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时间:2019年11月20日 00:20:31

The leader of Germany’s Jewish community has backed calls for refugee as, warning that many asylum-seekers are from cultures marked by “hate towards Jews and intolerance德国犹太人社群领袖约瑟夫舒斯特(Josef Schuster,见上图)持有关对难民流入设定最高限额的呼声,他警告称,很多寻求避难的人出身以“仇视犹太人和不宽容”为特征的文化。Josef Schuster’s comments come amid a widening split over the issue between Chancellor Angela Merkel and the Bavaria-based CSU, sister party to her CDU. Ms Merkel has generally resisted such restrictions but is under increasing pressure from her Bavarian allies to toughen her stance.在他发表上述言论之际,德国总理安格拉默克尔(Angela Merkel)与巴伐利亚基督教社会联盟(CSU)在这一问题上的分歧日益加深。基社盟是默克尔领导的基督教民主联盟(CDU)的姊党。默克尔总体上反对这种限额,但她在巴伐利亚州的盟友正向她施加越来越大的压力,要她改持更强硬的立场。Even though Germany’s Jewish community is small, its views tend to carry great weight because of the country’s responsibility for the Holocaust.尽管德国犹太人社群规模较小,但其看法往往具有重要影响,这是因为德国对“纳粹大屠杀Holocaust)负有责任。“Sooner or later we will not be able to avoid [setting] upper limits,Dr Schuster, president of the Central Council of Jews in Germany, told Welt newspaper.身为德国犹太人中央理事会(Central Council of Jews)主席的舒斯特告诉《世界报Die Welt):“我们迟早得面对(设定)上限的问题。“Many refugees are fleeing the terror of the Islamic State and want to live in peace and freedom, but at the same time they come from cultures in which hate towards Jews and intolerance are fixed components. Don’t only think about the Jews, think about equal rights for women and the treatment of homosexuals.”“很多难民正逃离伊斯兰国(IS)制造的恐怖,想生活在和平自由之中,但另一方面,仇视犹太人和不宽容是他们文化的固有组成部分。不要只想到犹太人,想想女性的平等权利和他们如何对待同性恋吧。”If the inflows continued at the current rates it would become “increasingly difficultto integrate migrants and “pass on our values如果难民继续按现在的速度流入,融合移民和“传递我们的价值观”将变得“越来越难”。Dr Schuster, 61, was born in Israel to German Jewish refugees.61岁的舒斯特生于以色列一个德国犹太难民家庭。His call for as follows warnings about the risk posed by some Muslim refugees for German Jews. Dr Schuster and other Jewish leaders voiced their concerns at a meeting with Ms Merkel last month.在他呼吁设定上述上限前,有人警告称,一些穆斯林难民将对德国犹太人构成危险。舒斯特和其他犹太人领袖在上月与默克尔的一次会晤中表达了这种关切。Stephan Kramer, a former secretary-general of the central council, said the fact that refugees came from countries where anti-Semitism was in the national education programme did “not automatically make a majority of refugees anti-Semites德国犹太人中央理事会前秘书长斯特凡克拉默(Stephan Kramer)表示,一些难民来自那些国家教育计划传播反犹主义的国家,这并不“必然意味着多数难民是反犹主义者”。After years of decline, the number of anti-Semitic crimes in Germany rose last year by 25 per cent to 1,596, according to the interior ministry. However, the figures showed that most were linked to German rightwingers and not to so-called “foreign ideology德国内政部的数据显示,在经历了多年的下滑后,德国反犹罪案数量去年增长5%,至1596起。不过,数据显示大多数罪案与德国右翼分子有关,而非与所谓的“外来意识形态”有关。来 /201511/412450

WASHINGTON (AP) Fears of war between Taiwan and China have eased in recent years, but the growing gap in their military capabilities has prompted a U.S. think tank to lay out a radical new approach in how Taiwan could defend itself if China invaded, relying less on conventional forces and more on guerrilla-style tactics and cyberwarfare.华盛顿(美联社)- 近些年来台湾与中国之间的战争担忧在逐渐减少,然而他们间的军事实力的鸿沟促使美国智库设计了一套全新的防御中国入侵的方案,更少的依赖传统军力,更多的使用游击式战术和网络战。The nongovernment Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments is wading into delicate territory. Relations have between democratic Taiwan and communist-governed China have improved as they have forged economic agreements —a development welcomed by the ed States.非政府智库“战略暨预算评估中心”涉入的是一个微妙的领域。皿煮的台湾与共产主义管治的中国之间的关系正在得到改善,双方在缔结各种经济协议,美国对这些进展是欢迎的。Washington, however, remains obligated by U.S. law to provide Taiwan the means to defend itself. U.S. lawmakers have accused the Obama administration of refusing to sell Taiwan new fighter jets and submarines for fear of angering Beijing, which claims sovereignty over the self-governing island.不过华盛顿有义务根据美国法律向台湾提供自卫的手段。美国国会指责奥巴马政府因担心惹恼声称拥有这个自治岛屿主权的北京而拒绝向台湾出售新战机和潜艇。Congress last week approved the possible sale of four U.S. frigates to Taiwan, drawing Chinese criticism, but Taiwan shows growing willingness to develop its own hardware. On Tuesday, it launched a stealthy, missile-launching corvette, the first of ship of its kind produced by Taiwan.国会上周批准可以向台湾销售四艘驱逐舰,引来了中国的批评,而台湾则有意向更多的自行开发本土军事硬件。在本周二,台湾推出了一款隐身导弹快船,这是同类舰船的第一艘台湾制造。But Chinas rapid military modernization has exposed a widening gulf between its forces and those on Taiwan, which spent .8 billion on its defense in 2013. According to a U.S. Defense Department estimate, Chinas military spending that year was 5 billion.然而与随着中国飞快的军事现代化,与台湾间的军力鸿沟已经愈拉愈大。台013年的防卫开是108亿美元,而据美国国防部估计,中国同年度的军事开为1450亿美元;With the resource gap approaching fourteen-to-one, even if Taiwan were to massively increase its defense budget, it would not reverse the cumulative advantages the PRC has accrued over the past two decades,; said the centers report, released this week. PRC stands for the communist-governed Peoples Republic of China.“当资金差额达到14时,无论台湾如何大幅增加防卫预算,都无力反转PRC在过去的几十年里累积的优势,”该中心本周发布的报告称。PRC是共产管治的中华人民共和国的缩写。A U.S. congressional advisory panel reported last month that China has about 2,100 combat aircraft and 280 naval ships available for a Taiwan conflict, and more 1,100 short-range ballistic missiles that could incapacitate Taiwans air force in the early hours of a conflict. Taiwan has about 410 combat aircraft and 90 naval combat ships.美国国会的一个顾问小组上月的一份报告称中国在台海冲突中可投100架战机80艘海军舰艇,超过1100枚短程弹道导弹可以在冲突开始的几个小时内瘫痪台湾空军。台湾有大约410架战机和90艘海军舰艇。The center advocates an ;asymmetric approach,; with Taiwan using lighter forces to counter rather than match Chinas strengths. While Taiwan increasingly emphasizes such tactics, its military modernization plan still calls for big, conventional acquisitions, the report says.该中心建议使用“非对称手段”,台湾应使用轻巧的军力去反击而非试图与中国比肩抗衡。报告称虽然台湾越来越重视这种战术,其军事现代化计划仍然偏向采购大型常规武备。For a fraction of the cost of building eight large diesel submarines that Taiwan is also planning, it could produce a fleet of 42 ;midget submarines; similar in size to craft that North Korea and Iran have, the report says. These submarines could provide warning and targeting data for anti-ship cruise missiles deployed on mobile launchers resembling trucks hauling shipping containers.报告称台湾计划以比建艘大型柴油潜艇少的多的费用建造一2艘“迷你潜艇”组成的编队,其大小与朝鲜和伊朗的类似。这些潜艇可以向布置在卡车集装箱上的移动式巡航导弹提供预警和目标数据。To combat Chinese fighter planes, the report proposes ;guerrilla; air defense, using hundreds of surface-to-air missiles a tactic it says proved effective for North Vietnam against the ed States during the Vietnam War. And if Chinese forces make it on land, guerrilla tactics to harass the occupying forces would slow their advance toward Taipei. It says cyberwar against Chinese battle networks would also be one of Taiwans viable deterrents and ;cost-imposing strategies.;至于对抗中国战机,报告则建议采用“游击式”防空,使用数以百计的地对空导弹,这是在越战中北越对抗美国的、被明是有效的战术。当中国军队登陆后,游击袭扰战术可以延滞登岛部队向台北推进。报告称对中国的战区网络实施网络战也是一项可行的杀手锏和“代价倍增战略“。The reports authors say asymmetric approaches toward defense would reduce Taiwanese dependence on U.S. armaments, and should also appeal to other neighbors concerned over Chinas military buildup.报告的作者称,使用非对称手段进行防御可以降低台湾对美国军备的依赖,对其他担忧中国军事实力的邻国也具有吸引力。Nations like Vietnam, the Philippines and Indonesia ;have territorial disputes with China and face many of the same challenges responding to the rapid Chinese military modernization looming over Taiwan,; the report says.报告称像越南、菲律宾和印尼等国”与中国有领土纠纷,而且同样面对中国快速现代化的军事压力。来 /201412/350789

In 2011, as IBM was planning to commemorate its 100th anniversary, it struck me that there were dramatic parallels between the company’s transformation over 10 decades and the way in which the global economy had been transformed over the same period. Both had benefited from an expansion of economic growth, and an increase in living standards, that was without precedent in human history. This progress had been greatly enabled by the integration of global society, and through the power and prevalence of information technology.2011年,IBM计划庆祝其诞00周年之际,我忽然想到,该公司在过去一个世纪的改变与同期全球经济的变化极为相似。两者都受益于经济增长,以及人类历史上前所未见的生活水平的大幅提高。而这一进步主要得益于全球社会融合以及信息技术的普及。Today, global economic integration presents enormous opportunity for the future of business and society. For business, buying and selling goods and services in a global market can lead to cost savings and increased revenue, but also the ability to draw on the talents and insights of a global workforce. Society can also benefit in a myriad of ways, from individuals realizing higher living standards to governments realizing new avenues for cooperation. And while many point to the risks of integration, the more pressing and more pragmatic questions are the following: How do we deal with the future? Do we embrace it? Or do we cling to the past?如今,全球经济一体化为企业和社会的未来带来巨大机遇。对企业而言,在全球市场上买卖商品和务,可节约成本、增加收入,同时还能将全球的人才及其见解收为己用。社会也将受益匪浅:人们将得以提高自身生活水平;政府将找到新的合作途径。虽然很多人指出一体化存在风险,但更迫切、更务实的问题是:我们如何面对未来?我们是欣然迎接未来?还是执着于过去?These questions are particularly important for companies in the ed States and throughout the world. They face new challenges as they navigate what is the first truly global era in human history an era in which the volume and speed of information, people, products, services and ideas being circulated around the world is greater than ever before. Where quality services will be delivered via cloud-like platforms and consistency of shareholder returns will be mandatory. This new era calls for new business models, new corporate structures, new investor engagement and new thinking.上述问题对于美国乃至全球的企业都相当重要。我们正处在人类历史上首个真正的全球化时代,在全球流转的信息、人员、产品、务以及理念,其数量之大、速度之快都前所未有。在这个时代,企业面临着新的挑战。优质务将通过云式平台交付,而股东回报是必须的。这个新时代需要新的商业模式、新的企业结构、新的投资者参与以及新思维。Fundamental to the global era, and uniquely suited to benefit from it, is what I call the globally integrated enterprise (GIE), which refers to companies that are truly global (as opposed to “multinational in their management and their operations. In this model, work is organized in fundamentally different ways. It calls for different skills and behaviors, more collaboration and transparency, more disciplined financial management, greater focus on a multiplicity of cultural differences, and less hierarchy.全球整合企业(globally integrated enterprise, GIE)在这个全球化时代必不可少,同时,此类企业特别适合从全球化时代中受益。我所说的全球整合企业,是指其管理和经营实现真正全球化(而不仅仅是“跨国”)的企业。在该模式中,工作的组织方式完全不同。这要求减少层级,同时需要技能和行为多元化,增加合作和透明度,财务管理更加严格,且更加注重文化差异的多样性。As an example, decisions about where to locate operations are based on how to maximize value for customers, employees, and business partners. Instead of taking people to where the work is, you take work to where the people are. Thus, rather than maintaining separate supply chains in different markets, there is one supply chain, and it’s global not just for products, but also services, capital, ideas, and intellectual property.举例来说,决定在何处进行经营,将取决于如何使客户、员工以及生意伙伴实现价值最大化。人不再跟着工作走,相反,工作将跟人走。因此,不同的市场不会有独立的供应链,而是只有一条全球化的供应链,不仅对产品是如此,对务、资本、创意和知识产权而言都是如此。Similarly, human capital is thought of not in terms of countries and regions and business units, but rather how to manage and deploy it as one global asset. While CEO, I saw that IBM’s IBM -0.02% future was going to be focused on innovation, which meant that rather than being capital-intensive, we were going to be human capital-intensive delivering software and services. So it was even more important than in the past that we hired and retained the best people. But unlike earlier eras, it didn’t really matter where these people were or where they came from we simply wanted them to excel in their work at IBM and we wanted to do what we could to help them excel.同样,考虑人力资本时,不再囿于国家、地区和业务部门的限制,而是考虑如何将其作为全球性资产来管理和部署。我在IBM担任首席执行官时发现,IBM的未来将专注于创新,这意味着我们未来不是资本密集型企业,而会是人力资本密集型企业,提供软件和务。因此,雇佣和留住最优秀的人才,比以往任何时候都更重要。但是,与从前不同的是,这些人才身在何处、来自何方并不重要,我们只希望他们在IBM工作出色,而且我们希望尽我们所能,帮助他们脱颖而出。In connection with our global workforce, we recognized the need to create a common culture that would ensure consistent values throughout the company, regardless of where our employees were working (that’s the “integratedpart of GIE). To that end, we conducted a company-wide survey what we called a “ValuesJamthat gave anyone working for IBM the opportunity to weigh in on what the company should stand for and how our employees should operate. That exercise culminated with an updated set of values that became the connective tissue for IBMers throughout the world.就我们的全球员工而言,我们认识到有必要建立共同的文化,以确保整个公司有统一的价值观,无论我们的员工在何处工作(这正是全球整合企业中“整合”一词的含义)。为此,我们在全公司进行调查(即我们所说的“ValuesJam”),使IBM所有员工都有机会畅所欲言,探讨公司应该主张什么,以及公司员工应当如何运作。调查最终产生出一套不断更新的价值观,成为联系全球IBM员工的纽带。For a company to become a GIE, its leaders must embrace a particular frame of mind one that I worked to imbue in my colleagues while I was CEO of IBM. This frame of mind is focused on how to operate seamlessly as a single organic entity by integrating internal operations horizontally and globally, collaborating with external partners, and operating at the best location in the world, to maximize value creation from a global point of view.一家公司要成为全球整合企业,其领导者必须怀有一种特定的心态,我在IBM担任首席执行官时,致力于向我的同事们灌输这种心态。这种心态关注的重点是,企业如何作为单独的有机整体实现无缝运营:通过横向并在全球范围内整合内部操作,与外部合作伙伴协作,在全球最佳地点经营,以便从全球视角最大限度地创造价值。IBM is far from the only company that has adopted key GIE principles and practices. A number of companies, operating across a diverse set of countries and industries, have implemented measures that resemble those we adopted at IBM. They include CemexCX -0.16% of Mexico, a leading producer of cement and other building materials; Bharti Airtel of India, one of the world’s most dynamic cellular telephone providers; and Geely of China, which is making major inroads in the global car industry thanks to innovative products and management. The measures they’ve implemented are a byproduct of their own experiences, which led them to reach the same conclusions we did at IBM: that companies need to be global in order to stay competitive, but need to do so in ways that keep them close to their customers while also emphasizing values and principles that foster agility, innovation, and productivity.采取了全球整合企业关键原则和做法的,远不止IBM一家公司。来自不同国家、不同行业的许多企业都实施了与IBM所采取的做法类似的措施。这些企业包括水泥及其它建材龙头企业墨西哥水泥集团(Cemex)、全球最具活力手机供应商之一印度巴帝电信(Bharti Airtel)、以及正凭借创新性产品和管理在全球汽车行业风生水起的中国吉利汽车(Geely)。这些企业所采取的措施,都是自身经验的副产品,它们由此得出了与IBM同样的结论:公司要保持竞争力,必须全球化,但在全球化的同时,必须紧跟客户,同时强调促进灵活、创新以及生产力的价值观和原则。The GIE, and the new global era for business, are at the center of my current work. My book, Re-Think: A Path to the Future, was published earlier this year. These areas represent the foundation of work being undertaken by the Center for Global Enterprise (CGE), which is a research organization I launched last year. Its work is being devoted to explaining the age in which we are living, while also documenting how a new management science is emerging, how leaders can apply it, and how all stakeholders should strive to maximize its benefits.全球整合企业以及企业面对的新全球化时代,是我目前工作的重心。我在今年早些时候发表了名为《重新思考:未来之路》(Re-Think: A Path to the Future)的书作。这些领域代表了全球企业中心(Center for Global Enterprise)工作的基础。全球企业中心是我在去年创建的一家研究机构,致力于解读我们生活的这个时代,同时记录新的管理科学如何兴起,领导者如何运用该科学,以及所有利益相关方应如何努力使其效益最大化。来 /201411/344404

LVMH has given up the fight for Hermès, ending a bitter four-year battle between the luxury industry’s Goliath and its family-controlled rival.路威酩轩(LVMH)已放弃对爱马Hermès)的追求,结束了奢侈品行业的“歌利亚Goliath)与家族控制的竞争对手之间长达4年的艰苦争斗。The truce announced yesterday appears to be a victory for the Hermès family, which had vowed to eject LVMH from its share capital, and constructed elaborate defences to maintain its independence.昨日宣布的“休战协议”看来是爱马仕家族的胜利。该家族曾发誓把路威酩轩从其股东名单中赶出去,并构筑了巧妙的防御措施以维持自身独立地位。The deal offers Bernard Arnault, France’s richest man and head of LVMH, a face-saving way to wind down his 23.2 per cent holding amassed in Hermès since 2010.双方达成协议,使得法国首富、路威酩轩掌门人伯纳#8226;阿尔Bernard Arnault)可以不失颜面地退出他010年以来累积的爱马3.2%的股权。The owner of Guerlain, Céline, Fendi and Bulgari can also point to a large profit on the shareholding. LVMH was fined /201409/326622


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