时间:2019年05月22日 11:01:30

A few years ago, the Chinese writer Murong Xuecun had the kind of career most novelists dream about. His eight books had sold two million copies in China, and he had amassed more than eight million social media followers.几年前,中国作家慕容雪村取得了大多数小说家梦寐以求的事业成就。他写的八本书在中国卖出了200万册,他的社交媒体账户吸引了逾800万名粉丝。But in 2011, he decided to stop publishing. He was afraid of running afoul of Chinese censors, and was even more concerned about the self-censorship that had crept into his work. Now he wishes he had never published some of his earlier books, which tiptoed around political issues.但在2011年,他决定停止出版书籍,他担心与中国审查机构起冲突,甚至更担心已经侵入他作品的自我审查。他现在想,自己当初不应该出版某些早期的作品,那些作品小心翼翼地避开了政治议题。“When I look back on them, I feel ashamed of myself,” said Mr. Murong, 41, who lives in Beijing and whose real name is Hao Qun.今年41岁的慕容雪村说,“当我回过头看这些书时,感到很惭愧。”慕容雪村住在北京,本名郝群。Mr. Murong was among a handful of writers who gathered on the steps of the New York Public Library on Wednesday night to protest the limits on free speech and expression in China. The gathering, organized by the PEN American Center, was prompted by the presence of a large delegation of Chinese publishers at BookExpo America, a major publishing trade event taking place in Manhattan this week.周三晚间,数名作家聚集在纽约公共图书馆(New York Public Library)的台阶上,抗议中国限制言论自由和表达的举措,慕容雪村也在其中。庞大的中国出版商代表团来到曼哈顿,参加于本周举办的重要出版业活动美国书展(BookExpo America)。中国代表团的到来,促使美国笔会中心(PEN American Center)组织作家参加这次集会。The juxtaposition was striking. This week, thousands of booksellers, librarians, publishers and authors mingled at BookExpo, at the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, where Chinese publishers were being feted as international guests of honor. To mark the event, the Chinese government sent a 500-person delegation from 100 publishing houses, and 26 of its top authors. Chinese publishers claimed close to 25,000 square feet of floor space at the hall and planned 50 events around the city, including poetry ings, film screenings, author panels and presentations from its largest publishers.两种活动的并置产生了鲜明的反差。本周,数以千计的书商、图书馆负责人、出版商和作家汇聚在雅各布·K·贾维茨会议中心(Jacob K. Javits Convention Center)参加书展,中国出版商作为国际贵宾受到盛情招待。为了庆祝这一活动,中国政府派出了由100家出版公司的500名人员及26名顶级作家组成的代表团参展。中国出版商在展厅中占据了大约2.5万平方英尺(约合2300平方米)的展位,还计划在全市各地举办50场活动,包括诗歌朗诵、电影放映、作家座谈及大型出版商的展示活动。Not many blocks away, Mr. Murong stood on the library steps and aloud from an open letter he had written to Chinese censors in 2013, after his social media account was blocked and its contents deleted. “You treat literature as poison and free speech as a crime,” he said.在距离该中心几个街区远的地方,慕容雪村站在图书馆的台阶上,大声朗读2013年自己的社交媒体账号被禁,内容被删除后写给中国监管机构的公开信。他说,“你们把文学当成毒药,把言论当成犯罪。”He was joined by prominent American writers like Jonathan Franzen, Paul Auster, Francine Prose and A. M. Homes, and by the China-born novelists Ha Jin and Xiaolu Guo. They took turns ing works by Chinese authors who are in prison or under house arrest for their writing, including the Tibetan poet Tsering Woeser, the writer Liu Xia and her husband, the poet and Nobel Peace Prize winner Liu Xiaobo, who is serving an 11-year prison sentence for subversion.与他一同抗议的有乔纳森·弗兰岑(Jonathan Franzen)、保罗·奥斯特(Paul Auster)、弗朗辛·普罗斯(Francine Prose)和A·M·霍姆斯(A.M. Homes)等美国作家,以及在中国出生的小说家哈金和郭小橹。他们轮流朗读因为写作而被监禁或软禁的中国作家的作品,比如藏族诗人茨仁唯色(Tsering Woeser),作家刘霞及丈夫——诗人、诺贝尔和平奖得主刘晓波。刘晓波以颠覆国家罪被判11年监禁,目前正在刑。“There are all of these writers in China who are in jeopardy for expressing themselves, and if you have a government-sanctioned delegation, you’re only getting part of the story,” said Suzanne Nossel, executive director of the PEN American Center, an organization that promotes free speech.美国笔会的负责人苏珊·诺塞尔(Suzanne Nossel)表示,“有那么多中国作家因为自我表达而陷入危险,如果请来一个政府持的代表团,那你只能听到故事的一部分。”该组织提倡言论自由。BookExpo’s organizers called China’s featured role at the expo an unprecedented and historic meeting between the world’s two largest publishing industries.书展的组织者称,中国在书展上扮演重要角色,代表着世界上两大出版产业前所未有的历史性会面。“We’re going to remember this for a generation, because it’s going to be the beginning of opening some doors,” said Steve Rosato, the event director for BookExpo. He said the event was not an appropriate forum to address censorship.书展活动总监史蒂夫·罗萨托(Steve Rosato)说,“整整一代人都会记住这场活动,因为这将是开启某些大门的起点。”他表示,该活动不是讨论审查问题的恰当场合。“We’re not in the position to do anything around that,” he said when asked about PEN America’s objections. “China is a significant market and they represent a significant trade opportunity.”“我们不适合针对那个问题做任何事,”他在被问及美国笔会的目标时说。“中国是一个重要的市场,他们代表着重要的贸易机会。”China’s prominence at this year’s BookExpo highlights both the growing interplay between Chinese publishers and the international literary community, and the difficulties of doing business when standards for freedom of expression differ significantly.中国在今年书展中的显著地位突显了中国出版商与国际文学界日益加强的相互作用,以及在言论自由标准存在巨大差异的情况下开展商业合作的难度。China has accelerated its effort to export books and authors as part of a broader strategy to exert “soft power” by raising its cultural profile internationally. Chinese publishers have heavily promoted their catalogs at the London and Frankfurt book fairs in recent years.为了在国际上提升文化形象,从而发挥“软实力”,中国加快了出口图书、推广作家的步伐。中国出版商最近几年在伦敦及法兰克福书展上都大力推广他们的书目。Major deals are taking place between American and Chinese content companies. Earlier this year, the American e-book distributor Trajectory signed a deal with a Chinese digital company, Tencent, to distribute Tencent’s catalog of 200,000 Chinese e-books in North and South America.美国和中国的内容出版公司进行了一些重大交易。今年早些时候,美国电子书经销商Trajectory与中国数码公司腾讯签订了一项协议,打算在北美和南美销售腾讯的20万本中文电子书。“Western publishers are interested in getting access to the Chinese market, and the Chinese government is interested in getting more authors known in the West,” said Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, a history professor at the University of California, Irvine, and author of “China in the 21st Century.”加州大学欧文分校的历史教授华志坚(Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom)说,“西方出版商有进入中国市场的兴趣,中国政府也想让西方了解更多的中国作家。”华志坚著有《21世纪的中国》(China in the 21st Century)。Some American publishers say that their business is booming in China and that they have not faced significant government interference.一些美国出版商称,他们的业务在中国得到了迅猛发展,而且他们并未受到政府的大力干涉。“The Chinese appetite for Western books is really impressive,” said Niko Pfund, president of Oxford University Press. “I’ve been amazed and pleasantly surprised by how smooth and uncomplicated it has been.”“中国对西方图书的兴趣真的令人印象深刻,”牛津大学出版社(Oxford University Press)社长尼科·丰德(Niko Pfund)说。“事情的顺利和便捷让我又惊又喜。”The Chinese book business has ballooned into an billion industry, the second largest after the ed States. Chinese publishers released 444,000 titles in 2013, up from around 328,000 in 2010. The country is adding around 20 million new English speakers a year.中国的图书产业迅速发展成了一个价值80亿美元(约合496亿元人民币)的行业,其规模仅次于美国,在世界上排名第二。2013年,中国出版商推出了44.4万本书,而2010年仅有大概32.8万本。每年,中国都会新增约2000万名会讲英语的人。Chinese publishers have been eagerly acquiring Western titles, especially by British and American authors. In 2013, they bought the rights to more than 16,000 foreign books, including nearly 5,500 from America, more than double the number purchased a decade earlier. HarperCollins exported around 9,700 English-language titles to China in 2014, and cites China as one of its fastest growing international markets. Business books and children’s books are among the most popular categories, it says.中国出版商一直在积极引进西方图书,尤其是英国和美国作家的书。2013年,它们购买了16000余本外国图书的版权,其中将近5500本来自美国,与10年前的购买量相比增加了一倍还多。2014年,哈珀科林斯(Harper Collins)向中国输出了大约9700本英文图书,并指出中国是它增长最快的国际市场之一。它说,商业书籍和儿童图书最受欢迎。Penguin Random House said that it exported more than 50,000 of its English-language print and e-book editions to China annually.企鹅兰登书屋(Penguin Random House)称,它每年会向中国出口5万余本英文纸质书和电子书。“Chinese people are very curious about culture in other countries,” Wu Xiaoping, president of Phoenix International Publishing Group, said in an interview through a translator after appearing on a panel at BookExpo. “There will be more and better relationships between Chinese and U.S. publishers.”“中国人对外国文化非常好奇,”凤凰国际出版公司(Phoenix International Publishing Group)总经理吴小平在书展的一场讨论会结束后,通过翻译接受采访时说。“中国和美国出版商之间的关系会愈发密切和友好。”When asked whether certain topics were off limits for writers and if his publishing house adhered to government guidelines, he replied, “No comment.”当被问到一些话题的写作是否受限,以及他的出版社是否需要遵守政府规定时候,他回答道,“无可奉告。”In China, censorship — and, more commonly, self-censorship — has long been a feature of the publishing industry, which is controlled by the ruling Communist Party. The government’s roughly 580 state-run publishing houses ensure that domestic fare does not broach so-called sensitive topics: gay rights, the discontent of China’s ethnic minorities, and the bloody crackdown on pro-democracy protests of 1989.在中国,审查——以及更为常见的自我审查——一直是出版行业的特色。该行业一直处于执政党中国共产党的控制之下。中国政府共有大约580所国有出版社,可以保国内出版的书籍不提及所谓的敏感话题,如同性恋权利、中国少数民族的不满,以及1989年针对民主抗议活动的血腥镇压。“Chinese censorship works before the writer even starts writing,” said Bao Pu, publisher of the New Century Press in Hong Kong, who participated in the PEN event. “Why write a piece that you know will never get published?”“甚至早在作者动笔之前,中国的审查过程就开始了,”参加笔会活动的香港新世纪出版社出版人鲍朴称。“人们为什么要写明知永远无法出版的作品呢?”Western writers who publish their work in China are not immune to the country’s more rigid standards. Some, like the scholar Ezra F. Vogel, have reluctantly cooperated with publishing house censors. The mainland Chinese version of his biography on Deng Xiaoping omitted a number of adjectives about Mao Zedong and entire passages about Deng, but Mr. Vogel has said that the deletions were necessary to reach an audience hungry for mostly unexpurgated history about their country.在中国出版作品的西方作者也无法逃脱中国更为严苛的标准所带来的影响。例如,学者傅高义(Ezra F. Vogel)就不情愿地与出版社的审查者进行了合作。他写了一本邓小平传记,但这本书的大陆版省略了一些关于毛泽东的形容词,还删节了一整段关于邓小平的内容。但傅高义表示,为了让那些对本国基本完整的历史如饥似渴的读者读到这本书,这些删节是必要的。In a few cases, writers have backed out of publishing deals rather than submit to censorship. Evan Osnos, the author of “Age of Ambition,” a book about economic and social change in China, decided not to publish a translation in mainland China after editors there told him they would delete references to the artist Ai Weiwei and Mr. Liu, the jailed Nobel Peace Prize winner. “To me, making those cuts wouldn’t be engaging Chinese ers, it would be isolating them,” he said in an email.少数情况下,作者没有向审查屈,而是选择了放弃出版交易。《野心时代》(Age of Ambition)的作者欧逸文(Evan Osnos)决定不在中国出版此书的译本,因为编辑此前告诉他,他们要删去关于艺术家艾未未和仍处于监禁之中的诺贝尔和平奖得主刘晓波的内容。这本书讲的是中国在经济和社会方面的变化。他在一封电子邮件中说,“在我看来,删除这些内容并不是在与中国读者交流,而是会把他们孤立起来。”Other writers were never consulted about changes made to their work, and learned only after publication. The writer Andrew Solomon was infuriated to learn that “The Noonday Demon,” his book about depression, had been altered without his approval, omitting his references to being gay.还有些作者在作品出版前根本不知道作品内容的变动,直到作品出版后才知道。当《正午的恶魔》(The Noonday Demon)一书——这是一本关于抑郁症的书——的作者安德鲁·索罗门(Andrew Solomon)得知自己的书在未经他允许的情况下被更改之后十分生气,更改后的版本删除了他提到自己是同性恋的内容。“I think there’s a suggestion that because China is an enormous market, we have to defer to the Chinese internal standards of censorship,” Mr. Solomon said. “It’s somewhere between na#239;ve and hypocritical to engage with China and not acknowledge the severity of this problem.”“我认为,有人会建议,因为中国是个巨大的市场,所以我们必须遵守中国内部的审查标准,”索罗门说。“讨好中国,不承认这个问题的严重性的做法,说好听的叫天真,说难听的叫虚伪。” /201506/378294

The Ebola outbreak is threatening “state failure” in west Africa, the World Health Organisation warned, as the US said it needed to overhaul its management of the virus following the infection of an American nurse.世界卫生组织(WHO)警告说,埃拉(Ebola)病毒的蔓延或将导致西非“政府瘫痪”。与此同时,美国也表示,在一名美国护士感染埃拉病毒后,该国需要彻底整顿对病毒的管控流程。“I have never seen a health event threaten the very survival of societies and governments in aly very poor countries,”#8200;Margaret Chan, director-general of the WHO, said in a statement on Monday. “I have never seen an infectious disease contribute so strongly to potential state failure.”周一,WHO总干事陈冯富珍(Margaret Chan)在一份声明中表示:“我从未见过像埃拉这样,在一个本已十分贫穷的国家,一次健康卫生事件就能威胁到社区和政府存续的情况。我也从未见过一种传染病会如此强烈地增加政府瘫痪的可能性。”The US, meanwhile, vowed to reform its management of Ebola infections after procedures it had previously described as rigorous failed to prevent a healthcare worker from contracting the virus in Texas last week.与此同时,美国也发誓要改革对埃拉病毒感染的管控,原因是上周在德克萨斯,该国自称十分严格的管控流程未能阻止一名医护人员接触到这种病毒。And enhanced screening for Ebola will begin at Britain’s biggest airport on Tuesday as prime minister David Cameron insisted “vigorous steps” were being taken to prevent the deadly virus reaching the UK.英国最大机场周二将启动对埃拉病毒的强化审查机制。与此同时,英国首相戴维#8226;卡梅伦(David Cameron)坚称,英国已采取了“有力措施”,阻止这种致命病毒进入英国。Health secretary Jeremy Hunt said checks would take place at Heathrow’s Terminal 1 before they are expanded to cover Gatwick airport outside London and Eurostar rail terminals linking the UK to the continent by the end of next week.英国卫生大臣杰里米#8226;亨特(Jeremy Hunt)表示,开始将从希斯罗机场(Heathrow Airport)1号航站楼查起。随后,在下周结束之前检查范围会扩大到伦敦之外的盖特威克(Gatwick)机场,以及连接英国与欧洲的欧洲之星(Eurastar)铁路的终点站。Thomas Frieden, head of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said at a press conference on Monday: “We have to rethink how we address Ebola infection control, because even a single infection is unacceptable.”美国疾病控制预防中心(US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)主任托马斯#8226;弗里登(Thomas Frieden)周一在一个记者招待会上表示:“对于我们如何处理埃拉病毒感染事件的管控问题,我们必须予以反思。因为,就算只有一起感染案例,我们也无法接受。”He said CDC was implementing immediate steps to change the way the infected nurse in Dallas was cared for and was examining more profound long-term changes. He also vowed to “double down” on the training given to US hospitals, saying: “Every hospital in this country needs to think about the possibility of Ebola.”他说,该中心正在采取应急措施,调整照看达拉斯受感染护士的方式,并且在考察更为深入的长期性改革举措。此外,他还发誓要“大力加强”对美国医院的培训工作,他表示:“美国每家医院都必须考虑到遇到埃拉病毒患者的可能性。”The nurse, who was named as Nina Pham by US media on Monday, contracted the virus while caring for Thomas Eric Duncan, who died last week after being infected in Liberia before travelling to the US.据美国媒体周一报道,这位被感染的护士名叫尼娜#8226;彭(Nina Pham)。她是在照看托马斯#8226;埃里克#8226;邓肯(Thomas Eric Duncan)时接触到埃拉病毒的。邓肯在进入美国之前在利比里亚感染了埃拉病毒,已在上周去世。Dr Frieden said the new steps included monitoring staff as they remove the protective clothing worn while treating an infected patient, a process that carries its own risks.弗里登表示,新的举措包括对员工脱去防护的过程加强监控,这种防护是员工照看受感染病患时所穿,脱去该防护的过程也有一定受感染风险。CDC was also exploring alternative types of protective equipment and the possible use of virus-killing chemicals to spray people emerging from Ebola containment units, he said.他说,疾控中心还在探索防护设备的替代类型,并有可能对从埃拉隔离区出来的人们采取喷淋杀毒化学药品的措施。At New York’s John F. Kennedy airport the authorities continued to screen air travellers arriving from Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea on Monday. The CDC said so far 91 people had been identified since Saturday and none had a fever or reported exposure to Ebola.周一,在纽约肯尼迪机场(JFK Airport),当局仍在继续检查来自利比里亚、塞拉利昂和几内亚的游客。疾控中心表示,自周六以来,该中心已发现了91名此类旅客,无人存在发烧症状,也没有这些人曾暴露在埃拉病毒之下的报告。Dr Frieden said: “The care of Ebola is hard. We’re working to make it safer and easier.” He said CDC had still not identified how the infected nurse, who wore protective clothing while caring for Mr Duncan, had contracted the virus.弗里登表示:“对埃拉病人的护理工作十分困难,我们正在努力使这一过程变得更加安全方便。”他说,疾控中心仍未确认那位受感染护士是如何接触到这种病毒的,因为她在护理邓肯时已穿上了防护。The death toll from Ebola in west Africa has topped 4,000.目前,在非洲西部地区,埃拉病毒的致死人数已高达4000人。Ms Chan, the WHO chief, said in a statement delivered on her behalf in the Philippines that the “outbreak spotlights the dangers of the world’s growing social and economic inequalities. The rich get the best care. The poor are left to die.”在一份代表她在菲律宾发出的声明中,WHO总干事陈冯富珍表示,“埃拉病毒的蔓延凸显出全球社会和经济不平等日益加剧的风险。富人能得到最好的照看,而穷人则只能等待死亡。”She added: “Decades of neglect of fundamental health systems and services mean that a shock, like an extreme weather event in a changing climate, armed conflict, or a disease run wild, can bring a fragile country to its knees.”她还补充说:“数十年忽视基本医疗体系和务的建设,使得一次冲击就足以让一个脆弱的国家崩溃。这种冲击可能是气候变化大环境下的极端天气事件,可能是武装冲突,也可能是失控的疫情。” /201410/335779

At dinner with a friend the other night, I mentioned that I was giving a talk this week debunking the idea that we need to grow more food on a large scale so we can “feed the nine billion” — the anticipated global population by 2050.不久前和一位朋友共进晚餐时,我提到自己要在本周发表演讲,揭穿这样一个误解:只有大幅提高粮食产量,才能“填饱90亿人的肚子”——90亿是预计中的2050年全球人口。She looked at me, horrified, and said, “But how are you going to produce enough food to feed the hungry?”她非常错愕地看着我,说道:“但如何才能有足够多的粮食,让饿肚子的人吃饱饭呢?”I suggested she try this exercise: “Put yourself in the poorest place you can think of. Imagine yourself in the Democratic Republic of Congo, for example. Now. Are you hungry? Are you going to go hungry? Are you going to have a problem finding food?”我建议她试着感受一下:假设你呆在你想得出来的最贫穷的地方。比方说,假设你正置身于刚果民主共和国(Democratic Republic of Congo)。那么你感觉饿吗?你将会食不果腹吗?找起食物来会有什么问题吗?The answer, obviously, is “no.” Because she — and almost all of you ing this — would be standing in that country with some bills and a wallet filled with credit cards. And you would go buy yourself something to eat.显然是否定的。因为她——以及几乎所有正在阅读这篇文章的人——置身于那个国家时,都会揣着一些面值为20美元的钞票,以及一个塞满信用卡的钱包。你会自己去买点吃的。The difference between you and the hungry is not production levels; it’s money. There are no hungry people with money; there isn’t a shortage of food, nor is there a distribution problem. There is an I-don’t-have-the-land-and-resources-to-produce-my-own-food, nor-can-I-afford-to-buy-food problem.你和饥饿人口的不同之处不在于生产水平,而在于钱。不存在手里有钱却在饿肚子的人;不存在粮食短缺;也不存在分配问题。真正的问题是,我既没有自行生产粮食所需的土地和资源,也买不起粮食。And poverty and the resulting hunger aren’t matters of bad luck; they are often a result of people buying the property of traditional farmers and displacing them, appropriating their water, energy and mineral resources, and even producing cash crops for export while reducing the people growing the food to menial and hungry laborers on their own land.贫穷以及因贫穷而导致的饥饿不是因为不走运,这一切的源头往往在于:有人攫取了传统农民的土地;占用了他们的水资源、能源和矿藏;他们甚至一边生产经济作物用于出口,一边让粮食生产者在自己的土地上成了卑微、饥饿的劳工。Poverty isn’t the only problem, of course. There is also the virtually unregulated food system that is geared toward making money rather than feeding people. (Look no further than the ethanol mandate or high fructose corn syrup for evidence.)当然了,贫穷并非唯一的问题。另一个麻烦是,当前的粮食体系几乎没有受到任何监管,其目标为赚钱,而非养活人。(乙醇定量生产指令和高果糖玉米糖浆足以明这一点。)If poverty creates hunger, it teams up with the food system to create another form of malnourishment: obesity (and what’s called “hidden hunger,” a lack of micronutrients). If you define “hunger” as malnutrition, and you accept that overweight and obesity are forms of malnutrition as well, than almost half the world is malnourished.贫穷在制造饥饿的同时,还和当前的粮食体系一起制造了另一种形式的营养不良:肥胖(以及所谓的“隐性饥饿”——缺乏某些微量元素)。如果你把“饥饿”界定为营养不良,并且认为超重和肥胖也是营养不良的表现形式,那么世界上几乎半数的人都处于营养不良的状态。The solution to malnourishment isn’t to produce more food. The solution is to eliminate poverty.解决营养不良问题的方法不是生产更多的粮食,而是消除贫困。Look at the most agriculturally productive country in the world: the ed States. Is there hunger here? Yes, quite a bit. We have the highest percentage of hungry people of any developed nation, a rate closer to that of Indonesia than that of Britain.来看看世界上农业生产水平最高的国家:美国。这里有人挨饿吗?有,而且相当多。我们国家的饥饿人口比例是所有发达国家中最高的,更接近印尼,而不是英国。Is there a lack of food? You laugh at that question. It is, as the former Food and Drug Administration commissioner David Kessler likes to call it, “a food carnival.” It’s just that there’s a steep ticket price.美国缺少粮食吗?这是一个让人发笑的问题。就像美国食品药品监督(FDA)前局长戴维·克斯勒(David Kessler)喜欢说的那样,这里简直是在举办“粮食嘉年华”。只不过门票价格太高。A majority of the world is fed by hundreds of millions of small-scale farmers, some of whom are themselves among the hungry. The rest of the hungry are underpaid or unemployed workers. But boosting yields does nothing for them.世界上的大部分人口所需的粮食,是由数亿小农户生产的,有些农民自己也在挨饿。其余的饥饿人口是报酬过低或失业在家的工人。提高产量对他们毫无帮助。So we should not be asking, “How will we feed the world?,” but “How can we help end poverty?” Claiming that increasing yield would feed the poor is like saying that producing more cars or private jets would guarantee that everyone had one.所以我们就别再问“该如何养活世界人口”了,还是问问“该如何终结贫困”吧。主张通过提高产量来养活穷人,与宣称生产出更多汽车或者私人飞机就能做到人手一辆(架)是一回事。And how do we help those who have malnutrition from excess eating? We can help them, and help preserve the earth’s health, if we recognize that the industrial model of food production is neither inevitable nor desirable.我们又该如何帮助因为吃得太多而营养不良的人呢?如果能够认识到粮食生产的工业化模式既非不可避免,也非理想选择,那我们就可以在帮助这些人的同时,帮助维护地球的健康。The best method of farming for most people is probably traditional farming boosted by science. The best method of farming for those in highly productive agricultural societies would be farming made more intelligent and less rapacious. That is, the kind of farming we can learn from people who still have a real relationship with the land and are focused on quality rather than yield. The goal should be food that is green, fair, healthy and affordable.对大部分人而言,最好的耕种方式或许是借助科学知识得到改进的传统农耕方式。对农业生产水平很高的一些地区的人而言,最好的耕种方式则是知识含量更高的、不那么贪得无厌的那种。即,我们可以从依然和土地真正连结在一起、依然关注品质而非产量的人们那里学到的耕作方式。目标应该是产出绿色、优质、健康,而且便宜的食物。It’s not news that the poor need money and justice. If there’s a bright side here, it’s that it might be easier to make the changes required to fix the problems created by industrial agriculture than those created by inequality.穷人需要金钱和公正,这已经不是什么新闻了。如果往好的一面看,那就是解决工业化农业带来的问题可能比解决不公正带来的问题更容易一些。There’s plenty of food. Too much of it is going to feed animals, too much of it is being converted to fuel and too much of it is being wasted.世界上的粮食已经足够多了。多到可以拿很大一部分来饲养动物,可以拿很大一部分来制作燃料,可以拿很大一部分来浪费。We don’t have to increase yield to address any of those issues; we just have to grow food more smartly than with the brute force of industrial methods, and we need to address the circumstances of the poor.我们不必靠提高产量来解决上述任何一个问题,只要摒弃使用蛮力的工业化模式,更巧妙地生产粮食就可以了。我们还需要改善穷人的境遇。Our slogan should not be “let’s feed the world,” but “let’s end poverty.”我们的口号应该是“让我们终结贫困”,而非“让我们养活世界”。 /201411/342268

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