体来说,是阿尔泰山脉的尼安德特人与今天的非洲人有一些同样的突变,而不是欧亚人。That pattern suggests that an African lineage of humans interbred with the ancestors of the Altai Neanderthal after they split from other Neanderthals.这意味着,有一非洲人类,在阿尔泰山脉尼安德特人的祖先与其他尼安德特人分开之后,与其进行过混种繁殖。Dr. Castellano and Dr. Siepel thought at first there was something wrong with their analysis, so they went back to fix it. But when they looked for the problem, they could not find it.卡斯特利亚诺和西佩尔起初以为是自己的分析出了错,于是回头去修正。但他们却没有找到问题。“We poked and prodded and poked and prodded, and couldn’t get it to go away,” said Dr. Siepel.“我们这里看看,那里瞧瞧,就是没有办法让它消失,”西佩尔说。Once the scientists accepted that the interbreeding was real, they estimated when it happened. When DNA gets passed down through the generations, it gets shuffled into new arrangements that can be used to build a sort of timeline.一旦科学家们接受了混种繁殖的情况真实存在,他们就开始估算它发生的时间。DNA在代际遗传的时候,会进行重组,而这就可以用来建立某种时间表。Based on this gene shuffling, the scientists estimated that humans and the ancestors of the Altai Neanderthals interbred about 100,000 years ago — long before people were thought to have left Africa. “This observation throws a wrench in the works,” said Dr. Siepel.基于这种基因重组,科学家们估算出,人类与阿尔泰山脉尼安德特人的祖先在大约10万年前进行过混种繁殖——远在普遍认为的人类离开非洲的时间之前。“这一观测结果给我们的工作造成了很大的麻烦,”西佩尔说。Bence Viola, a paleontologist at the University of Toronto and a co-author of the new study, said he was skeptical when he first learned of the genetic data. “It’s really weird, that’s my main impression,” he said.同为这项新研究作者的多伦多大学(University of Toronto)古生物学家本斯·维奥拉(Bence Viola)表示,刚听到这些基因数据的消息时,他本人满腹狐疑。“实在是奇怪,这就是我的主要印象,”他说。Eventually, however, Dr. Castellano persuaded him the data were strong, and Dr. Viola looked over the fossil record for possible explanations for the interbreeding.不过,卡斯特利亚诺最终说他相信数据是可靠的。于是维奥拉士查看了或许可以解释这一混种繁殖的化石记录。In the 1930s, for example, scientists discovered 120,000-year-old fossils in Israel that looked a lot like living humans. Many scientists viewed them as a failed human migration from Africa, with no genetic connection to humanity today.比方说,上世纪30年代,科学家们在以色列发现了一批12万年前的化石,与现代人类有诸多相似之处。许多科学家认为,它们代表了人类走出非洲的一次失败尝试,与今天的人类没有基因联系。In October, Chinese researchers discovered another intriguing clue in a cave: 47 teeth that they estimate are between 80,000 and 120,000 years old. The scientists argue that the teeth belonged to modern humans.去年10月,中国研究者在一处洞穴发现了另一个有意思的线索:47颗牙齿。这些科学家估算牙齿有8到12万年历史,并提出它们属于现代人类。Dr. Viola is not completely convinced by the Chinese study. Instead, he thinks the scenario that best fits the evidence is that humans expanding into the Middle East encountered and interbred with Neanderthals there. The Neanderthals then migrated east to Siberia, taking human DNA with them.中国科学家的研究并未完全说维奥拉。他认为,能与据吻合得最好的情景是,扩散到中东地区的人类与当地的尼安德特人进行了混种繁殖。然后尼安德特人东迁到西伯利亚地区,身上带着人类的DNA。“It seems pretty solid,” said Jonathan K. Pritchard, a geneticist at Stanford University who was not involved in the study. “Overall, the story they’re telling is pretty coherent.”“看起来很有说力,”没有参与这项研究的斯坦福大学(Stanford University)遗传学家乔纳森·K·普里查德(Jonathan K. Pritchard)这样评价道。“总体而言,他们提出的这套说辞比较条理分明。”Dr. Pritchard said that more examinations of ancient DNA would help resolve the many questions raised by the new study and help scientists understand the scope of the intimate back-and-forth between Neanderthals and humans.普里查德士表示,对古DNA的更多研究将有助于解答这项新研究提出的许多问题,并帮助科学家理解尼安德特人与人类之间亲密的相互来往的范围。“There’s going to be a lot more data really soon,” he said. “I would expect in the next few years we’ll have much, much more of the jigsaw puzzle, and it will be possible to piece this all together.”“很快就会出现许许多多的新数据,”他说。“我认为,在接下来的几年里,会有多得多的碎片冒出来,也就有可能把它们都拼接起来。” /201602/427234厦门假体隆胸手术的费用

厦门做眼袋的多少钱阅读提示:中文在上,对照英文在下 我感觉自己就像是女王:住在上海,只要我愿意,我身上可以不用带任何像现金(或信用卡)这样的平民化的东西。I feel like the Queen: if I chose to do so, I could live in Shanghai without carrying anything so plebeian as cash (or even credit cards).中国消费者可以用智能手机购买几乎任何东西并付款,很多人也确实在这么做。早餐、午餐和晚餐?挥一挥iPhone魔杖,就有人骑电动车送上门——在“饿了么”等外卖APP点餐通常免配送费,还经常打折。再挥一下魔杖,出租车来了,以折扣价载你出行。再挥一下,就有医生通过电话给你看病,每次通话仅需9.9元人民币(合1.5美元)。Chinese consumers can (and do) swipe smartphones for almost everything. Breakfast, lunch and dinner? With a wave of the iPhone wand, it arrives on a motorbike, delivered often for free and usually at a discounted price, from food delivery apps such as Ele.me (meaning “are you hungry?”). Wave it again, and a taxi appears, y to offer a discounted ride. Wave it once more, and there’s a doctor y to diagnose any ailment by phone for only Rmb9.9 (.5) per call.这被称为O2O,或者“线上到线下”,瑞信(Credit Suisse)预计,O2O从现在起到2017年将以63%的复合年率增长,将达到420亿元人民币规模。线上和线下的结合很快还将走进社区菜市场这种最传统的购物场所——届时上海人用手机扫一扫,就能够为从理发到拔牙、再到购买晚餐鱼头等各种务和商品付款。It’s called O2O, or “online to offline” , and is forecast to grow at a compound annual rate of 63 per cent between now and 2017, to Rmb42bn, according to Credit Suisse. The marriage of online and offline will soon come even to that most traditional of venues, the neighbourhood wet market, where Shanghainese will be able to swipe a phone to buy anything from a haircut to a tooth extraction to a fish head for supper.浙江省东部温州市的一家菜市场已经开始允许消费者用手机扫码购买所有商品,用付宝(Alipay)付。付宝是电商集团阿里巴巴(Alibaba)旗下的移动付务平台。上海也计划推出这类菜市场,届时我不用掏钱包,就能买上一桶鳝鱼或一条(带蹄髈)猪腿。A wet market in Wenzhou, in eastern Zhejiang province, has aly started letting consumers wave their mobile phones at all of its goodies, and pay with Alipay, the mobile payments service affiliated to ecommerce group Alibaba. Shanghai plans to follow suit, at which point I will be able to load up on a bucket of eels or a leg of pork (with hoof attached) without pulling out my purse.就我个人而言,购买大部分商品时,我仍宁愿拿着一叠沾满细菌、上面印着毛泽东头像的百元钞票付款。但其他人不愿意,至少中产阶级和40岁以下年轻人不愿意。上海人民广场附近受政府补贴的便民早餐车前,西装革履的男士们在早高峰期间排队用智能手机为他们的馒头或者手抓饼扫码付账。手抓饼是一种美味的中国式油煎薄饼。我非常赞成这种方式:如果递给我手抓饼的人没有接触过那些上面沾有所有人细菌的人民币,我会更喜欢这种食物。Personally, I still prefer grimy, germ-laden piles of Rmb100 notes with the face of Mao Zedong on them for most of my shopping. But hardly anyone else does (or at least hardly anyone middle class and under 40). At the government-subsidised Loving Help breakfast cart near Shanghai’s People’s Square, men in suits queue up during morning rush hour to swipe their smartphones for a steamed bun or a shouzhuabing, a delectably greasy Chinese-style crepe that literally translates as “hand-grab pancake”. I’m all for that: I prefer it if the hand grabber of that pancake to serve it to me has not just been handling a wad of the people’s currency (with all the people’s bacteria on it).在附近一幢写字楼外面,一位“饿了么”的派送员蹲在一个蓝色隔热保温袋旁,他要配送顾客们预定的30多份早餐,这些人想必为了维持不断放缓的经济而非常努力地工作,以致于没有时间走上两分钟去附近快餐店吃早餐。我只花了4元人民币(配送免费)就买到了烟肉蛋汉堡加咖啡。好吧,咖啡是凉的,他们还忘记送奶油和糖了,但冲着这份价格和便利,我还是很高兴用一下微波炉的。Outside a nearby office building, an Ele.me delivery man squats next to a blue insulated cooler bag, from which he dispenses 30-odd breakfasts — ordered in advance by people presumably working so hard to keep the slowing economy afloat that they do not have time to walk two minutes to the nearest fast-food emporium. I got my Egg-McMuffin-and-coffee meal for only Rmb4 (free delivery). OK, the coffee was cold and they forgot the cream and sugar, but for this price and convenience I am happy to use the microwave.如果说午餐有什么不同的话,那就是更方便一些:在同一幢大楼里有一个被称为“Fun Box”的自动售卖机,消费者可以在售卖机自取通过APP预订并付费的午餐。晚餐呢?即便是当地油腻的小店也接受手机扫码付。在我们点上一碗馄饨和一盘里脊肉串的时候(用付宝付账),一位现年29岁的上海国企会计师周丽娟(音译)表示,她现在几乎都不带现金了。“有时候我钱包里1000元人民币能放好几个月。”Lunch is, if anything, even easier: in the bowels of the same building is a vending machine called the Fun Box dispensing app-ordered meals paid for by smartphone. Dinner? Even the local greasy chopstick accepts payment by swipe-phone. As we sit over a bowl of wontons and a plate of fried pork strips (paid by Alipay), Zhou Lijuan, 29, an accountant at a Shanghai state-owned enterprise, says she hardly ever carries cash any more. “Sometimes Rmb1,000 in cash can stay in my purse for months.”但是等一下:这些人听说过中国经济正在放缓吗?他们为什么仍在大把花钱?周丽娟有一个还在学走路的孩子,她说,经济放缓——这个消息震动世界各地的市场——对“她的消费行为没有大影响”。她去年“光棍节”期间花了1万元人民币——光棍节是阿里巴巴发明的全球最大的购物日(最初针对未婚人士)。这比她一个月的收入还高,但她准备在今年11月11日的光棍节再次大举购物,尽管经济放缓。“我会买很多东西,我不会太理性。如果我看到真的便宜的东西,我会哇哇叫着买下来。”实际上,尼尔森(Nielsen)的调查显示,逾半的受访者表示,这个光棍节他们计划比去年花更多的钱。But wait a minute: have these people heard that the economy is tanking? Why are they still spending? Ms Zhou, mother of a toddler, says news of the slowdown — which has shaken markets worldwide — has made “no major impact on my consuming behaviour”. She spent Rmb10,000 last year on Singles Day , the Alibaba-invented biggest shopping day in the world (originally targeted at unmarried people). That is more than a month’s income but she’s y for another big Singles Day on November 11, despite the slowdown. “I’ll purchase a lot, and I won’t be very rational about it. If I see a real bargain, I’ll say ‘waaahhh’ and buy it.” In fact, according to a Nielsen survey, more than half of those surveyed said they plan to spend more this year than last.全球市场无疑会认真审视中国今年光棍节期间出现的每一个趋势,看看中国经济到底行还是不行。不管怎样,上海的上班族们仍会通过O2O订餐。但“饿了么”表示打算减小折扣力度,所以赶紧“趁热”在手机上购买巨无霸汉堡吧。看来天底下真的没有免费午餐,即便是在拥有全球最大购物节的国家。The world’s markets will doubtless scrutinise every Single’s Day trend this year for signs that the Chinese economy is (or is not) doomed. Either way, Shanghai’s workers will keep ordering O2O meals. But Ele.me says it is reducing its discounts, so get your smartphone-swiped Big Macs while they are hot. It seems there is no free lunch, even in the land of the world’s biggest shopping festival. /201511/409961 Beijing Capital International Airport北京首都国际机场Beijing Capital International Airport is located in northeast of Beijing , capital of the People#39;s Republic of China, and 25. 35km from the Tiananmen Square, to the north-east of the Beijing cit)t-center. It is not only an aviation gateway of Beijing and a window for international communication, but also a radial center for China civil aviation network, featured in a large-scale international airport, with most important location, biggest scale, fullest facilities and busiest transportation in China.北京首都国际机场简称首都机场,是中华人民共和国北京市的主要的国际机场。北京首都国际机场位于北京市区东北方向,距离天安门广场25. 35千米。中国地理位置最重要、规模最大、设备最齐全、运输任务最繁忙的大型国际航空港。北京首都国际机场不但是中国首都北京的空中门户和对外交往的窗口,而且是中国民航最重要的航空枢纽,是中国民用航空网络的辐射中心。并且是当前中国最繁忙的民用机场。也是中国国际航空公司的基地机场。Beijing Capital International Airport is the only airport that consists of three terminal buildings in China. Beijing Airport was opened on March 2, 1958. The airport then consisted of one small terminal building, which still stands to this day, apparently for the use of VIPs and charter flights. On January l, 1980, a newer, larger building opened, with 60000 square meters of space, The terminal (Tl) was larger than the one in the 1950s, but by the mid-1990s, it was too small. Terminal 2 (T2) was officially opened on November l, 1999, with 336000 square meters of space. Terminal l was then closed for renovation after the opening of Terminal 2 and was reopened on September 20, 2004.北京首都国际机场是中国国内唯一拥有三条跑道的国际机场。首都机场于1958年3月2日投入使用,是中国首个投入使用的民用机场。当时仅有一座小型候机楼,主要用于VIP乘客和包租的飞机。1980年1月1日,面积为6万平方米的一号航站楼及配套工程建成并正式投入使用。随着客流量的不断增大,一号楼客流量日趋饱和。重新规划的建筑面积达33.6万平方米,装备先进技术设备的二号航站楼于1995年10月开始建设,并于1999年11月1日正式投入使用。二号航站楼投入使用的同时,一号航站楼开始停用装修。2004年9月20日,整修一新的一号航站楼重新投入使用。The third colossal expansion, including Terminal 3 (T3) , a third runway and a rail link to the city-center, was completed before August, 2008, in time for the Beijing Olympics. At its opening with a south-to-north length of 2900 meters, Terminal 3 was the largest man-made structure in the world in terms of area covered (986,000 m2 ) , and a major landmark in Beijing representing the growing and developing Chinese city. Fresh from hosting the 2008 0lympic Games and completion of its new terminal building, the Beijing Capital International Airport has overtaken Tokyo Haneda to be the busiest airport in Asia based on scheduled seat capacity.为迎接2008年北京奥运会的召开,首都机场进行了第三次扩建,包插3号航站楼、第三条跑道和机场到北京市区的北京机场轨道交通线。扩建工程于2008年8月之前全部建成投入使用。三号航站楼建成后是国内面积最大的单体建筑,总建筑面积98.6万平方米,南北向长2900米。扩建后的北京首都国际机场成为代表北京成长和发展的地标,北京奥运会的召开和3号航站楼的建设也使得北京首都国际机场取代东京国际机场(羽田)成为亚洲飞机起降最为繁忙的机场。 /201603/430099厦门切眼袋哪儿最好在厦门地区市仙岳医院割狐臭

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