2019年08月20日 18:25:05|来源:国际在线|编辑:安心活动
Since the mid-1800#39;s,Adelaide#39;s mammal diversity has fallen by more than a quarter,New York City has lost nearly half of its native plants,and at least 25 species of butterflies have disappeared from Rome.Our concrete jungles can be hard on wildlife,but there are plants and animals that survive-even thrive-in them.从19世纪中叶起,阿德莱德的物种数量下降了超过1/4,纽约近半数本土植物已不见踪影,至少25种蝴蝶也消失在罗马城内,我们的水泥城墙让野生动物受尽折磨,不过,也有一些动植物能在其中生存,甚至壮大。Some lucky species happen to be naturally suited to cities.For instance,English ivy and rock pigeons climb and roost on vertical structures like trees and cliffs anyway,so brick walls and sky-high ledges are fine substitutes.And omnivorous raccoons thrive on an endless buffet of everything from corn chips to cockroaches,helping them live ten times more densely in cities than in woodland habitats.某些幸运物种天生就适合在城市生活,如英国的常春藤和原鸽可攀附于,竖直的结构上,如树和悬崖,砖墙和屋檐正恰到好处,杂食性浣熊什么都能吃,无论炸玉米片还是,使其种群密度双林地中高出10倍。Natural flexibility can also help animals cope with the streeses of metropolitan living:coyotes that colonize cities often become more nocturnal to minimize their encounters with humans.Most species can#39;t adopt an urban lifestyle so easily.But over several generations,genetic change can help some populations evolve into city slicker.自然适应性也可帮助动物适应大城市的生活压力,占据城市的土狼更常在夜间活动,以尽量少与人类碰面,大多数物种并不能轻松适应城市生活,不过几代后,基因改变,有助于某些群体适应城市生活。New York City#39;s white-footed mice are one example:DNA sequencing suggests that these urban dweller#39;s genes differ from their country cousins#39;in more than 30 significant ways.We don#39;t yet know exactly what effects these changes have,but we know they#39;ve shown up in genes involved in fighting disease and processing toxins,traits that likely help mice survive in crowded landscapes.纽约白足鼠就是如此,DNA测序说明“城里人”基因与“乡里人”的不同,体现在30多处地方,我们仍不知这些变化会带来什么影响,但我们知道,它们出现在抵御疾病,处理毒素的基因中,这些特征很可能帮助老鼠在钢筋水泥间活下来。We usually think of evolution as a slow process,so evolving fast enough to keep up with urbanization may seem like a tall order.But when a big challenge spring up suddenly.an uncommon trait that helps individuals cope can become the genetic norm surpringingly fast expecially in speedy breeders because those without it may not get a chance to reproduce.我们常认为进化过程很慢,跟紧城市化步伐的快速进化似乎是天方夜谭,不过,巨大挑战来袭之下,较少见有助于适应的特征将很快成为常态基因,快速繁殖动物尤其如此,因为没有这种能力就没有机会繁殖。For example after factories dumped thousands of tons of toxic PCBS into the Hudson River in the mid-twentieth century.it took just just six decades for 99 percent of the local tomcod to evolve a protective mutation that blocks the toxin from entering their cells.And in Montpelier,France,it#39;s taken fewer than 12 years for urban weeds to start producing a larger proportion of heavy seeds,boosting their odds of settling in a patch of nearby soil instead of crash-landing on concrete.例如 21世纪中期,当工厂向哈得孙河排放数千吨,有毒PCB后,当地99%的鳕鱼仅花了60年,就进化出能阻止有毒物质进入细胞的保护性变异,在法国蒙彼利埃,市区内的野草不到12年内就开始长出,大多较沉的种子,显著提高种子落在附近土壤,而非混凝圭土的几率。As urban and rural populations diverge genetically and geographically,there#39;s even a chance that some species could split in two.This doesn#39;t mean that cities are a boon for biodiversity,but they aren#39;t biological dead zones either-they#39;re more like accidental laboratories where the limits of life#39;s adjustability are being tested...and tasted.城市郊区种群在基因和地理上渐行渐远,甚至一些物种可能分为两种,这不是说城市有利于生物多样性,亦非城市是生物的“死区”,它更像是充江满偶然的实验室,生物极限适应性在其中,不断被探索,品味。 Article/201505/373540

Over 1,100 die in heat wave across India酷暑“烤”验印度 已致超过1100人死亡A heat wave is continuing to scorch India. It has now killed over 1,100 people, with most of the victims in the southern states.今年印度部分地区持续高温天气造成死亡人数已超过1100人。其中大多数受害者生活在南方各地。People are doing all they can to cope with the sweltering heat as temperatures soar to nearly 50 degrees Celsius in some places.一些地方气温迅速攀升至近50摄氏度,人们想尽一切办法进行解暑。In the most severely affected states-Andhra Pradesh and Telangana-more than 330 and 200 people respectively have died.在受影响最为严重的安得拉邦和特仑甘纳两个地区各造成330多人及200多人死亡。The government has announced that compensation of 1,500 US dollars will be given to the families of the deceased.印度政府已宣布为死者家属提供1500美元的补偿金。The Indian weather department has issued a red alert for these two states and has forecast that the heat wave will be lingering.印度气象部门已经在这两个地区发出红色警报并且预测高温热潮将会持续一段时间。 Article/201505/377550

Then, for four days, they are given cooked yams to eat.接下来的4天里 他们为小鼠提供熟番薯The impact on their bodies is startling and immediate.这对它们身体的影响是令人吃惊与即刻的These mice have got activity wheels,小鼠们都配有活动轮which enable us to monitor how far they go every day.我们可以借此了解它们每天行走的路程They can go kilometres every day.它们一天能走上千米By the time we#39;ve totted up当我们合计how many wheel rotations have been conducted by each mouse,小鼠们行走的总圈数时then the ones that ate the cooked food went significantly further发现比起吃生食的小鼠than the ones that ate they raw food.吃熟食的小鼠明显的走得更远They had more energy and travelled further.它们有更多的体力 因此走得更远Although they used up so much more energy,尽管它们消耗掉了大量体力by the end of the four days,4天之后的称量结果显示the mice which ate the cooked food, did not lose weight.吃熟食的小鼠并没有体重下降的现象In fact, they got fatter.实际情况是 它们还变重了Here we#39;re seeing that mice that eat their food cooked,我们观测到 吃熟食的小鼠are getting more energy than mice that eat the same food raw.比吃同种生食的小鼠 获得了更多的能量 Article/201505/376035

One of the sheriffs came to me and said, #39;You#39;ve got the best seat in the house. #39;有名警员过来对我说 你的位子最好And l said, ;Why?;And he said, Because you#39;re sitting right behind Michael.我问 为什么? 他回答 因为你就坐在他后方;And when we find him guilty,等到定罪时;We#39;re going to get him out of there so fast that your head#39;s gonna spin.我们架他出去的速度 会快到让你来不及反应These people had aly decided that Michael was guilty.他们早就已经判了他的罪And they were sure of it,而且还这么笃定so sure that they had an exit plan to get him out of there.笃定到连架他出去的路线都想好了Michael came into the courtroom and he looked like he was on serious drugs.迈克尔走进法庭时看上去像是嗑了药He really, truly looked like a dead man walking.宛如行尸走肉般lt was a tense moment, you know,那是很紧张的一刻the entire world stopped to watch what was gonna happen好像整个世界都停摆了 等着目睹to the best known celebrity, a musical genius, Michael Jackson.国际巨星与音乐鬼才 迈克尔·杰克逊的下场That was such an awfully emotional day, you just didn#39;t know what to expect.那真的是很紧张的一天 没人能预料结果 Article/201511/408447

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