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楼主:光明咨询 时间:2019年09月16日 19:11:03 点击:0 回复:0
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IN THE White House she was an icon of style, the elegant embodiment of American aristocracy. Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy, who died 20 years ago this month, was presented to the world by her husband’s slick PR team as a blue-blood who traced her lineage back to 16th-century French nobility.在白宫,她是时尚的象征,美国贵族优雅的化身。她就是美国前总统约翰#8226;肯尼迪的妻子杰奎琳#8226;李#8226;布维尔#8226;肯尼迪。今年五月,距杰奎琳离世已有20年,在肯尼迪的技法娴熟的公关团队宣传中,杰奎琳留给世人的形象是出身高贵,血统可追溯至16世纪的法国贵族。But a shocking new biography reveals that the girl who grew up to be queen of President John F Kennedy’s fabled Camelot was not what she appeared.但是,这个说法遭到了挑战。据美国媒体报道,一本关于杰奎琳的新传记披露了一些令人震撼的故事,指出这位成长为肯尼迪总统神话般的“卡米洛特”的王后实际上并非表面所呈现的那样。Jackie’s ancestors were peasants and her father was a bisexual alcoholic gambler who drank himself to an early grave, claims the book Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis: A Life Beyond Her Wildest Dreams, by Danforth Prince and Darwin Porter.Before reigning over the White House Jackie had spent her youth auditioning a succession of America’s wealthiest eligible bachelors in a mercenary search for a rich husband, ultimately losing her virginity in a lift caught between floors.这本传记的名字叫做《杰奎琳#8226;肯尼迪#8226;奥纳西斯:做梦都想不到的人生》(Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis: A Life Beyond Her Wildest Dreams),作者是丹福思#8226;普林斯和达尔文#8226;波特。书中称,杰奎琳先祖都是农民,父亲则是个风流成性的酒鬼赌徒,且因嗜酒而早逝。而杰奎琳本人在入主白宫前,把大好青春流连于一个个美国的富有单身汉之间,只为找一个有钱的丈夫,最终在一辆停着的电梯里失去贞操。“Jackie’s aristocratic heritage was total fantasy in the same way that Jackie created the myth of Camelot at the White House,” says Porter. “It never existed.“She wasn’t happy in her marriage to Jack Kennedy and before he became president she wanted a divorce. Jack’s father Joe Kennedy offered her million to stay knowing that a divorce would destroy Jack’s political future.”“杰奎琳的贵族血统完全是虚构的,和杰奎琳创造了白宫的卡米洛特神话一样,压根没存在过。”传记作者之一波特说。“在同杰克#8226;肯尼迪的婚姻生活中,她并不快乐。肯尼迪成为总统前,她曾想离婚。但肯尼迪的父亲乔#8226;肯尼迪知道离婚会毁掉肯尼迪的政治生涯,于是给了她100万美元,让她继续留在肯尼迪身边。”Jackie was born in 1929 to Wall Street broker John Bouvier III, known to his friends and foes as “Black Jack” because of his dark complexion, destructive gambling addiction and his black heart.杰奎琳生于1929年,他的父亲是华尔街的经纪人约翰#8226;布维尔三世,因皮肤黝黑、好赌成瘾和黑心肠,他在朋友和敌人那里得了个绰号叫“黑杰克”。“He was a hedonist, a rogue, a gambler, a scoundrel, a rascal, a libertine and a heartbreaker,” says Porter. “He led a dissolute life which featured promiscuous sex and reckless spending.”“他是一个享乐主义者,混混,赌徒,恶棍,无赖,浪荡子和负心汉。他过着荒淫的生活,性滥交和挥霍无度构成了他生活的主体。”波特说。He married wealthy heiress Janet Lee who claimed to be descended from the prestigious American “Lees of Maryland” but Porter reveals: “Actually she was descended from Irish immigrants who had fled the potato famine.”他与有钱的女继承人珍妮特#8226;李结婚,这位女人自称是颇有名望的美国“马里兰李家”的后裔,但波特揭道:“事实上,她只是从爱尔兰大饥荒中逃荒过来的爱尔兰移民的后裔。”Jackie grew up on the 14-acre estate of her grandfather Major Bouvier who built an English manor house to embody his family’s supposedly noble history. “They wanted it to appear that they had breeding, power and money for centuries but their genealogy was invented,” says Porter.杰奎琳成长于她祖父梅杰#8226;布维尔的14英亩庄园里,梅杰建了一座英伦庄园来凸显其家族的光辉历史。“他们想向外界展示,他们已经积累了几个世纪的权力和金钱,但他们的血统是虚构的。”波特说。“The Major traced his family back to French aristocracy but they were actually cabinet makers, maids, ironmongers, tailors, shopkeepers, tavern owners, farmers and chimney sweeps. He even created a fake coat of arms.”“梅杰吹嘘自己的家族可追溯到法国的贵族,但这个家族的人实际上只是些家具木工,女佣,五金店生意人,裁缝,零售商,酒馆主人,农民和扫烟囱的人。他甚至刻了一个假族徽。”Jackie’s parents divorced when she was only 11 and while her mother remarried wealthy investment banker Hugh Auchincloss, her father Black Jack descended into debauchery. “That’s what Jackie grew up expecting of a man,” says Porter. “So when she married JFK’s infidelities didn’t seem unusual.”杰奎琳11岁的时候父母离异,母亲与富有的投资家休#8226;奥金克洛斯再婚,父亲黑杰克则堕落于酒色。“那就是杰奎琳长大后期待男人,所以当她嫁给不忠的肯尼迪似乎没有什么不寻常。”When Black Jack first met his prospective son-in-law in 1953, despite his own invented nobility he looked down on the former Irish bootlegger turned US senator’s son calling Kennedy a “goddamn Mick”.当黑杰克1953年第一次见到他未来的女婿时,并不在乎自己虚假的血统,反而瞧不起前爱尔兰走私贩、美国参议员的儿子,并称呼肯尼迪“该死的杰克”。Black Jack’s many lovers included songwriter Cole Porter who claimed that “one night Black Jack and JFK got really drunk and arranged for a showgirl hooker to visit. Both of them seduced this girl in the same bed.”黑杰克的众多情人之一歌曲作家科尔#8226;波特曾说:“一个晚上,黑杰克和肯尼迪喝得伶仃大醉,然后安排了一个歌舞。他们在同一张床上与这名发生了关系。”Black Jack died of liver cancer in 1957. At his funeral Jackie’s cousin Edie Beale recalled: “She didn’t shed a tear.” Black Jack had been ostracised by Jackie when she came out as debutante of the year in 1947 at 18 and she set about finding a suitable husband, racing through America’s most eligible wealthy young men.黑杰克1857年死于肝癌。杰奎琳的堂兄伊迪#8226;比尔回忆说:“她(杰奎琳)(在父亲葬礼上)没有流一滴眼泪。”实际上,黑杰克已被杰奎琳排斥,1947年18岁的她成为初入上流社会的少女,开始着手在美国最合格最富有的年轻男子中物色合适的丈夫。She charmed her way into European high society and family connections got her invited to a garden party at Buckingham Palace. Expressing her honour at meeting Winston Churchill he flirtatiously replied: “If only I were 40 years younger I might honour you in another way.”杰奎琳用自己的方式获得了欧洲上流社会的亲睐,并得以应邀参加白金汉宫(英国皇宫)的游园会。她在见温斯顿#8226;丘吉尔时向他表达崇敬,丘吉尔轻佻地回答说:“要是我再年轻40岁,我可能会以另一种方式向你致意。”She studied in France, romancing students, ski instructors, intellectuals and Parisian high society. During a party at Lady Astor’s stately home Cliveden in Buckinghamshire she disappeared into a bedroom with Hollywood legend Douglas Fairbanks Jr.在法国求学期间,杰奎琳经常往返于巴黎上流社会。在阿斯特子爵夫人的白金汉郡奢侈庄园克莱夫登举行的派对期间,她曾与好莱坞名宿道格拉斯#8226;费尔班克斯一起消失在一间卧房。Though Jackie claimed to have been Kennedy’s virgin bride she was deflowered years earlier by French novelist’s son John Marquand Jr in a stalled lift. “She was so hot to trot she couldn’t wait until I got inside my apartment,” revealed Marquand who deliberately stopped the lift between floors. “I figured I’d better go for it before she changed her mind.”杰奎琳声称自己是肯尼迪的处女新娘,但实际上早在结婚前几年就被法国长篇小说家的儿子约翰#8226;马昆德在停着的电梯里夺去贞洁。“她如此热情地慢跑,等不及进到我的公寓。”马昆德故意把电梯停在某一楼层。“我想,我最好在她改变主意前放手去做。”Her long-time friend novelist Truman Capote said: “Virginity was something Jackie wanted to get rid of as soon as possible.”When Jackie returned to the US her mother “slapped her on both cheeks” demanding that she end the affair because Marquand’s family was “poor as church mice”, claims the book.杰奎琳的老朋友,小说家杜鲁门#8226;卡波特说:“贞洁是杰奎琳想尽快摆脱的东西。”传记中写道,杰奎琳回到美国后,她的母亲“扇了她两个脸颊”,要求她停止与马昆德的风流韵事,因为马昆德的家庭“像教堂的老鼠一般穷”。Jackie was introduced at a dinner party to John F Kennedy, a US senator from one of America’s richest families. “Jack was a skirt chaser and I knew that if he wanted to become president he’d have to find the perfect wife,” said JFK’s friend Charles Bartlett, who played Cupid.再后来,杰奎琳被介绍参加晚宴派对,与来自当时美国最富有家族的肯尼迪结识。“肯尼迪是个好色之徒,而且我知道,如果他想成为总统,就不得不找一个完美的妻子。”肯尼迪的朋友查尔斯#8226;巴特利特说,他在两人间扮演了丘比特的角色。But that night Jackie drove home with her boyfriend stockbroker John Husted. They then became engaged over her mother’s objections that his banking family didn’t have enough money to treat her royally.但宴会当晚,杰奎琳却开车与男朋友股票经纪人约翰#8226;赫斯特德一同回了家。后来更在杰奎琳母亲的强烈反对下订婚,她母亲认为赫斯特德不够有钱。Husted recalled passionate love-making sessions unaware that Jackie was cheating on him with Kennedy. After dinner with Husted one night Jackie gave him a tame kiss on the cheek and slipped her engagement ring into his coat pocket.赫斯特德回忆说,他和杰奎琳翻云覆雨之时,并没察觉到杰奎琳正在背着他与肯尼迪交往。某天晚上,杰奎琳与赫斯特德用过晚餐后,杰奎琳在赫斯特德面颊上平淡一吻,并有意把订婚戒指落在了赫斯特德的上衣口袋。Yet it had not been love at first sight for Jackie or JFK. They met three times before he began showing a romantic interest. Taking her yachting she was unimpressed to see him in a swimsuit, recording in her diary: “He has a funny body, skinny with toothpick legs.”Despite her concerns about Kennedy’s notorious womanising they were engaged in June 1953 and wed three months later.因此,杰奎琳或肯尼迪并非一见钟情。在肯尼迪对杰奎琳有兴趣前,他们已见过3次。杰奎琳甚至在日记中说:“他(肯尼迪)的身体很滑稽,腿瘦得像牙签。”虽然她担忧肯尼迪的放荡成性,但还是在1953年6月与他订婚,并在3个月后正式结婚。On their honeymoon night in New York Jackie donned a see-through negligee but waited in bed for an hour and a half while Kennedy made phone calls. When he finally came to bed Kennedy complained of his bad back, made brief love, rolled over and fell asleep. The marriage went downhill from there.在纽约度蜜月期间的一个晚上,杰奎琳披着透明内衣,但躺在床上等了一个半小时,肯尼迪才打完电话。当肯尼迪上床后,又抱怨背疼,最后草草了事后就翻身进入梦乡。两人的婚姻自那以后开始每况愈下。Kennedy was infamous for his affairs with lovers including Marilyn Monroe and Marlene Dietrich and they had only been married months when Jackie walked in on JFK receiving the sort of favour from a secretary that Monica Lewinsky later reserved for President Clinton. “You must have known when you married me I can never be faithful,” Kennedy pleaded. “I can’t help myself. It’s a compulsion.”因与玛丽莲#8226;梦露和玛琳#8226;黛德丽有私情,肯尼迪臭名远播。而且,结婚没过几个月,杰奎琳就撞见肯尼迪与秘书眉来眼去。肯尼迪还自辩解说:“你和我结婚的时候就肯定知道我不可能忠诚。我管不住自己。这是强迫症。”Following two miscarriages, plunging into depression with “the world’s worst husband” Jackie was sent to Valleyhead Psychiatric Clinic in Massachusetts where she received electro-shock therapy she called “the nightmare ride of my life”.随着两次流产,杰奎琳为“世上最糟糕的丈夫”而陷入抑郁,一度进入马萨诸塞州一家精神病诊所接受电击疗法治疗,杰奎琳称这段时间“梦魇驾驭了我的生活。”Talked out of divorce Jackie returned to her marriage finding solace in her own infidelities with actor William Holden and Fiat car boss Gianni Agnelli.After JFK’s assassination in 1963 her lovers included Marlon Brando, Paul Newman, Frank Sinatra and her two brothers-in-law Robert Kennedy and Peter Lawford, the book claims.杰奎琳或许以自己的出轨找到了些许安慰,她与演员威廉#8226;霍尔登和菲亚特汽车公司老板詹尼#8226;阿涅利都有绯闻。传记中称,1963年肯尼迪遇刺身亡后,杰奎琳的情人包括马龙#8226;白兰度、保罗#8226;纽曼、法兰克#8226;辛纳屈,以及她的两个小叔子 罗伯特#8226;肯尼迪和彼特#8226;劳福德。“She wasn’t happy at all married to JFK,” says Porter. “She agreed to stay married as long as Jack’s affairs stayed private but he was constantly humiliating her. Their happy marriage like Jackie’s ancestry and the modern-day Camelot was a myth.”波特说:“与肯尼迪结婚她始终没得到幸福,她同意维持这段婚姻,只要肯尼迪保自己的私情不公开,但他却不断地羞辱她。他们的幸福婚姻就像杰奎琳的血统和当代的卡米洛特一样,只是个神话。 /201405/298733Chinese tourists last week took scant notice of the turmoil enveloping Hong Kong as they flew there in droves to engage in a yearly ritual – holiday shopping.上周,大群中国内地游客飞抵香港进行每年一度的黄金周购物,他们没怎么注意席卷香港的风波。Despite the former British colony’s worst crisis in decades, Hong Kong was the most popular destination outside the mainland for Chinese tourists during the national holiday known as Golden Week, according to data from Qunar.com, China’s biggest travel website by user volume.用户数量最多的中国旅游网站去哪儿(Qunar.com)数据显示,尽管这块前英国殖民地发生了几十年来最严重的危机,但香港仍是国庆黄金周期间中国内地游客最喜欢去的旅游目的地。Many of the tourists came away with a new appreciation of political protest.许多游客离开时,对政治抗议产生了一种新的认识。But any fears that democracy activism might infect Hong Kong’s mainland brethren appear exaggerated. The Golden Week visitors had clear priorities: democracy is fine, as long as it does not get in the way of designer handbags and cosmetics. But it did.但对于香港民主活动精神可能感染内地同胞的担忧似乎有些夸大。黄金周游客心里有着明确的重点:民主是不错,只要它不影响他们购买名牌手提包和化妆品的话。但他们确实受了影响。“Occupy Central [the name of the civil disobedience movement] was a disturbance to me and other tourists,” said Jane Luo, a graduate student in Shanghai who stayed in the Hong Kong neighbourhood of Mongkok for the holidays and found many of the stores closed.来自上海的研究生Jane Luo说:“占中行动(公民抗命运动的名称)对我和其他游客是一种干扰。”她在香港旺角度过黄金周,发现许多商店关门了。“My first reaction was bewilderment.“我的第一反应是困惑。”I didn’t understand why they were taking to the streets. My second impression is that overall, they were quite peaceful in their protests#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;I don’t think witnessing Occupy Central will change the way I behave and think though.”“我不明白他们为何走上街头。我的第二印象是,总体上他们的抗议是相当和平的……但我不认为见占中行动会改变我的行为和思维方式。”The Golden Week holiday, which began on October 1, coincided with mass demonstrations against proposed electoral changes by Beijing that closed much of Hong Kong’s central business district.始于10月1日的黄金周假期,恰好碰上香港发生反对北京方面制定的选举改革方案的大规模示威,导致香港中心商业区的很大一部分店铺停业。Travel advice issued by the Chinese National Tourism Association on October 2 warned tour groups from going to the territory because of safety concerns.出于安全方面的担心,中国国家旅游局(CNTA) 10月2日发布了旅游建议,警告旅游团不要前往香港。But this had little effect on Chinese shopaholics. The city is always the favoured destination of Chinese holiday tourists but this year’s numbers surged. Qunar said mainlanders using its service to visit Hong Kong had soared by 67 per cent. The tourism board registered 1,159,952 holiday visitors – an increase of 4.8 per cent from last year’s Golden Week, it said.但这对中国内地的购物狂们几乎毫无影响。香港历来是中国节假日游客最喜欢去的目的地,但今年的赴港人数大增。去哪儿网表示,利用该网站务前往香港的内地旅游人数猛增了67%。该网表示,黄金周期间,香港旅游发展局的登记游客数量达115.9952万人,比去年同期增加了4.8%。Before arriving, many Chinese tourists were unaware of the scale of the crisis because of a media blackout on the mainland.由于中国当局不准境内媒体报道占中活动,因此许多内地游客在到达香港之前,根本不知道这场危机的规模有多大。Another factor in the flood of visitors was that a large proportion had non-refundable flights. Beijing resident Stella Sun bought a discounted ticket in August and could not change it.导致游客潮水般涌入的另一项因素是,很高比例的游客买的是不可退款的机票。北京居民Stella Sun于8月买了一张折扣机票,行程不能改动。“My parents were concerned about my safety going there,” she said.她说:“我爸妈担心我去香港不安全。”“But I felt things would be all right since Occupy Central is about expressing wishes for democracy, and tourists would not be targeted. My shopping plans were affected because a lot of the usual shopping areas were obstructed.”“但我觉得行程会很顺利,因为占中是为了表达民主愿望,不会把游客当作目标。可由于很多通常的购物区进不去,我的购物计划受到了影响。”Those postings on Weibo, China’s version of Twitter that survived Beijing’s internet censors, portray the bewilderment among new arrivals.在类似Twitter的中国微网站新浪微(Weibo)上,刚到香港的游客们描述了自己的困惑。“Is it safe to go to Stanley Bay or Harbour City tomorrow? Where are places I can shop?” said one posting on October 3 by “Flowers bloom for you”.“鲜花为你盛开”10月3日在新浪微上写道:“明天去赤柱湾(Stanley Bay)或海港城(Harbour City)会安全吗?我在哪里可以购物?”Hong Kong easily beat Taipei, Seoul, Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok as the top Golden Week destination, according to Qunar. Its rival Ctrip, which is considered China’s leading travel website in terms of revenue, also had Hong Kong as the top overseas destination for mainlanders.去哪儿网数据显示,香港轻松击败台北、首尔、吉隆坡和曼谷,成为黄金周中国游客的首选旅游目的地。竞争对手携程网(Ctrip)也表示,香港是中国内地人最喜欢的境外旅游目的地。携程网被认为是中国营收额最高的旅游网站。Despite the influx of mainlanders wielding credit cards, the protests shuttered many businesses and Hong Kong witnessed the first drop in retail sales during Golden Week since 2003, according to an October 6 press release by the Hong Kong Retail Management Association.香港零售管理协会(HKRMA) 10月6日的新闻发布稿称,尽管迎来了大量手持信用卡的内地游客,但抗议导致很多商店关门,香港出现自2003年以来首次黄金周零售额下降。Some sectors, such as watches and jewellery, and fashion and accessories, registered drops of up to 50 per cent.有些行业,比如手表及首饰、时装及配饰,销售额下降了至多50%。Meanwhile, political tensions took a toll on other traditionally popular travel destinations for mainland tourists: Hanoi and Manila dropped out of the top 10 amid Chinese tensions with Beijing over maritime rights in the South China Sea.另一方面,政治紧张也令传统上颇受中国内地游客青睐的其他旅游目的地付出代价:在南中国海(South China Sea)海洋权益上与北京方面关系紧张的河内与马尼拉,跌出了中国游客最喜爱十大旅游目的地排行榜。Tokyo, which is also embroiled in a dispute with Beijing over maritime claims, fell from sixth to eighth place, according to Qunar data.去哪儿网数据显示,同样在海洋权益问题上与北京方面存在纠纷的东京,在排行榜上从第6位跌至第8位。 /201410/335180With a near record- setting investment announced last week, the ride-sharing service Uber is the hottest, most valuable technology start-up on the planet. It is also one of the most controversial.上周宣布了几乎创纪录的巨额融资之后,共乘租车务Uber已成为全球最炙手可热且最具价值的科技初创公司,但与此同时,它也是最具争议性的公司之一。The company, which has been the target of protests across Europe this week, has been accused of a reckless attitude toward safety, of price-gouging its customers, of putting existing cabbies out of work and of evading regulation. And it has been called trivial. In The New Yorker last year, George Packer huffed that Uber typified Silicon Valley#39;s newfound focus on ;solving all the problems of being 20 years old, with cash on hand.;本周,欧洲各地发生了针对Uber的抗议活动,它被指罔顾安全、对顾客进行价格欺诈、令现有出租车司机失业,以及逃避监管。还有人说,它没什么价值。去年,乔治·帕克(George Packer)在《纽约客》(The New Yorker)中曾愤怒地写道,硅谷新的关注点就是,“用手头的钱来解决所有存在了20年之久的问题”,并说Uber就是一个典型。It is impossible to say whether Uber is worth the billion its investors believe it to be; like any start-up, it could fail. But for all its flaws, Uber is anything but trivial. It could well transform transportation the way Amazon has altered shopping — by using slick, user-friendly software and mountains of data to completely reshape an existing market, ultimately making many modes of urban transportation cheaper, more flexible and more widely accessible to people across the income spectrum.虽然投资者相信Uber值170亿美元,但它到底是否值这么多钱就很难说了;就像任何其他创业公司一样,Uber也有可能遭遇惨败。然而,虽然Uber有诸多缺陷,它绝不是毫无价值。就像亚马逊(Amazon)改变了零售业一样,Uber也可能改变运输业——通过设计精美、用户友好的软件以及海量数据来彻底重塑现有市场,最终使许多的城市交通模式更便宜、更灵活,更易于为不同收入阶层的人所使用。Uber could pull this off by accomplishing something that has long been seen as a pipe dream among transportation scholars: It has the potential to decrease private car ownership.Uber可以通过降低私家车保有量来实现上述愿景。交通学者长期以来一直认为这是不可能的事,但Uber有这个潜力。In its long-established markets, like San Francisco, using Uber every day is aly arguably cheaper than owning a private car. Uber says that despite dust-ups about ;surge pricing; at busy times, its cheapest service, UberX, is usually 30 percent less expensive than taxis.在Uber的成熟市场,比如旧金山,每天使用Uber可能比拥有私家车更省钱。Uber称,尽管在高峰时段“定价上浮”(surge pricing)的做法引发了一些争议,但公司最便宜的务Uber X通常比出租车便宜30%。Now that Uber, Lyft and other rivals are embroiled in a vicious match for dominance across the globe, ride-sharing prices over all are sure to plummet. The competition is likely to result in more areas of the country in which ride-sharing becomes both cheaper and more convenient than owning a car, a shift that could profoundly alter how people navigate American cities.由于Uber、Lyft以及其他同类公司都卷入了旨在占领全球市场的恶性竞争,共乘租车务的价格必将暴跌。这种竞争可能导致的结果是,在美国越来越多地方,使用共乘租车务比拥有私家车更节约、更方便,这一转变可能会为美国城市人的出行方式带来深远的改变。Over the next few years, if Uber and other such services do reduce the need for private vehicle ownership, they could help lower the cost of living in urban areas, reduce the environmental toll exacted by privately owned automobiles (like the emissions we spew while cruising for parking), and reallocate space now being wasted on parking lots to more valuable uses, like housing.未来几年,如果Uber和其它此类务能成功降低私家车需求,将有助于降低市区的生活成本,降低私家车对环境的影响 (例如寻找车位时所排放的废气),并把目前浪费在停车上的空间用在更有价值的地方,比如建设住房。Paradoxically, some experts say, the increased use of ride-sharing services could also spawn renewed interest in and funding for public transportation, because people generally use taxis in conjunction with many other forms of transportation.矛盾的是,一些专家说,更多地使用共乘租车务会带来对公共交通的新需求以及更多针对公交领域的投资,因为人们在使用出租车的同时,会搭配使用许多其他交通工具。In other words, if Uber and its ride-sharing competitors succeed, it wouldn#39;t be a stretch to see many small and midsize cities become transportation nirvanas on the order of Manhattan — places where forgoing car ownership isn#39;t just an outré lifestyle choice, but the preferred way to live.换言之,如果Uber这类共乘租车务取得了成功,很多中小城市将可能达到曼哈顿那样的理想交通状况——在这些地方,放弃私家车不光是一种特立独行的生活方式,也是人们青睐的生活方式。;In many cities and even suburbs, it#39;s becoming much easier to organize your life car-free or car-lite,; said David A. King, an assistant professor of urban planning at Columbia University who studies technology and transportation. By car-lite, Dr. King means that instead of having one car for every driver, households can increasingly get by with owning just a single vehicle, thanks in part to tech-enabled services like Uber.“在很多城市甚至是郊区,在没有汽车或少用汽车的条件下安排生活正变得越来越容易。”戴维·A·金(David A. King)说。金是哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)城市规划的助理教授,专门研究科技和运输。金士说,所谓减少用车意味着,一家人可以越来越依靠一辆汽车应付日常所需,而不是每人拥有一辆汽车,这一定程度上要感谢像Uber这样的科技务。Transportation scholars are just beginning to study whether the ride-sharing industry will encourage us to give up our cars, but results from some related studies look promising.运输方面的学者对共乘租车行业是否会鼓励人们摒弃私家车的研究才刚刚起步,但一些相关研究似乎前景乐观。Susan Shaheen, the co-director of the Transportation Sustainability Research Center at the University of California, Berkeley, has found that car-sharing services like Zipcar and bike-sharing services have aly led to a significant net reduction of car ownership among users. While she is beginning a study into whether Uber-like services have the same effect, she said it was plausible to guess that they would also reduce levels of car ownership.苏珊·沙欣(Susan Shaheen)是加州大学伯克利分校( University of California, Berkeley)交通可持续性研究中心的主任,她发现热布卡(Zipcar)等汽车共享务以及一些单车共享务已经导致用户私家车拥有率出现了明显下降。苏珊现在开始研究像Uber这样的共乘租车务是否会有同样的效果,她说,估计这类务也会降低私家车的拥有率。;I#39;ve been studying this area for about 17 years, and what we#39;re seeing now is a ubiquity of mobile devices that is really altering this industry,; she said.“我研究这个领域差不多17年了,现在我们可以看到,移动设备的普及确实在改变着这个行业。”她说。To see why Uber and its ilk could prompt many of us to give up our cars, it helps to understand the role that taxis play in urban transport. Taxis and other car services are usually seen as the province of the rich, but that#39;s only partly true, studies show.要理解Uber等务为何会促使很多人摒弃私家车,首先要弄清楚出租车在城市交通中的作用。出租车和其它汽车务通常被视为富人的象征,但研究显示并非完全如此。The richest Americans do use taxis more often than middle-class Americans, but so do the poorest Americans, who rely heavily on taxis for trips that aren#39;t practical through public transportation — shopping trips that involve heavy parcels that wouldn#39;t be convenient to take on the bus, say, or a ride back home after a medical procedure.在美国,最富有的人确实比中产阶级更经常乘坐出租车,但最贫穷的人也是如此。在乘搭公共交通工具不太现实的情况下,他们会严重依赖出租车。比如说,购物后有很多很重的东西都不方便带上公车;此外,手术后也需要乘坐出租车回家。And though you may think of taxis as a competitor to subways and buses, several studies have found just the opposite.虽然你可能视出租车为地铁和公交车的竞争对手,但多项研究却发现,情况恰好相反。In one recent study based on GPS data from New York City cabs, Dr. King and his colleagues found that many taxi trips are ;multimodal,; meaning that riders mix taxis with other forms of transportation. For instance, people from other boroughs might get to Manhattan by train, and then use cabs to return home late at night.最近在一项以纽约市出租车GPS定位数据为基础的研究中,金士(Dr. King)及同事发现,很多出租车乘客的行程中都包含了多种方式,就是说乘客在乘坐出租车的同时,还使用其他交通工具。例如,其他区的居民可能会乘火车到曼哈顿,深夜再乘出租车回家。;The one-way travel of taxis allows people to use transit, share rides and otherwise travel without a car,; the researchers wrote. ;In this way taxis act as a complement to these other modes and help discourage auto ownership and use.;“由于出租车的单程性,没有私家车的人们可以同时使用公共交通、共享乘租或其他方式出行,”研究人员写道。“这样一来,出租车就成为其他交通方式的补充,有助于降低购买及使用私家车的积极性。” /201409/327686China#39;s first lunar rover could potentially be saved, despite experiencing mechanical problems, state media report.据中国官方媒体报道,尽管遭遇了技术问题,中国首只月球车“玉兔”存在被救活的可能性。The moon rover had ;awoken; from its scheduled dormancy and ;stands a chance of being saved;, a spokesperson ed by news agency Xinhua said.新华社的一位发言人称,月球车已从原定的冬眠计划中“苏醒”,并有“被救活的可能性”。The Jade Rabbit suffered a serious mechanical problem in January.今年1月,月球车“玉兔”遭遇了比较严重的机构控制问题。Its deployment on 15 December was the first successful landing on the Moon since 1976.去年12月15日“玉兔”月球车的部署是自1976年后的首次成功登月。The lunar rover was expected to operate for about three months.“玉兔”月球车的预期运行期限是三个月左右。Earlier reports in Chinese media had suggested that Jade Rabbit, or Yutu in Chinese, had been declared dead on the surface of the moon.此前中国媒体的报道称,“玉兔” 已在月球表面“死亡”。However, Xinhua news agency reported on Thursday that the rover was awake and was able to pick up signals, although it still had a mechanical malfunction.但新华社周二报道称,尽管还存在机械故障,但月球车已全面苏醒,并能够正常接收信号。Experts are still trying to work out what caused the malfunction, Xinhua said.新华社称机构控制异常的故障仍在分析排查中。Some reports suggest the problems could have been caused by a build-up of sticky dust on the lunar surface.也有报告称机械问题是由月球表面积聚的粘性粉尘引起的。 /201402/275979

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