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芜湖市包皮长手术价格芜湖阳痿价格Family relationships家庭关系Divorce: a love story离婚:爱情故事的终结While the government talks up family values, marriage break-ups are soaring一边是政府弘扬家庭观念,一边是离婚率飙升。YANG YOURONGs wife kicks him as they walk upstairs and he falls back a few steps, then follows again at a distance up to the cramped offices of a district-government bureau handling divorces in Chongqing, a region in the south-east. After more than 20 years of marriage, Mr Yangs wife has had several affairs; she is “quick tempered”, he says (she had slapped him earlier, he claims). At the bureau, divorce takes half an hour and costs 9 yuan (.40). It is administered a few steps away from where other couples get married and take celebratory photographs. Mr Yang and his wife have second thoughts, however; they return home, still arguing. Most couples hesitate less.杨友荣上楼的时候被老婆踢了一脚,跌下几级台阶后又重新跟上,在老婆后面亦步亦趋地爬上已经挤满人的重庆某区民政局—他们是来办离婚的。20多年的婚姻中,杨的老婆多次出轨。“她是个急性子。”杨解释道,他之前还被老婆扇了一巴掌。在民政局,离婚只需要半个小时,花9块钱(约1.4美元)就能搞定。而不远处就是一对刚领结婚的夫妇在拍纪念照。杨氏夫妇决定再想想,但回家之后仍然争吵不休。大部分来离婚的夫妇都没这么犹豫。Divorce rates are rising quickly across China. This is a remarkable transformation in a society where for centuries marriage was universal and mostly permanent (though convention permitted men to take concubines). Under Communist rule, traditional values have retained a strong influence over family relationships: during much of the Mao era, divorce was very unusual. It became more common in the 1980s, but a marriage law adopted in 1994 still required a reference from an employer or community leader. Not until 2003 were restrictions removed.中国的离婚率增长得很快。这表明整个社会正在发生巨大改变,在过去的几百年里,结婚是一件很普遍且持续终生的事(尽管传统上允许男人纳妾)。在共产党的领导下,传统价值观念对家庭关系仍具有重要影响:在毛时代,离婚非常罕见,到了80年代则变得普遍,但1994年婚姻法的实施,仍规定离婚需要雇主或党内领导开具的说明材料,这项限制直到2003年才被取消。The trend reflects profound economic and social change. In the past 35 years, the biggest internal migration experienced by any country in human history has been tearing families apart. Traditional values have been giving way to more liberal ones. Women are becoming better educated, and more aware of their marital rights (they now initiate over half of all divorce cases). Greater affluence has made it easier for many people to contemplate living alone—no longer is there such an incentive to stay married in order to pool resources.这一趋势反映了经济和社会的重大变革。中国过去的35年经历了人类历史上最大规模的迁移,这直接导致了无数家庭的分崩离析。传统观念让位于更为自由的现代思想。女性受教育程度增加,也越来越意识到她们在婚姻中的权利(如今超过一半的离婚申请都是由女方提出的)。物质条件的改善让很多人不再担心独自生活——不必再为共享资源而被迫绑在婚姻里。As long as both sides agree on terms, China is now among the easiest and cheapest places in the world to get a divorce. In many Western countries, including Britain, couples must separate for a period before dissolving a marriage; China has no such constraints. In 2014, the latest year for which such data exist, about 3.6m couples split up—more than double the number a decade earlier (they received a red certificate, pictured, to prove it). The divorce rate—the number of cases per thousand people—also doubled in that period. It now stands at 2.7, well above the rate in most of Europe and approaching that of America, the most divorce-prone Western country (see chart). Chongqings rate, 4.4, is higher than Americas.中国已经成为全世界离婚最容易也是最便宜的国家之一,只要双方同意即可。在包括英国在内的许多西方国家,夫妻双方离婚前必须分居一段时间,而中国则没有此限制。据2014年最新统计数据显示,约有360万对夫妻分道扬镳,比十年前翻了一倍还不止(离婚的人会领到离婚并拍照)。离婚率已上升至2.7,跟同期相比也增加了一倍,该比值已经远超欧洲,直追美国这一离婚率最高的西方国家(见下表)。而重庆的离婚率则冲破了美国的平均值,高达4.4。Helped by the huge movement of people from the countryside into cities, and the rapid sp of social media, the availability of potential mates has grown with astonishing speed, both geographically and virtually. But many migrants marry in their home villages and often live apart from their spouses for lengthy periods. This has contributed to a big increase in extramarital liaisons. Married people previously had limited opportunities to meet members of the opposite sex in social situations, according to research by Li Xiaomin of Henan University. Peng Xiaobo, a divorce lawyer in Chongqing, reckons 60-70% of his clients have had affairs.由于人口大量从农村转移至城市,再加上社交媒体的兴起,在不同地域或不同年龄段内找到另一半的几率已经比从前大得多。但很多背井离乡的打工者都是先在家乡结婚,然后再和配偶长期分居,因此婚外情的现象越来越普遍。河南大学的李晓敏研究表示,已婚人士在之前的社会条件下遇到异性的机会很有限。重庆的离婚律师彭小波也表示,他的客户中有60%~70%的人都有过外遇。Such behaviour has led to much soul-searching. The notion that “chopsticks come in pairs” is still prevalent; propaganda posters preach Confucian-style family virtues using pictures of happy, multi-generation families. (President Xi Jinping is on his second marriage but this is rarely mentioned.) Many commentators in the official media talk of separation as a sign of moral failure; they fret that it signifies the decline of marriage, and of family as a social unit—a threat, as they see it, to social stability and even a cause of crime. The sp of “Western values” is often blamed.此举也给人们带来了深思。熟语“筷子成双成对,永不分离”一直深入人心。媒体也用四世同堂的和美家庭图画来倡导传统儒家家庭美德(事实上,习近平主席也是二婚,但这点很少为人所提及)。官方论及离婚,通常认为是道德风气败坏所致。他们担忧这标志着婚姻与家庭作为社会组成的意义大幅锐减——正如他们所能预见的,离婚对于社会的稳定性以及犯罪都是一大威胁。这些也常归咎于“西方价值观”的“泛滥”。But marriage is not losing its lustre. In most countries, rising divorce rates coincide with more births out of wedlock and a fall in marriage rates. China bucks both these trends. Remarriage is common too. The Chinese have not fallen out of love with marriage—only with each other.但是婚姻并未失去它的魅力。在大多数国家,与飙升的离婚率并发的还有婚外生子率的增加、结婚率的下降。中国却违背了这两种趋势。再婚现象也司空见惯。中国人并没有失去对婚姻之爱,只是他们不再爱对方而已。It is tradition itself that is partly to blame for rising divorce rates. Chinas legal marriage age for men, 22, is the highest in the world. But conservative attitudes to premarital relationships result in Chinese youths having fewer of them than their counterparts in the West (they are urged to concentrate on their studies and careers, rather than socialise or explore). Living together before marriage is still rare, although that is changing among educated youngsters. People still face social pressure to marry in their 20s. Their inexperience makes it more than usually difficult for them to select a good partner.不断攀升的离婚率部分是由传统观念本身所致。男性的法定结婚年龄是22岁(世上最大的婚龄)。但是中国年轻人对待婚前关系持保守态度,这就造成与西方的同龄人相比,他们中已婚的反倒还要少些(他们被迫关注于自己的学习与事业,而不是去与异性接触、交往)。婚前同居试婚仍旧罕见,尽管在一些受过教育的年轻人当中这一趋势日益改变。20多岁的未婚青年还面临着社会舆论压力。再加上,他们经验不足,更难找到好的灵魂伴侣。Couples ageing relatives are part of the problem too. Yan Yunxiang of the University of California, Los Angeles, says “parent-driven divorce” is becoming more common. As a result of Chinas one-child-per-couple policy (recently changed to a two-child one), many people have no siblings to share the burden of looking after parents and grandparents. Thus couples often find themselves living with, or being watched over by, several—often contending—elders. Mr Yan says the older ones interference fuels conjugal conflict. Sometimes parents urge their children to divorce their partners as a way to deal with rifts.夫妇的老年亲属也是他们离婚的诱因之一。来自洛杉矶加利佛尼亚大学的阎云翔指出“父母促使的离婚案件”也越来越常见。中国的独生子女政策造成许多人没有兄弟来分担照顾父母与祖父母的重担。因此夫妻常常与多个(通常是相互不和的)长辈同住或者受到他们的监视。阎云翔称长辈的干扰会给夫妻间的冲突火上浇油。甚至有时父母会迫使他们的子女与另一半离婚以解决家庭的矛盾冲突。Women are more likely to be the ones who suffer financially when this happens. Rising divorce rates reflect the sp of more tolerant, permissive values towards women, but legislation tends to favour men in divorce settlements. A legal interpretation issued in 2003 says that if a divorce is disputed, property bought for one partner by a spouses parents before marriage can revert to the partner alone. That usually means the husbands family: they often try to increase their childs ability to attract a mate by buying him a home.而当夫妻离婚时,更易遭受经济重创的一方是女性。攀升的离婚率也反映了社会对女性更为包容的价值观,但是司法体系更照顾离婚案件中男性的利益。2003年颁布的新婚姻法解释指出如果有离婚纠纷,婚前由一方父母出资为子女购买的不动产会被认定为夫妻一方的个人财产。这通常意味着男方家庭会努力购置房屋以增加他们求偶的吸引力。In 2011 the Supreme Court went further. It ruled that in contested cases (as about one-fifth of divorces are), the property would be considered that of one partner alone if that partners parents had bought it for him or her after the couple had got married. In addition, if one partner (rather than his or her parents) had bought a home before the couple wed, that person could be awarded sole ownership by a divorce court. This ruling has put women at a disadvantage too: by convention they are less often named on deeds.2011年,最高法院又进一步裁定如果婚后一方父母为子女出资购买不动产,该不动产应被认定为夫妻一方个人财产。另外,如果婚前一方(而不是一方的父母)购买的房产,那么该房产应归购买房产者(产权登记者)一人所有。这样的判决也使女性处于不利地位:通常,女人的名字很少登记在在房产上。In practice, if the couple has children the person with custody often keeps the home—more often the mother. Yet the courts interpretation sets a worrying precedent for divorced women. Their difficulties may be compounded by the two-child policy, which came into effect on January 1st. If couples have two children and both partners want custody, judges often assign parents one child each. Marriage and the family are still strong in China—but children clearly lie in a different asset class.事实上,如果夫妻有小孩,有监护权的一方一般享有房屋—通常是指母亲。然而依照最高法院颁布的解释,这项判例令离异女性堪忧。此外,一月一日开始生效的二孩政策又加剧了她们的困境。如果夫妻有两个小孩,而双方都要监护权,那么法官通常会判决双方分别抚养一个小孩。婚姻与家庭观念在中国依旧很强——但是孩子很明显地又是另一项资产。 翻译:邓小雪 amp; 颜琪琳 校对:杨霭琳 amp; 鲁城华 译文属译生译世 /201602/427659繁昌县男科医院尿科 whats up,whatup conan,how are you?nice to see you Ellen.你好吗 柯南 见到你很高兴 艾伦I...this woman keeps talking about all the gift youre giving out on the show,这女人一直提礼物的事 说你在节目上送礼and its causing me a bit of a problem.这给我造成了一点麻烦yeah,Im surprised she makes it over here so quickly,right after the show.她居然这么快就赶过来了 我们节目刚结束So you never give,I agree the gift of laughter is the most important gift but people like free stuff also.你从没给过 我也认为欢笑是最重要的礼物 但人们也喜欢免费的东西啊You never give them anything?No.I have.I have.I have.你从不送礼吗 不 我有 我有 我有礼物Half a sleeve of gluten-free fig newtens in my car.我车里有一堆不含谷蛋白的无花果酥I could hand them out.We could share them.我可以发给大家哦 我可以跟大家分享Very exciting about that,yeah,I set the bar pretty low.Yeah,thats good.大家很激动呢 我定的标准不高嘛 是的 太棒了I actually,would you rather have the gluten-free fig newtons or would you rather have something I brought maybe?大家更想要不含谷蛋白的无花果酥 还是我带来的东西All right,so who here loves music?Who here has a head?谁喜欢音乐 谁有头All right,Dr.Dre made the greatest headphones.德鲁士的耳机最棒了Youre all going to go home with beat solo 2 headphones by Dr.Dre!你们都能带回家 德鲁士的独奏2耳机201610/471773芜湖做包茎手术得多少钱

皖南第二附属医院男科电话芜湖治疗尿道炎专业医院 Well, last time I was here wait from the show,上次我来这等节目的时候I.. I got court.. court side tickets to a Laker game.我拿了票去看湖人球赛Thats fun. Yeah, cause my...my business agent thought I was mad at him for sexually harassing me.那挺有意思的 对 因为 我的代理人以为我生他的气 因为他性骚扰我Well. - No, but Im like 33 So Im just starting to really appreciate that.好吧 不 因为像我这种33岁的女人 我得庆幸 有人还会性骚扰我You know what I mean? I see. I see.你知道什么意思吗 我知道Well its sure I cant speak for everyone,Im not like ;Sexual her up.; But,当然 不是每个人都这样 我不是那种欲求不满的人 但是in your 20s you feel like you walk around,like walk past a construction site,你二十几岁的时候外出被骚扰 就比如说经过工地you become like, oh, like dont...But then in your 30s.你会说 不要 不要啊 但是当你上了三十多了You know Im just like.. ;What about this?; Like, ;How about...; Yep.你就会像这样 老娘这里性感吗 这里呢 对Its like my skirts over my head, and Im like ;Uh;.然后把裙子撩过头顶They are like ;We are eating.;But um....it changes, it really does.他们一脸嫌弃地说 别闹了 吃饭呢 但是 二十岁和三十岁肯定是不一样的It changes so... I.. I got court-side seats,变化很大 我拿到了场边票Which youve sat at court side at a game, right? I have.你也是场边票吧 对I thought there will be free boos.Um... Its not. Its not.我以为 会有人对我吹口哨呢 然而 是我想太多I used to get beyond the team to get free boos. So,I go,我靠近球队 为了赢得欢呼 所以我就去了I get randomly sit next to see Diana Agron.我随便一坐 靠着戴安娜?阿格龙You know the actor shes on Glee.Shes the cheeerleader queen.她出演过;欢乐合唱团; 她是拉拉队女王I bet you know how hot she is.我知道你们都认为她超性感Yeah, there we go, there is the picture,thanks for.... Yes, isnt that great?对 就是这样 这是拍到的照片 还真得谢谢了 是不是很女神Shes like the most gorgeous girl ever.她看起来真是美翻了Her name was Queen on that show to pull off that name在这场比赛中完美诠释了女王这一头衔Like if my name was queen on the show Theyd be like,如果我是比赛中的女王 他们肯定会这样;Oh, the jolly Irish crowns keeper that...;Does it Jim tie it again, you know.那个欢脱的爱尔兰人拿着 要是再弄一遍 /201603/429496芜湖东方医院电话号码

芜湖治疗非淋的费用Thousands of miners in the north-eastern Chinese city of Shuangyashan staged protests over unpaid wages. The state-owned company they work for has suffered because of falling demand for its coal as Chinas economy slows.中国东北双鸭山市发生大规模矿工讨薪抗议活动。随着中国经济增长放缓,市场对煤的需求下降,矿工所属的国有公司一直处于亏损状态。Taiwans president-elect, Tsai Ing-wen, named a former minister of finance, Lin Chuan, as the countrys next prime minister. Ms Tsai and Mr Lin will take office on May 20th when President Ma Ying-jeous term ends.台湾当选总统蔡英文任命前财长林全担任本届政府阁揆。现任总统马英九将于5月20日结束任期,届时蔡林二人将正式上任。Angela Merkel, Germanys chancellor, and her European Union counterparts met to discuss a deal with Turkey, the main transit country for migrants making their way to Greece and beyond. Agreement is near, but controversial: Turkey must take back migrants from Greece; in return the EU must take an equal number from refugee camps in Turkey. In Germany anti-immigrant parties made significant gains in local elections.德国总理默克尔与欧盟其他领导人同土耳其就难民问题商讨协议。土耳其为难民入欧的主要通道,难民由此进入希腊,到达欧洲各地。目前各国已基本达成一致,但尚存在分歧——土耳其必须从希腊接回难民,作为交换条件,欧盟将从土耳其难民营接收同等数额难民。德国国内反难民政党的民众持率正日益上升。A bomb in Ankara killed 37 people, the third attack in Turkeys capital within five months. A Kurdish militant group claimed responsibility for the attack. Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the president, called for terrorism to be redefined. There should be no difference, he said, between “a terrorist holding a gun or a bomb and those who use their position or pen to support terror”.土耳其首都安卡拉目前发生一起爆炸事件,已造成37人死亡,这是近五个月以来第三次恐怖袭击事件,系一库尔德军事组织所为。土耳其总统埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)称需重新定义恐怖主义,“持或携带炸弹的恐怖分子与利用自己的地位和文字鼓动恐怖主义的人并无二致”。A shoot-out took place at a flat in Brussels, Belgiums capital, as police hunted for suspected terrorists. The raid was linked to the search for the remaining perpetrators of the Paris attacks last November by Islamic State, which killed 130 people. Four police officers were shot and wounded in the exchange of fire and one suspect, an Algerian living illegally in Belgium, was killed. Two other suspects escaped.比利时首都布鲁塞尔一民居内发生战,警方正在搜捕嫌疑恐怖分子。据悉参加战者与去年十一月实施巴黎恐袭(已造成130人死亡)的逃亡者存在联系,均系极端恐怖组织IS成员。在激战中,四名警方人员遭射伤。一名嫌疑人系非法滞留比利时的阿尔及利亚人,目前已被射杀,另两名嫌疑人已逃脱。The introduction of a new tax on sugary drinks was the highlight of the British governments budget. A 330ml can of Coke exceeds by a sixth the recommended daily amount of sugar for a child. Although a similar tax in Mexico has had a noticeable effect on sales, research suggests the benefits in Britain may be bittersweet, as such drinks make up less than 20% of Britons added-sugar intake..英国开始实施对含糖饮料征税,此举让英国政府预算备受关注。一听330毫升的可口可乐含糖量超过儿童日摄入量六分之一。尽管此前墨西哥实施的类似法案对含糖饮料的销量产生了冲击,但研究者称英国的收获或将喜忧参半——该类饮料的收入占英国添加糖分饮料总收入的一成多。Protesters in cities across Brazil demanded the impeachment of the president, Dilma Rousseff; at least 500,000 people took to the streets of S?o Paulo alone. Ms Rousseffs Workers Party and its coalition allies are enmeshed in a bribery scandal and the country is going through the worst recession since the 1930s. But in a defiant mood, Ms Rousseff appointed Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, a former president, to her cabinet, meaning any charges he faces can be tried only in the supreme court.巴西各地发生大规模游行示威活动,要求罢免现任总统迪尔马·罗塞夫(Dilma Rousseff)。仅圣保罗市有至少50万人占领了街道。一方面罗塞夫总统率领的劳工党及其联合政党深陷贿赂丑闻,另一方面巴西正在经历自上世纪30年代以来最严重的经济衰退。罗塞夫逆民意而行之,任命前总统路易斯·伊纳西奥·卢拉·达席尔瓦(Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva)作为其内阁成员。这意味着,无论卢拉遭受何种质询,只有最高法院有资格审讯他。America loosened restrictions on travel to, and transactions with, Cuba ahead of Barack Obamas visit. Americans will now be permitted to go to Cuba on their own, rather than as part of an organisation for educational purposes.美国在奥巴马总统访古之前放宽与古巴的通航和交易限令。美国公民现今可不再以教育组织成员的身份自由出入古巴。Colombias president, Juan Manuel Santos, and the leader of the FARC guerrilla group, Rodrigo Londoio, said they will miss a self-imposed deadline of March 23rd for signing a peace agreement. The postponement means that the deal will not be signed when Mr Obama is in Havana, where the peace talks are taking place.哥伦比亚总统胡安·曼努埃尔·桑托斯(Juan Manuel Santos)与该国革命武装力量(FARC)游击队领导人罗德里格·隆多尼奥共同宣称无法在预计的3月23日之前签署和平协议。此次延期表明在美国总统奥巴马访问哈瓦那(Havana)期间将不会签署和平协议。哈瓦那系哥国双方领导人和平谈判所在地。 翻译:张力文 赵悦 校对:林朵朵译文属译生译世201603/434215 Lexington莱克星顿Fun on a budget预算趣录Congress is incapable of restraining spending. It should let the president try国会无力控制开,也许该放手让总统一试AT THE end of Barack Obamas budget, which was published on February 2nd, the administration thanks 614 people by name for putting the thing together. It adds that “hundreds, perhaps thousands” of nameless others also helped. There is something depressing about the effort that went into producing the document. The budget is an admirable piece of work which contains many good ideas, from cuts in farm subsidies to an increase in tax credits for childless workers. There is, however, a grammatical mistake repeated throughout it. “The budget will”, the president writes, when what he means is that his budget would, in the unlikely event that Congress were ever to pass it.奥巴马总统的财政年度预算于2月2日公布,在预算案的最后,政府向614人致谢,感谢他们为预算案形成所作出的贡献。它也指出“成百甚至上万的无名之士同样做出了贡献”。但为文件形成所付出的努力中,有一些让人沮丧的部分。从削减农产品补助到增加对无子工人的免税额度,该份预算案包含了许多好想法,堪称一项壮举。但却有一个语法错误贯穿始终。总统写道“预算案将……”,但其实,他是想说,预算案幻想,因为国会绝不会通过该项议案。As a guide to what the federal government might look like if America were a monarchy, or as a compendium of interesting policies, the presidents budget is a good —but not much more. A similar criticism applies to most proposals that come out of the budget committees in Congress. This is because no group or individual is responsible for the 4 trillion federal budget, a fact that helps explain how it manages to be both profligate and stingy, and is forever in the red.如果这项议案是作为一本指南,描述美国如果是一个君主制国家将会如何,或者是一本大纲,介绍有趣的政策,那这会是一本佳作,但这项议案的功能,仅此而已。国会的预算委员会出台的提案,也大多如此。这是因为没有任何团体或个人直接对四万亿的联邦预算负责,这个事实也说明了为什么政府既挥霍无度又吝啬小气,而且长期处于赤字。The presidents budget would not change that. He has declared an end to “mindless austerity”, but does not seem to care much for the thoughtful sort either. In previous budgets he offered to trim entitlements a bit in return for tax increases. Republicans in Congress rejected this, and Democrats who supported the presidents budget were rewarded with attack adverts in the mid-terms claiming that they wanted to raise the retirement age and slash Medicare. He now proposes higher taxes, more spending and continued deficits. Public debt would stay at its current level, around 75% of GDP, for the next decade. By 2025, according to the bipartisan Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget, annual interest payments would rise from 1.3% to 2.8% of GDP (nearly 800 billion, or enough to pay a years tuition at Harvard, at current prices and with no financial aid, for 18m students).奥巴马总统的预算案亦不能扭转乾坤。他叫停了“愚蠢的紧缩”,但却似乎也不想做出什么深思熟虑的安排。在之前的预算案中,他提议削减福利开开增加税收。国会中的共和党对此表示反对,而持预算案的民主党人所得到的回报,是在中期选举时,他们受到负面宣传的攻击,称他们想要提高退休年龄并削减医疗保险。如今,总统提议提高进一步提高税率,增加开,继续赤字局面。在接下来的十年,国债继续保持在国民生产总值的75%左右,基本不变。据两党共同参与的尽责联邦预算委员会,在2025年之前,利息在国民生产总值中所占的比例将从1.3%上升到2.8%,约8000亿美元,按照当前物价水平,在不考虑任何助学金的情况下,足够为1800万学生付哈佛大学一年的学费。Mr Obamas tax-and-spend priorities may be regrettable but they matter little in practice, because no president really controls how much his administration spends. The presidents budget was an innovation of the 1920s. Before then, Congress set the budget as the Founders, ever suspicious of a strong central authority, intended. This worked well until the civil war, when the federal governments principal peacetime duties were to run customs houses and post offices and to give away land. By the beginning of the 20th century the federal government had become much more complicated. The first world war increased federal spending from 726m to 18.5 billion in five years (17.2 billion and 253 billion in todays money.) In 1921 an overwhelmed Congress asked the president to submit a budget for the first time.奥巴马一直增加税收来为政府开买单也许可悲可叹,但它的实际意义其实有限,这是因为没有任何一届美国总统,能够真正决定自己政府的开。奥巴马总统的预算案也不过是上世纪20年代预算案的一次翻新。在此之前,国会的预算案一直与对强有力中央集权心存疑虑的开国者的设计保持一致。在内战之前,这一直运行良好,但内战之后,联邦政府在和平时代的要务开始变成经营海关邮局及分发土地。20世纪处,联邦政府的职能变得更加复杂起来。一战让国家的开在五年时间里从7,2600万美元增加到1850亿美元(按照如今的通胀水平,分别是172亿美元和2530亿美元)。1921年,不知所措的国会首次要求总统递交预算案。Since then every president has done so, but the exercise has become drained of meaning since Congress took power over the budget back. This evil can be traced to Watergate. Richard Nixon, worried about inflation and the deficit, decided not to spend all the money Congress had appropriated. At one point he vetoed nine spending bills in one go. Congress took advantage of the scandal that was enveloping the president to reduce his control over federal spending in the 1974 Budget Act. Nixon duly signed the law in July and resigned the following month.自那以后,历届总统都开始递交预算案,但从国会开始重掌预算后,这一举措已经失去了意义。祸根应该说是在水门时代埋下的。理查德·尼克松因担心通货膨胀和财政赤字,决定不把国会批准的资金出一空。他对开议案的否决率一度达到90%。在《1974年国会预算法案》中,国会利用总统的丑闻,减少了他对国家开的控制权。7月份,尼克松总统尽责地签署了这一法案后,8月即辞去总统职务。One of the new laws stated aims was to control the deficit, but it has had the opposite effect. From 1950 to 1974 the deficit averaged 0.7% of GDP; since Congress retook control it has averaged 3.2%. Part of the problem is that the budget Congress comes up with only covers a fraction of what the federal government actually spends. Over 1 trillion of tax expenditures—rebates on anything from mortgage-interest payments to health-insurance plans provided by companies for employees—are excluded. Another 2 trillion is off-limits because it is classified as mandatory spending. The staggering sums pumped into entitlement programmes (Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid) increase every year on the accounting equivalent of cruise control, with no need for a vote. Since the youngest of the baby-boomers are now in their early 50s, and since no politician would dare touch the benefits of those close to retirement, Americas biggest generation has now protected itself from cuts to Social Security.这项新法案的其中一个明确目标就是控制财政赤字,但它却起到了反效果。从1950年到1974年,赤字水平平均约为国民生产总值的0.7%,国会掌权后,这一数字上升到平均3.2%。原因之一在于国会提出的预算案仅仅涵盖了政府实际出的小部分。高达一万亿的税式出,不管是按揭利率还是公司为雇员购买健康保险计划所带来的退税,都无法被预算所涵盖。但另有两万亿的出却因为被归类为法定出而无上限。数目惊人的资金有如被自动控速系统控制般,每年强力注入福利项目(社保、医疗保险和医疗补助等)的资金年年增加,连投票的必要都省去了。出生于二战后生育高峰的人们现在均50岁出头,所有的政客都不敢触及他们的退休等利益,美国人数最庞大一代才得以逃过社保被削减的命运。Bring back Dick总统归来As entitlement spending has risen, it has squeezed the other bits of the budget. What remains is just over 1 trillion in discretionary spending: 6.5% of GDP, or less than a third of the total spent by the federal government. This is up for discussion every year. The resulting compromise is known as the budget, but that gives an inflated sense of what it really is.随着福利开的增加,预算案中的其他开项变得紧张起来。除掉福利开,可自由配的开仅有一万亿美元,约为国民生产总值的6.5%,不到政府开总额的三分之一。每年,这个问题都被反复讨论。随之而来的妥协就是所谓的预算案,但预算案的实际意义是被夸大的。According to textbooks the budget is a thing jointly agreed by both houses of Congress and then signed by the president by the end of September each year. This is how the budget has worked six times in the past 40 years. The rest of the time it has often consisted of last-minute negotiations to avoid a government shutdown or a breach of the debt ceiling. Agreement is reached only by putting off difficult decisions indefinitely. Attempts by well-intentioned super-committees and gangs of congressmen to get to something more thoughtful have come to nothing. This failure to steer the budget has been bipartisan. Since 1974 the federal government has run a deficit in all but four years, 1998-2001. Now that both the House and the Senate are controlled by Republicans the budget should be more orderly, but the process must be made to work when Congress is divided.在过去40年间,生效6次的预算案的标准定义是,由国会两院通过,由总统在每年九月末签署的文件。在其他的年间,预算案经常还包括为避免政府停摆或突破债务上限而在最后一刻达成的协商部分。另外,要达成共识,必须要无期限地延后艰难决定的做出。用意良好的超级委员或国会议员们每一次试图达成更深谋远虑的目标,均无果而终。预算案难以改变的结局是由两党共同造成的。自1974年开始,只有1998到2001四年间,联邦政府不是以赤字交卷的。如今既然参众两院都由共和党掌权,预算应该更加有序,但这一过程必须要等到国会被分成两派后才行得通。One solution would be to forgive Nixon and hand back some authority to the executive. Another would be to make the presidents budget the default one unless Congress can agree, by a simple majority, on something else. That would stop the proliferation of no-compromise budgets, and would make a president content with a budget forever in deficit a figure from the past.解决方案之一是宽恕尼克松总统的错误,将部分权力还给执政者。另一个解决方案是除非国会能以简单的多数达成共识,否则就不实行总统的预算案。这能够防止不不妥协不让步预算案影响力的扩散,并且这样一个按照过去标准,永远是赤字的预算标准,也能够让总统感到满意。翻译:杨雪 校对:靳方方译文属译生译世 /201503/363836芜湖丰瑞医院看男科贵不贵芜湖市中医医院男科医生



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