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Re “Poor Little Rich Women” (Sunday Review, May 17):本文是对《从老公手里领贤妻奖金的曼哈顿小妇人》(5月22日)一文的回应:To the Editor: 致编辑:While Wednesday Martin’s article makes for tantalizing ing, she makes sweeping generalizations about a very small subset of women while implying that her observations apply to all women in a narrow slice of the Upper East Side. It’s more hype than truth. I say this as a longtime denizen of this particular fish pond, myself a highly educated, high-achieving woman married to a successful man and now a SAHM (stay-at-home mom). Glam SAHM? I’ve seen them around, but many of us are not.薇妮斯蒂·马丁(Wednesday Martin)的文章真的很吸引读者,但她的做法完全是以偏概全,用她所看到的一小部分女性的生活来暗示上东区一小片的女性的生活都是这样。这里头假想的成分远大于事实。我是以她所描述的那类人的身份来发表这些言论的,我自己就是一个受过高等教育,成就不错然后嫁给一个成功人士,最终成了居家妈妈(SAHM, stay-at-home mom)的女人。光鲜的居家妈妈们(Glam SAHM)?我周围确实有这种人,但大多数都并非如此。Many of my friends here chose to step out of their high-profile jobs once they started having children because they wanted to be the best moms they could be. Me, too. We married successful men because they are our intellectual peers, not sugar daddies. And we volunteer at our kids’ schools because it gives us a chance to see their smiling faces during the day. Do we run our homes like C.E.O.’s? Yep. But so did my mom in Ohio, with three kids and no help. So did my grandmother in Pennsylvania, with 10 kids and no money.我有很多朋友有了孩子后都选择辞去原来不错的工作,那是因为她们想尽可能地做一个好妈妈。我也是这样。我们嫁给成功的男性,是因为他们和我们在智识上一拍即合,而不是傍大款。我们在孩子的学校做志愿活动是因为能在白天也看到孩子的笑脸。我们像CEO一样经营我们的家庭?没错。但我在俄亥俄州的妈妈也这样,她有三个孩子,而且没人帮她。我在宾夕法尼亚州的外婆也这样,她有十个孩子而且身陷贫困。Women-only nights out? Yes, we have them. We share parenting questions and advice from our uniquely mom perspective. We laugh, too, because between the appendectomies, broken arms, stomach viruses and miscellaneous other brush fires we’re always extinguishing, we need to share laughter with our mom friends. Hardly the gender segregation that Ms. Martin darkly suggests.闺蜜之夜?没错,我们的确会举行这样的活动。我们在一起分享抚养子女时遇到的问题,并用母亲的独特视角提出建议。我们也会大笑,因为在阑尾切除术、骨折的胳膊、胃部病毒和其他各种各样需要我们出场的小麻烦里,我们需要和同为母亲的朋友们分享欢笑。这恐怕不是作者马丁所说的性别隔离。Wife bonuses? In all my years on the Upper East Side, this is news to me. I’m not saying it doesn’t happen, I’m just suggesting that it is likely far more rare than Ms. Martin would have you believe.贤妻奖金?我在上东区这么多年还从没听说过这种奖金。我不是说肯定没有,只是想提醒一下,贤妻奖金可能比马丁告诉你们的要少见得多。So it appears that she has allowed a very small sample group to skew her conclusions. Moreover, she has missed out on the rich friendships of the smart, funny, caring neighborhood moms I have been blessed to know.所以,她的结论似乎是被一小部分样本人群带偏了。更重要的是,她没感受到我所享有的与那些聪明、幽默、友爱的邻里妈妈间深厚的友情。LINDA VESTER GREENBERGNew York琳达·韦斯特·格林伯格(Linda Vester Greenberg)纽约To the Editor: 致编辑:Bravo to these women! They have figured out that being there for their kids and running charities is more valuable to them than being a chief executive, working 12 hours a day and hiring nannies as their replacement. (They are the other moms we love to hate.)我要为这些女性喝!她们已经发现陪着孩子、做慈善要比担任行政主管,每天工作12个小时,然后雇一个保姆替她们照顾孩子要好得多(我们比较讨厌这样的母亲)。The most upsetting truth is that we women continue to be our own worst enemies — constantly judging what other mothers choose in order to affirm our own decisions. I realize now that every mother has difference circumstances, options, demands, resources and limits. And we make our choices the best we can for ourselves and the people we love within those parameters. My grandmother used to say, “Your way is not their way.” Women should stand proud of their own choices to construct the lives they want for themselves and their families without judgment or apology. That is the new feminism!最可悲的事情在于我们女性最恶毒的敌人依然是女性自己——不断地通过对其他妈妈们的选择品头论足来说明自己的选择是多么正确。我现在意识到了每个妈妈都面临着不同的境遇和选择,有着不同的需求、资源和限制。在这些因素的控制下,我们都尽可能地为自己和所爱做出最佳的选择。我的祖母过去常说,“你的方式不是他们的方式。”女性为了构建理想中的自己和家庭做出了选择,她们不该为这些选择受到评判或感到歉意,而应为这些选择感到骄傲。这是新一代的女性主义!MICHELE HELOUHamden, Conn.米歇尔·埃洛(Michele Helou)康涅狄格州哈姆登To the Editor: 致编辑:As a fellow social scientist, I applaud Wednesday Martin for her insightful analysis of gender inequality among the elite tribe of Manhattan’s Upper East Side. The rich and privileged usually escape the ethnographic eye, leaving them as the unstudied, unquestioned category while the poor and disempowered are subject to the scrutiny of the sociological lens.作为一个社会科学家,我很赞赏薇妮斯蒂·马丁关于上东区精英阶层性别不平等现象的精辟分析。富人和特权阶层通常会逃过实地研究,使他们成为自然的、无可争议的那一群人,而穷人和被剥削者却要遭受社会学透镜的审查。I have long argued that in the interest of fairness, the American Museum of Natural History should add a diorama next to those for its other North American peoples — one depicting various modern tribes of the ed States: “Wall Street man,” “West Coast bobo,” and perhaps now Ms. Martin’s tribe of glamorous, highly educated, nonworking Manhattan moms.我一直认为,为了公平起见,美国自然历史物馆(the American Museum of Natural History)应该在其他北美民族陈列室旁加一个陈列室——用来展示各种美国现代群体:“华尔街男性”、“西海岸中产群体”,或许现在应该加上马丁所说的“迷人的、受过高等教育的、没有工作的曼哈顿妈妈”群体。DALTON CONLEYNew York道尔顿·康利(Dalton Conley)纽约The writer is a professor of social sciences at New York University.作者是纽约大学(New York University)社会科学教授。To the Editor: 致编辑:There is nothing “poor” about these women. Running a home — or two or three — is similar to running a corporation. You must be organized and proactive and follow up on everything. These women have degrees and know they have a choice. They can be their own executive in their home or outside the home. They choose to run their own empire in their home, which revolves around their children. They groom them and do their best to turn out an excellent “product.” They hire people, they fill out paperwork, they are alert about when to file for schools and camps, and they meet with many people to make it all happen.这些女人并没有什么“可怜”的。经营一个家——或者两三个——跟运营一家公司很相似。你必须组织有序、积极地跟进一切。这些女人拥有学历,也有选择的权利。她们既能对内照料家庭也能在外呼风唤雨。她们自己选择了在家中经营自己以子女为中心的帝国。她们培养孩子,并尽全力使其成为一个优秀的“产品”。她们雇佣别人,填写文书,在申请学校和夏令营时变得机警,她们要接触很多人才能实现这一切。I would say give it up for these women! They are honest about and know what they are doing.我想说别再揪着这些女人不放了!她们知道自己在做什么而且并不会对此加以掩饰。ZELDIE C. STUARTDelray Beach, Fla.泽尔蒂·C·斯图尔特(Zeldie C. Stuart)佛罗里达州德尔雷海滩To the Editor: 致编辑:I have no doubt that there are some women exactly as depicted in this article. However, relegating all of them to a “tribe” is an unsubstantiated generalization hardly befitting an anthropologist engaged in a scientific study. Even more unwarranted is Wednesday Martin’s ultimate determination that all educated, wealthy SAHM mothers are “disempowered,” as is her suggestion that women are squandering their talents staying home with their children.我丝毫不怀疑文中描述的这种女人的存在。然而,把他们全部贬为一个“群体”显然是毫无根据的归类,和作者在做科学研究的人类学家的身份极不搭调。更荒谬的是作者薇妮斯蒂·马丁的终极结论:所有受过教育且富有的居家妈妈们都是“没什么权力的”。她认为女人们在家里陪孩子就是对自己才华的暴殄天物。Clout and cash are seemingly synonymous for Ms. Martin. Perhaps that should be the focus of her next anthropological “work”: why people equate power with money. Clearly the women who make the choice to stay at home with their children do not agree. For many of them, it is a privilege to be with their children, and there are plenty of women who would give up all the earning potential in the world to have that opportunity.马丁似乎将影响力和金钱混为一谈了。也许这应该作为她的下一项人类学“研究”:为什么人们会认为权力就是金钱。显然这些选择在家里陪孩子的女人并不这么想。对她们中的很多人来说,权力是能陪伴在孩子身边的机会,而且世界上有很多女人愿意为了这种机会放弃一切可能的收入。TARA KANTORScarsdale, N.Y.塔拉·坎特(Tara Kantor)纽约州斯卡斯代尔To the Editor: 致编辑:Thank goodness we don’t all have anthropologists following us around to document our foibles. I imagine that most of us wouldn’t come off looking much better than these Upper East Side matrons.谢天谢地,我们不都由人类学家来跟着记录我们的弱点。我想我们大部分人都不比这些上东区的主妇好到哪里去。DANIEL REIFMANYad Binyamin, Israel丹尼尔·莱弗曼(Daniel Reifman)以色列雅德本雅明 /201506/379331。

The #64257;rst time Laura Poitras was stopped and questioned at an airport, she thought it was a mistake. Flying home to the US from the Sarajevo #64257;lm festival in 2006, she was paged at Vienna airport and asked to go to security. She was put on a bus, taken to a baggage inspection room and questioned about her trip. She asked: “Why are you stopping me?” The answer: “Well, you know, your name came up on a US government list, and you have a threat score that is really high.”...If it was high then, today it is stratospheric. Poitras has played a key role in the world’s greatest leak of espionage secrets — American whistleblower Edward Snowden’s revelations of a huge US electronic surveillance programme. Poitras is one of only two journalists to whom Snowden last year entrusted his treasure trove of documents taken from the National Security Agency, the cyber intelligence organisation. She is also the director of Citizenfour, a #64257;lm about her encounter with Snowden, which is tipped for an Oscar as best documentary of 2014.Poitras now assumes she is under surveillance, night and day. “I am lit up like a Christmas tree behind the scenes,” she says, quite casually. “Which means there is probably a graph, and the graph shows who are the people that I am in contact with.” She is speaking in Berlin, where she now lives. Milky autumn light streams through the windows, gently illuminating her. She looks younger than her 52 years and gestures fluidly when she speaks. If she worries about the perpetual monitoring of her daily life, she does not show it. “The choice is, either I say: ‘Well, I’ll stop doing this kind of work,’ you know, because the harassment is really bothersome, or ‘I’ll keep doing it.’”The incident at Vienna airport occurred soon after she had #64257;nished My Country, My Country, a 2006 #64257;lm that followed the lives of ordinary Iraqis under the US occupation after the overthrow of Saddam Hussein. Nominated for an Oscar, it also caused the US intelligence agencies to put Poitras on something she now knows is a “watch list” — a roster of people the US authorities seek to track. Next came another documentary that may have irritated the US government — The Oath, a 2010 #64257;lm about two Yemeni brothers who served Osama bin Laden as driver and bodyguard, one of whom ended up in Guantánamo Bay.That #64257;rst Vienna questioning has been followed by about 40 others at US airports. Poitras has had her computer, notebooks and mobile phone taken away, sometimes for weeks. She says she assumed that when of#64257;cials realised she was “just a #64257;lm-maker”, she would be taken off the list. But it didn’t happen. “And then, I became more confrontational at the airport, you know, taking notes while answering questions, asserting my rights as a journalist.”When Snowden got in touch last year, she quickly realised his story had the potential to cause a much bigger shock than anything she had done before. “The minute I thought Snowden was real, of course, I was fearful. I mean it was clear this was going to be dangerous — to anger the most powerful people in the world.”The 31-year-old computer expert had electronic #64257;les containing more than one million documents Snowden had taken from the NSA, where he worked as a contractor until he fled for Hong Kong in May 2013. He decided to hand them over to Poitras and Guardian journalist Glenn Greenwald. Hiding in a Hong Kong hotel, he arranged a secret meeting with them and another Guardian journalist. As Poitras portrays in Citizenfour, Snowden spent hours in his cramped room explaining his secrets and convincing the three reporters. Later she asked Snowden why he had chosen her. He emailed in reply: “You asked why I picked you. I didn’t. You did.” He was talking about her reputation: she was the kind of formidable force he needed to make sure his revelations would reach a global audience.The result was a string of stories published in The Guardian, The Washington Post, Germany’s Der Spiegel magazine and elsewhere, detailing the electronic spying operations of the NSA and its partners in the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. They reported on Prism, a secret programme for eavesdropping on Americans’ Google and Yahoo accounts; on Tempora, a British-run global surveillance scheme, and on XKeyscore, a computer #64257;lter for sifting vast amounts of internet data. The stories revealed that agents spied on players engaged in the World of Warcraft online game, snooped around aid organisations Unicef and Médecins Sans Frontières, and even tapped the mobile phone of German chancellor Angela Merkel.The impact was immediate. In the US, Snowden was condemned by some as a traitor and lauded by others as a hero. The authorities charged him with espionage and accused him of assisting the enemies of the US. Washington wants to bring Snowden back from Russia, where he sought protection a few days after his encounter with Poitras.However, US President Barack Obama also ordered a review of NSA procedures, which made a string of recommendations to increase court scrutiny. “One of the things that has been interesting to watch about the NSA story is how it has cut across political lines. We have had people both from the Democratic and the Republican parties who have been outraged,” says Poitras. In other countries, support for Snowden has been far stronger, notably in Germany, where politicians were furious at the Merkel phone-tap and public opinion is particularly concerned about the invasion of privacy.Little in Poitras’s early life prepared her for this global drama. She grew up in a prosperous home in Boston, Massachusetts. She won’t talk about her family but it is a matter of record that her wealthy parents donated m for medical research to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After school, the young Poitras moved to San Francisco and worked for a while as a pastry chef before taking up #64257;lm studies. She moved to New York, where she focused on documentaries and made her #64257;rst award-winning #64257;lm, Flag Wars, an account of the gentri#64257;cation of Columbus, Ohio.Everything changed for Poitras in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attack. “Somehow I felt that what was happening in the country was really disturbing and that I wanted to say something about it,” she remembers. She became increasingly concerned about the US government’s response, including the treatment of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay. And she started work on the controversial #64257;lms that have made her one of the world’s best-known documentary-makers.Despite being a favourite for an Oscar, she says winning awards is not the point — the #64257;lms themselves are the point. Poitras is not convinced governments have changed much in response to the Snowden disclosures. “There has been a lot of lip service and a lot of recommendations in committees but no real fundamental changes of these policies,” she says. “In terms of concrete policy changes, maybe Merkel’s phone isn’t being tapped right now. But I am not sure how much of a big shift there is.”So surveillance continues at the same level as before? Poitras thinks there is “probably some reining in” of the targeted surveillance of people who “cannot be suspected of any wrongdoing”, perhaps out of fear of legal action. “I would guess people think twice in the intelligence agencies before they do that.” But she is far more positive about the revelations’ wider impact. “The reporting has changed consciousness and awareness around these issues#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;globally,” she says.Technology companies, including Google, Apple and Facebook, are “making real big changes in terms of offering privacy for customers” out of a fear that co-operating with the US government could lose them business, she says. “So you have those kind of things in the tech industry that are shifting and I think will continue to shift. They’ll be offering encryption and privacy for customers.”Poitras is particularly pleased with developments in Germany, where she has lived since 2012 before she began making Citizenfour, having decided it would be too risky to work in the US. But she is scathing about Britain, which she has refused to visit, even to promote Citizenfour, for fear of arrest. “My lawyers really were concerned and careful, and so the UK is the one country that I haven’t travelled to.”She adds: “Yes, I go back to the US but the US is different. I mean, the US has the First Amendment [in its constitution] that protects the press. It has never happened that the US government has gone after journalists for publishing information that is classi#64257;ed.”In Britain, it is the catch-all nature of the Of#64257;cial Secrets Act that deters her, especially after of#64257;cials entered The Guardian’s offices and ordered the destruction of Snowden-linked computer hardware. This moment is captured in the #64257;lm — the hammers smashing the electronics to pieces. Her voice rising slightly, she says: “I mean, it is shocking to me actually to learn this, that there are no laws that are protecting the press and no historical memory of what happens if you don’t have a healthy functioning free press.”Like Snowden himself, Poitras believes there are cases when secret surveillance is legitimate — suspected terrorist plots, for example, or nuclear proliferation. “But it shouldn’t be bulk drag nets, suspicious surveillance of entire populations. We live in democracies that have a rule of law, which has been sidestepped in these programmes.”She admits surveillance has changed her. Not only is she ultra-careful about practical issues — such as encrypting emails and having two computers, one for work and one for general use. She re- George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four when she was getting emails from Snowden and was struck by the moment when the hero, Winston Smith, is trying to write a journal without being observed by the all-seeing eyes of the state. She recalls: “The sort of chilling effect then, when actually he sits down to write, he actually couldn’t express himself. I felt this, not to that extent, but there is this chilling effect where you realise that, well, if I think my computer is in#64257;ltrated, then do I really want [to write] personal things on an email? I start using pencil and paper, you know — those kinds of things.”But she is proud that she trusts all the people involved in the Snowden #64257;lm — and that a majority of her closest colleagues were women. When she presented her team at a premiere in Berlin, nine of the #64257;rst 15 people on the stage were female; she says she chose individuals not because they were women but because they were “absolutely the best people” and that in documentary #64257;lm-making women play a much bigger role than they do in Hollywood. “There are so many prominent women directors in documentary, so I don’t feel what I am doing is unique.”She wonders whether this is because the organisations are much smaller than for Hollywood features. “I actually think you can make your way without going through the same levels of systems’ bureaucracies. I don’t know.”Poitras sees Citizenfour as the third in a trilogy about US power that began with her Iraq and Guantánamo #64257;lms. She says it is “too soon to say” what she might do next. But she is working on a #64257;lm-based installation for the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York in 2016 that will address “the same themes but in a different way”.“The truth is that I am not going to stop caring about these issues. We are 13 years after 9/11 and still have a war in Afghanistan. We still have policies that are really moving us in a direction that I don’t think is right for the country. There is a sort of moral drift away from fundamental principles, of transparency and government.” It is a serious view. But then making Poitras documentaries is a serious business. Snowden chose well.当劳拉#8226;波伊特拉斯(Laura Poitras)第一次在机场被拦下询问时,她以为是弄错了。2006年从萨拉热窝电影节(the Sarajevo #64257;lm festival)飞回美国途中,她听到维也纳机场的大喇叭里喊着她的名字,让她去找安检人员。她被带上一辆巴士,送到一间行李检查室,接受关于其行程的盘问。她问道:“你们为什么要拦下我?”回答是:“嗯,你知道,你的名字出现在美国政府的一份名单上,而且你的威胁分数真的很高。”她的威胁分数如果当时算高的话,如今就肯定直上云霄了。波伊特拉斯在世界上最大规模的间谍泄密事件——美国泄密者爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)曝光美国大规模电子监听计划——中扮演了关键角色。去年,斯诺登把自己从美国网络情报机构——国家安全局(NSA)拿走的珍贵文件只委托给了2名记者,波伊特拉斯便是其中之一。她还是《第四公民》(Citizenfour)的导演,这部纪录片讲述了她遇到斯诺登的经过,有望获得奥斯卡2014年最佳纪录片奖。波伊特拉斯现在认为,她从早到晚都处在监视之下。“我像一颗在幕后被点亮的圣诞树,”她相当从容地说,“这意味着,他们很可能有个图表,上面显示了我接触的人。”她在柏林接受采访,那里是她现在的居住地。秋天柔和的阳光洒进窗内,淡淡地照亮了她。她看起来比52岁的实际年龄年轻些,说话时手势很多。如果说她对日常生活受到无时无刻的监视感到忧虑,那么她至少没有表现出来。“我面临的选择是,要不说‘好吧,我会停止做这类工作’,你懂的,因为这种骚扰真的很烦人,或者说‘我会继续这么做’。”维也纳机场事件发生的不久前,波伊特拉斯刚刚完成了《伊拉克,我的祖国》(My Country, My Country)的制作。这部2006年的纪录片叙述了在萨达姆#8226;侯赛因(Saddam Hussein)被推翻后,伊拉克普通人在美国占领下的生活。该片获得奥斯卡提名,也导致美国情报机构把波伊特拉斯列入她现在所知的“观察名单”——美国有关部门试图追踪的人员名单。接下来是另一部可能激怒了美国政府的纪录片——《誓言》(The Oath)。这部2010年的影片讲述了为奥萨马#8226;本#8226;拉登(Osama bin Laden)当司机和保镖的也门两兄弟,其中一人后来成了关塔那湾(Guantánamo Bay)的在押人员。在维也纳第一次被盘问之后,她又在美国不同的机场被盘问了40来次。波伊特拉斯的电脑、笔记簿、手机都曾被扣押,有时数周后才拿回。她说,她本来以为,当官员们意识到她“只是个电影人”之后,就会从名单上删除她的名字。但事实不是这样。“于是,我在机场变得比较不客气,边回答问话边作笔记,坚持自己作为记者的权利。”去年斯诺登与她联系时,她很快意识到,他的故事可能引发的轩然会超过她以往做过的任何事。“当我意识到斯诺登所言属实时,我当然害怕。我的意思是,这显然会很危险——会激怒世界上一些最强大的人。”当时,这位31岁电脑专家的电子文档包含了他从NSA拿走的超过100万份文件。斯诺登在2013年5月逃往香港之前是NSA的合同工。他决定把这些文档都交给波伊特拉斯和英国《卫报》(Guardian)记者格伦#8226;格林沃尔德(Glenn Greenwald)。藏身于香港一家酒店的他,安排了与二人和另一名《卫报》记者的秘密会面。正如波伊特拉斯在《第四公民》中所描绘的一样,斯诺登在其狭小房间内花了几个小时解释他的秘密,让三名记者相信他。后来,波伊特拉斯问斯诺登为何选择她。他回邮件称:“你问我为什么选你。我没有选你。是你选了自己。”他指的是她的声望:他需要一种令人敬畏的力量来确保他的爆料能引起全球的注意,她就是这种力量。结果就是《卫报》、《华盛顿邮报》(The Washington Post)、德国《明镜周刊》(Der Spiegel)等媒体发表的一系列报道,详尽描述了NSA及其在英国、加拿大、澳大利亚和新西兰的伙伴机构所进行的电子侦察活动。这些报道曝光了窥探美国人谷歌(Google)和雅虎(Yahoo)账户的秘密计划“棱镜”(Prism);英国运行的Tempora全球监听计划;以及用于筛选海量互联网数据的电脑过滤器XKeyscore。这些报道曝光了情报人员监视网络游戏“魔兽世界”(World of Warcraft)的玩家,窥探援助组织如联合国儿童基金会(Unicef)和无国界医生组织(MSF),甚至窃听德国总理安格拉#8226;默克尔(Angela Merkel)的手机。这些爆料立刻引发冲击波。在美国,有人指责斯诺登为“叛徒”,也有人赞其为“英雄”。当局以间谍罪对其提出刑事控罪,指控其帮助美国的敌人。华盛顿方面希望将斯诺登从俄罗斯引渡回国。斯诺登在与波伊特拉斯见面几天后便前往俄罗斯并寻求保护。然而,美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)也命令对NSA的工作流程进行评估,评估结果提出了一系列加强法庭审核的建议。波伊特拉斯称:“关于NSA事件,其中一个有意思的看点在于这件事是如何跨越政治界线的。我们看到,对此气愤填膺的既有民主党人也有共和党人。”在其他国家,对斯诺登的持要大得多,特别是德国。该国政界人士对默克尔手机被监听极为愤怒,舆论对侵犯隐私也尤为关切。波伊特拉斯的早年人生经历对这种全球戏剧性事件没有什么铺垫。她在马萨诸塞州波士顿的一个富裕家庭长大。她不愿谈论自己的家庭,但公开记录显示,她的有钱的父母向麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)的医学研究捐赠了2000万美元。年轻的波伊特拉斯在毕业后来到旧金山,在那里当了一段时间的糕点主厨,随后开始攻读电影研究专业。她来到纽约专门从事纪录片制作,首部获奖影片是《旗帜之争》(Flag Wars),讲述俄亥俄州哥伦布市的中产阶层化。对波伊特拉斯来说,“9/11”恐怖袭击发生后,一切都变了。她回忆道:“我觉得,这个国家发生的事情真的令人不安,对此我想要说些什么。”她越来越担忧美国政府的回应,包括关塔那湾的在押人员待遇问题。她开始制作有争议的影片,这让她成为全球最著名的的纪录片制作人之一。尽管获得奥斯卡奖的呼声很高,但她表示,获奖并不是意义所在;电影本身才是。波伊特拉斯不相信各国政府因斯诺登的曝光而有太大改变。她说:“有很多表面文章,各种委员会提出许多建议,但这些政策没有根本上的改变。就具体的政策改变而言,或许默克尔的电话现在没有遭到窃听。但我不肯定有什么大的变化。”因此监听程度还和过去一样?波伊特拉斯认为,或许由于担心面临法律诉讼,针对那些没有涉嫌有不当行为的目标的监视“很可能有所收敛”。“我猜,现在情报机构的人在监听前会三思。”但她对斯诺登曝光的整体影响看法积极得多。她说:“这些报道在全球范围……改变了人们对这些问题的观念和认识。”波伊特拉斯表示,由于担心与美国政府合作可能让它们丧失业务,谷歌、苹果(Apple)和Facebook等科技公司“在保护客户隐私方面正在做出切实的重大改变”。“因此技术行业正在出现那类转变,而且我认为转变将会继续。它们将为客户提供加密和隐私保护”。波伊特拉斯尤其对德国的事态发展感到高兴——她自2012年(那是在她开始制作《第四公民》之前)以来住在德国,因为她认为在美国工作风险过大。但她对英国的批评很尖锐——由于担心被捕,她拒绝去英国,即便为了推介《第四公民》也不例外。“我的律师非常担忧和小心,因此我没有去过英国”。她补充称:“没错,我会回美国,但美国有所不同。我的意思是,美国有保护媒体的宪法《第一修正案》(First Amendment)。美国政府从未因记者发表机密信息而对其进行追捕。”在英国,《官方保密法》(Official Secrets Act)不受约束的触角范围令她却步,尤其是在官员们闯入《卫报》办公室,下令毁掉与斯诺登相关的电脑设备之后。电影中记录了那一刻——锤子将电子设备砸成碎片。她略微提高声音说:“我的意思是,得知这个消息令我震惊,没有法律保护新闻机构;如果没有健康运转的自由媒体,就没有对发生事件的历史记忆。”像斯诺登本人一样,波伊特拉斯认为秘密监视在某些情况下是正当的——例如疑似的恐怖分子阴谋或核扩散。“但它不应是巨大的拖网,对全体人口进行疑神疑鬼的监听。我们生活在实行法治的民主国家,这些监听计划绕开了法治。”她承认监视改变了她。她不仅对实际事务极为谨慎,比如加密电子邮件,并且拥有两台电脑:一台用于工作,另一台作一般用途。当她收到斯诺登的邮件时,她重读了乔治#8226;奥威尔(George Orwell)的《一九八四》(Nineteen Eighty-Four)。她被书中的英雄温斯顿#8226;史密斯(Winston Smith)试图在不受政府监视的情况下写日记的情节打动。她回忆说:“随之而来的可以说是寒蝉效应,当他真正坐下来写的时候,他居然无法表达自己的真实感受。我感受到了这一点,虽然没到那种程度,但是这种寒蝉效应是存在的,你意识到,嗯,既然我认为自己的电脑被入侵了,那我还要在电子邮件里写私人的事情吗?所以,我开始使用铅笔和纸,诸如此类的事情。”但她引以自豪的是,她信任所有参与制作斯诺登电影的人,她最密切的同事中多数是女性。当她在柏林的首映式上介绍她的团队时,首批出场站到台上的15人中9位是女性;她说,她选择这些人不是因为她们是女性,而是因为她们是“绝对最优秀的人”,而且女性拍摄纪录片比在好莱坞作用更大。“有这么多杰出的女性纪录片导演,所以我不觉得自己是独一无二的。”她揣测,这是否是因为制作纪录片的组织规模比好莱坞大片小得多。“我觉得你可以走自己的路,而无需通过官僚体制的各个层级。我不知道。”波伊特拉斯把《第四公民》看作她关于美国实力三部曲的第三部;前两部是她拍摄的关于伊拉克和关塔那的纪录片。她说,现在讨论下一步可能做什么还“为时尚早”。但她正在为2016年纽约惠特尼美国艺术物馆(Whitney Museum of American Art)的一个基于电影的展览做准备,这个展览将以“不同的方式展现相同的主题”。“说实话,我不会停止关心这些问题。9/11事件已经过去13年,但我们仍在阿富汗打仗,仍有一些政策在推动美国向着我认为不对的方向前行。我们在透明度和政府上有点偏离了根本的道德原则。”这是一个严肃的看法,可是像波伊特拉斯那样制作纪录片本来就是一项严肃的事业。斯诺登选得很精明。。

Could we be just two or three years away from curing cancer? Niven Narain, the president of Berg, a small Boston-based biotech firm, says that may very well be the case.我们是否真的在两三年之后,就能实现治愈癌症的愿景?波士顿小型生物科技公司Berg的总裁尼文o纳雷因表示,可能真是这样。With funding from billionaire real-estate tycoon Carl Berg as well as from Mitch Gray, Narain, a medical doctor by training, and his small army of scientists, technicians, and programmers, have spent the last six years perfecting and testing an artificial intelligence platform that he believes could soon crack the cancer code, in addition to discovering valuable information about a variety of other terrible diseases, including Parkinson’s.凭借亿万富翁、房地产业大鳄卡尔o伯格和米奇o格雷提供的资金,纳雷因和他带领的科学家、技术人员和编程人员团队耗时6年,完善并测试了一个人工智能平台,纳雷因认为,这个平台可能很快就会解开癌症的密码,同时为治疗包括帕金森症在内的一系列严重疾病提供有价值的信息。Thanks to partnerships formed with universities, hospitals, and even the U.S. Department of Defense, Berg and its supercomputers have been able to analyze thousands of patient records and tissue samples to find possible new drug targets and biomarkers.凭借着跟多所大学、医院甚至美国国防部建立的合作关系,伯格公司及其超级计算机系统已经分析了成千上万的病历和组织样本,以找到有可能全新的药物靶标和生物标志。All this data crunching has led to the development of Berg’s first drug, BPM 31510, which is in clinical trials. The drug acts by essentially reprogramming the metabolism of cancer cells, re-teaching them to undergo apoptosis, or cell death. In doing so, the cancer cells die off naturally, without the need for harmful and expensive chemotherapy.经过庞大的数据计算,伯格公司开发出第一款新药——BPM 31510,目前该药已经进入临床测试阶段。它可以重组癌细胞的新陈代谢,重新教会癌细胞如何死亡。在这个过程中,癌细胞就会自然死亡,使患者不必经历对身体伤害极大又十分昂贵的化疗过程。So far, Berg has concentrated most of its resources on prostate cancer, given the large amount of data available on the disease. But thanks to recently announced partnerships, the firm is now building a new modeltargeting pancreatic cancer, which is one of the deadliest forms of cancers with a survivorship rate of only 7%.到目前为止,伯格公司的主要资源都集中在前列腺癌上,因为目前有大量关于前列腺癌的数据可供研究。不过拜一项最新合作所赐,该公司现在已经开始构建针对胰腺癌的新模型了。胰腺癌也是最凶险的癌症之一,目前的存活率只有7%。Ambitious as that may be, it is really just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to mapping out prostate and pancreatic cancer, Berg hopes to analyze data from a whole host of other diseases, including breast cancer. Additionally, Berg thinks his company’s artificial intelligence platform can also revolutionize drug testing by creating individualized patient-specific treatment options, which he believes will ultimately reduce the risk of adverse drug interactions in clinical trials and hospitals by a significant degree.这个目标本身可谓雄心勃勃,但它还只是冰山的一角。除了治疗前列腺癌和胰腺癌之外,伯格公司还希望分析多种其它疾病的数据,包括乳腺癌。另外,伯格公司还认为,它的人工智能平台可以根据病人的特异性制定专门针对个别患者的治疗方案,从而将掀起一场药物测试的革命,并显著降低药物的负面作用在临床实验和医疗实践中的风险。I sat down with Berg and Narain to discuss how the company works and what they hope to accomplish in the next few years. The following interview has been edited for publication.我采访了卡尔o伯格和纳雷因,探讨了该公司的工作机制,以及他们在未来几年内的目标。以下是采访摘要。Fortune: Carl, why did you decide to move from real estate into healthcare and has it panned out like you thought it would?财富:卡尔,你为什么选择从房地产业转向医疗行业?它的进展是否符合你的预期?Carl Berg: I have been in the venture capital business for 40 years but I never once touched biotech because I was concerned about the risk associated with government approval – it’s bad enough when you’re doing venture capital but adding one more equation, like getting approval from the FDA [Food and Drug Administration] makes it a lot harder. But about eight years ago I said, instead of getting into a whole bunch of small companies, I am in a position now where I can do something really big in a hope that it changes the world. So that’s what motivated me, and then I met with Niven, and that’s what got it started.卡尔o伯格:我已经在风投界干了40年了,但我从来没有触碰过生物科技领域,因为我担心与政府审批有关的风险。做风投本身就不容易,又要多花一番工夫去获得美国食品药品监督的认,那就会更难。但大概8年前我曾说过,现在我不必再做一堆小公司了,而是有能力做一些影响力足够大甚至有希望改变世界的事。这个目标激励了我,然后我认识了尼文,我们就是这样开始这项事业的。Did Niven convince you to go into biotech or did you find Niven?是尼文说了你进入医疗行业,还是你找到了尼文?CB: I was considering a skin care product investment and I was introduced to Niven at the University of Miami. Niven was the project manager and about a couple months into work on this product, Niven called me and said “Carl, this skin care product appears to have an effect on cancer.” To which I said “Sure, whenever you cure somebody, let me know.”卡尔o伯格:当时我正考虑投资一款护肤产品,然后我在迈阿密大学经人介绍认识了尼文。尼文当时是那个项目的经理,那个项目开始大约一两个月后,尼文给我打电话说:“卡尔,这款护肤产品似乎对治疗癌症有效。”我说:“好吧,如果你治好了谁,记得让我知道。”You didn’t sound very convinced.你听起来好像不太相信。CB: Everybody knows that every cancer is different, so how could this one thing work? That didn’t make any sense to me. And Niven said, “Can I fly out to California and show you my results?” And he came out, and we talked, and I got convinced that the technology he was using and the approach he was taking, could revolutionize the pharmaceutical market.卡尔o伯格:人人都知道,每种癌症都是不一样的,那么这个东西怎么会有效呢?在我看来根本就说不通。这时尼文说:“我能飞到加州向你展示一下我的成果吗?”然后他就来了,经过一番交流,我相信他使用的技术和方法真的有可能在医药市场掀起一场革命。Niven, what did you say to convince Carl Berg that your work on skin cream could possibly lead to a cure for cancer?尼文,你是怎样让卡尔o伯格相信,你那款护肤产品上有可能治愈癌症?Niven Narain: When I met with Carl we were aligned philosophically that there has to be a better way to create a more efficient healthcare system – one that really matches the right patients to the right drugs in a very precise manner. So Carl supported taking this concept to the next level. Instead of treating humans with chemicals, that are screened to become drugs, we actually started with human tissue samples and work to understand the biology and develop drugs based on that. Using AI [artificial intelligence] instead of hypotheses.尼文o纳雷因:当我见到卡尔时,我们原则上同意,肯定有办法建立一个更高效的医疗系统,它能够以非常精确的方式,将病人与正确的药物进行匹配。卡尔持我们将这个理念引向深入。我们不是利用筛选过的化学制品治疗病人,而是从人体的细胞样本入手去了解人体生物学,然后据此研发药物的。我们使用的是人工智能,而不是各种假设。How exactly does artificial intelligence come into play here?人工智能究竟在这个过程中起了什么样的作用?NN: When you start with a hypothesis, you are dismissing a lot of other areas that might actually have an impact on whatever you are trying to figure out. How many times do we see drugs get to late stage trials and fail because the early science either wasn’t robust enough or focused on the wrong target?尼文o纳雷因:如果你从一个假设入手,你就排除了很多其他可能产生真正效果的领域。有多少次药物在晚期测试的失败,是因为它的早期科研不够扎实,或是选择了错误的靶标?At Berg, we use AI to create over 14 trillion data points on only one tissue sample. It is actually humanly impossible to go through all this data and use the traditional hypothesis inference model to glean any value out of all of it. So early on when we built what we call an interrogative biology platform using AI to go through all that data. AI is actually able to take all the information from the patient’s biology, clinical samples, and demographics and really categorize which ones are similar and which ones are different and then stratify those in a way that helps us understand the difference between the healthy and diseased.在伯格公司,我们只针对一个组织样本就建立了超过14万亿个数据点。无论是使用人力,还是使用传统的推理假设模型,要想从所有这些数据中摘取有价值的信息,都是不可能的。所以当我们构建我们所称的疑问型生物平台时,我们使用了人工智能来分析所有数据。人工智能可以从病人的生物数据、临床样本和人口统计资料中摘取所有的信息,并且可以根据类似性和差异性进行分类和分层,从而帮助我们了解健康细胞和病变细胞之间的差异。Fourteen trillion data points sounds like information overload.14万亿个数据点听起来有点超负荷的感觉。NN: So there are two components: the upfront biological and there is something called omics. We go much deeper than just analyzing the genome, we look at all the genes in that tissue sample, all the proteins, metabolites, lipids, patients records, demographics, age, sex, gender, etc. We combine the 30,000 genes in the body with about 60,000 proteins and a few hundred lipids, metabolites. Then we take those components and subject them to high order mathematic algorithm that essentially learns, uses machine learning, to learn the various associations and correlations.尼文o纳雷因:所以它有两个组成部分:首先是生物信息,然后还有所谓的“组学”。我们不仅仅是分析基因组,而是研究一个组织样本的所有基因、蛋白质、代谢分子、脂质、病历记录、人口统计学资料、年龄、性别等等信息。我们把人体的3万个基因与6万种蛋白蛋和几千种脂质、代谢分子的信息综合起来,然后把这些成分用具有机器学习功能的高阶数学算法进行计算,以了解它们的各种关联性和相关性。Omics – it’s a fairly new term. It means you’re going beyond just the genome. It means all the omics – proteomics, metabolomics, and proteins. So we may be born with 30,000 genes, and those genes were born with certain mutations, but that’s not the end of the story. You live in New York City, you are exposed to different things in the environment, your diet is different than someone who lives in Alabama and your sleeping habits are different from some who lives in Utah. We believe all of these things have to be put together to tell the whole story of your omics – the full profile of you.组学是一个相对较新的术语,它意味着你不能仅仅盯着基因组,而是所有的“组”——比如蛋白质组、代谢组等等。虽然可能我们出生就带着3万个基因,而且这些基因可能还有某些天生的突变,但这并不是故事的结尾。你住在纽约市,暴露在环境中的不同物质里,你的饮食与阿拉巴马州的某个人不一样,你的睡眠习惯也与犹他州的某个人不一样。所以我们认为,这些东西应该综合起来,才能完整描绘你的“组学”,即你的整体资料。But how does all of this get us to a cure for anything? Seems like a bunch of number crunching.但是这些东西怎样让我们治病?看起来只是一堆数据分析而已。NN: I know you cover the airline industry pretty intently, so you are probably familiar with those airline route maps that show all the connections between hubs cities and destinations. So with the interrogative biology platform, the result of all that number crunching looks similar to a 3D version of those maps. But instead of those connections going between cities, they are going between genes and proteins. We then focus in on the big hubs and see what, if anything, is wrong. For example, in a system, if Dallas is in Oklahoma, obviously we know something is wrong, so the AI helps to push Dallas back into North Texas, and analyze what events happened in the biology to make that a normal process again. This is what we focus in on. The elements within the biology, the genes and proteins that made that a healthy process again.尼文o纳雷因:我知道你经常报道航空业,你可能很熟悉航空公司的路线图了,它们展示了各个枢纽城市和目的地之间的联系。在我们的疑问型生物平台上,所有这些数据分析的结果看起来就像3D版的航空路线图。但这些联系并不是城市与城市之间的,而是基因与蛋白质之间。然后我们把重点放在那些大的枢纽上,看看是否出了什么问题。比如如果达拉斯市是在俄克拉荷马州境内,我们都知道肯定有问题,这时人工智能就会把达拉斯推回北德克萨斯州,然后分析生物学中的哪些事件可以让人体重启正常的流程。这就是我们的研究重点,即生物的基本元素,以及能让健康流程重启的基因和蛋白质。Have you had any success using this platform in a real world situation?在真实世界中,你利用该平台取得过成功吗?NN: We are in clinical trials for a drug, BPM 31510, which we developed using the interrogative platform. The results we have seen so far have been very encouraging. The platform predicted that the more metabolic, the better the treatment will work. And that is exactly what we are seeing in patients for certain types of cancer. For example, we tested this on a patient who had bladder cancer. It was a very aggressive cancer, which failed to respond to all other therapies. We then put him on BPM 31510, which targeted the metabolism of the cancer cell, and by week 18, the tumor was completely gone.尼文o纳雷因:我们正在测试一款名叫BPM 31510的药物,它就是我们利用疑问型平台研发的。目前显示的结果非常令人鼓舞。该平台显示,新陈代谢越多,治疗就会越有效。根据我们对患有某些癌症的病人的观察,的确是这样。比如我们在一名患有膀胱癌的病人身上测试了这款药物,膀胱癌是一种非常凶险的癌症,几乎对所有疗法都没有反应。我们在他身上使用了BPM 31510,该药以癌细胞的新陈代谢为靶向,到了第18周,他的肿瘤已经完全消失了。Is this a patented process?这种疗法取得专利了吗?NN: We spent the lion’s share of the first six years building the platform, developing it into various areas of focus, getting our early drugs into clinical trials and diversifying the use of the technology. And we have filed over 500 patents around the world that govern this specific elevated biology. So we have patents on the biological process, on the mathematics, the informatics, on each individual candidate biomarker, and drug targets. It is a very robust IP portfolio.尼文o纳雷因:我们把前六年的大部分时间花在构建平台、研究各个重点领域、对早期药物进行临床实验和实现技术使用的多样化上。我们在全球已经注册了500多个专利。所以我们在生物学、数学、信息学上都有专利,对每个个体生物指标和药物靶标也都有专利。总之我们有着非常坚实的知识产权资产。Who are your competitors and where are you versus them in taking this process to the next level?你们的竞争对手是谁?与他们相比,你们在今后的发展中处于何种地位?NN: We get asked that fairly often. There are folks and entities that do pieces of what Berg does. They’re leading companies focused on proteins or analytics, but there isn’t one company we can identify or know of that has taken the biology, the omics, the clinical capability and put it all into an interrogative platform to really allow for a robust understanding of the biology to discover drugs in a different way. Also, we are allowing the data to generate hypotheses instead of hypotheses generating data, so it’s a really different approach. We are fairly unique in that respect – both from a technology, but also from a commercial standpoint.尼文o纳雷因:我们经常会被问到这个问题。也有一些人和机构在做我们正在做的事。他们是一些蛋白质和分析学上的顶尖公司,但我们目前还没有发现哪家公司把有关的生物学、组学研究和临床能力整合到一个疑问型平台上,来对人体产生坚实的理解,并以一种新的方式开发药物。另外,我们是用数据产生假设,而不是用假设产生数据,所以它是一种不同的方法。我们在这方面还是挺独特的——无论是在技术上还是商业上。Carl, for the last few years, you and Mitch Gray have been the only investors in Berg. How come?卡尔,过去几年里,你和米奇o格雷一直是伯格公司的唯一投资人,为什么会这样?CB: I’ve learned that if you get too many people in the early stages of these things, especially within something as risky as this was, basically you have failed because people get upset and they get worried when anything goes wrong. Through all the years that I have been doing this I can kind of roll with the punches. If something goes haywire it doesn’t upset me that much. I know that’s what you’re going to expect.卡尔o伯格:如果你在这些东西的早期阶段就让太多人进入,尤其是这个项目又有比较高的风险,那么你基本上肯定会失败,因为只要有什么事情出了差错,人们就会感到沮丧和担心。凭借多年的风投经历,我基本上已经处变不惊了。就算出了大乱子,我也不会那么沮丧。我知道那就是你需要预料到的。Are you y to open things up now?你们现在打算开放融资了吗?CB: We are definitely planning on doing some other things and bringing in other investors, but we thought we ought to get to a certain point before we did that. I think we are now very close to that point.卡尔o伯格:我们当然希望做些其他事情,并且引入新的投资人。但我们希望在此之前先达到某一个点。我认为我们离那个点已经非常近了。 /201505/375632。

Beautiful women, it seems, really do find life easier.对美丽的女人来说,生活似乎真的更容易一些。Whether it#39;s in the office or in the courtroom, a new study backs up the belief that pretty women can broker deals more easily.据一项新研究实,无论是在办公室里还是在法庭上, 美丽的女人都更能轻松地驾驭一场谈判。This, according to the research, is because beauty overrides the brain#39;s reaction to fairnesss - a fact tied to a subconsciousness rooted in male evolution.根据研究表明,这是由于我们对美的感受会凌驾于我们对公平的反应之上——这种现象与男性在进化过程中产生的无意识心理机能有关。As part of the study, 21 male students at Zhejiang University in China, were asked to look at 300 photos of Chinese women.在实验过程中,研究人员让浙江大学的21名男学生看300张中国女性的照片。A different group of men had judged half of the women as attractive and the half unattractive.在此之前,另一组男士已经对这些女性的颜值做出了评判,他们认为这些女性中有一半面容姣好,另一半长相平庸。The men were then teamed up with some of the women whose faces they had just seen while playing a computer game.接着,研究人员将这些男士与一组女士进行了分组搭对,之前他们曾和这些女士一起玩过电脑游戏,目睹了这些女士的容姿。In the game, they decided whether to split a small amount of money. At the same time, the researchers studied their brain waves and noted their response times.在游戏中,每组男女都能获得一小笔钱,他们要判断他们是否愿意跟对方分得这笔钱。同时,研究人员会观测这些男士的脑电波,记录他们的反射时间。They found men were more likely to accept bad deals from attractive women.研究人员发现,男士们更乐意于接受来自漂亮女性的不平等交易。They were also quicker to respond to fair offers from good-looking women and slower to respond to unfair offers.在面对漂亮女性时,如果分钱的方式是公平的,他们的反应速度也更快。而当分钱的方式不公正时,他们的反应速度则更慢。Meanwhile, brain scans revealed that men were more sensitive to unfair offers when the woman was unattractive, and felt greater reward when the woman was attractive.同时,通过他们的脑电波扫描,研究者发现,当男士们面对长相平庸的女性时,他们对不公平交易的反应更加敏锐。而面对面容姣好的女性时,他们在分钱过程中获得的满足感也更多。University of Stirling psychologist Anthony Little, who was not involved in the study told people,it was not entirely clear why we behave differently toward attractive people.并未参与此项目的英国斯特灵大学的心理学教授安东尼·利特说,对于人们为什么会对面容姣好的对象特别优待,人们还没有彻底弄清楚原因。#39;We appear to have a bias toward being nice to attractive people even when the rewards to ourselves, such as increasing the chance of a date, wouldn#39;t apply,#39; Little said.“我们倾向于对面容姣好的人更加友善,即使这样做收获甚微,比如说,并不会增加我们与这位漂亮女士去约会的可能性。”#39;This suggests our motivations to be nice to attractive people are unlikely to be based on conscious decisions to maximise our own benefits.#39;“这说明,我们对漂亮女士更加友善的行为动机并不是基于意识层面上的逻辑判断,即并不是基于让自身利益最大化的需求。”Previous studies have also found a pretty face can be a source of lifelong advantage - beginning at secondary school.之前已经有研究发现,拥有姣好的面容可能成为一个人能终身受惠的一项优势——这一优势从中学阶段就已经凸显出来。 /201507/385158。

New ways to flight the flu抵御流感的新方法You go to bed feeling fine. The next morning you#39;re sick with a fever, exhaustion, headache, body aches and more.晚上睡觉之前你还感觉良好,但是第二天早上醒来后却发现自己病了,发烧、疲劳、浑身疼等等。You may have influenza, better known as the flu. It#39;s caused by a virus, a tiny bit of genetic material surrounded by a protein. Flu viruses infect the nose, throat and lungs. (If people claim to have ;stomach flu,; they are mistaken. They really have some other infection.)此时你可能已经患上流行性感冒,也就是我们通常所说的流感。这种病一般由病毒引起,病毒是一种由蛋白质裹着的遗传物质。这些流感病毒会感染鼻腔,喉咙和肺部。(如果患者觉得自己患了;肠胃感冒;,那他们就错了,事实上他们是患有其他感染)。Every year, between 5 percent and 20 percent of all Americans come down with the flu. Those numbers come from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in Washington, D.C. Complications send more than 200,000 of these flu victims to the hospital each year. Worse, the flu kills anywhere from 3,000 to 49,000 people annually - and that#39;s just in the ed States.来自美国华盛顿卫生与公共务部的数据显示在美国每年约有5%-20%人口染上流感,并且其并发症会致使20万以上患者不得不到医院接受治疗。更糟的情况是每年流感都会导致不同地区3000-49000名患者死亡,而这一情况仅仅是在美国。A widesp outbreak of flu or another infectious disease is called an epidemic. In some years, flu sps so far and so fast that it causes a worldwide epidemic. This is known as a pandemic. Researchers hope to prevent a pandemic if possible. One tactic: vaccines.流感广泛爆发或另一种传染病被称为流行病。在某段时间内,流感快速、广泛爆发会引起世界范围内的流行病,叫做流行性疾病。如果可能的话研究者希望阻止它。而他们的首选应对策略是疫苗。Flu vaccines offer people some immunity. Immunity is the body#39;s ability to resist a particular disease by making proteins called antibodies. A vaccine can give that process a head start. However, no vaccine yet can fight all types, or strains, of flu.流感疫苗能增强人体免疫力,它是人类通过自身制造抗体蛋白质来抵御特殊疾病必不可少的能力,而疫苗会赋予这一过程一个顺利的开端。但迄今为止还没有一种疫苗能抵抗各种类型的流感。What#39;s more, notes David Morens, ;Flu is not one virus. It#39;s many, many viruses.; Morens works at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md. As an epidemiologist, he studies the causes, patterns and effects of disease.就职于美国马里兰州贝塞斯达国立卫生研究所的David Morens补充道:流感不是由一个病毒构成,而是由大量的病毒构成。作为一名流行病学家,他对疾病的起因,发展模式以及所产生的后果进行了研究。 /201506/383389。

AmorePacific, South Korea’s biggest cosmetics company by sales, is riding high on booming Chinese demand amid the huge popularity of Korean pop culture in the region.在韩国流行文化在中国大受欢迎之际,中国对韩国产品的需求相当旺盛,韩国销售额最高的化妆品公司爱茉莉太平洋(AmorePacific)正借助这一有利趋势继续壮大。The cosmetics maker has become investors’ favourite company, thanks to its rapid earnings growth and bright outlook, with its share price surging nearly 160 per cent to about Won2.3m over the past year.该公司已成为投资者青睐的企业,这源于其快速的盈利增长以及光明前景。过去一年,该公司股价飙升近160%,至230万韩元左右。The company’s overseas sales surged 38 per cent to Won382.7bn (9m) in the first half of this year as it generates one-fifth of its revenue outside South Korea. Its full-year overseas sales are expected to reach Won700bn as growing interest in South Korean drama and music helps boost sales of its skin care products in China and other parts of Asia.今年上半年,爱茉莉太平洋海外销售额飙升38%,至3827亿韩元(合3.49亿美元),该公司五分之一的收入来自韩国以外。预计全年海外销售额将达到7000亿韩元,此际人们对韩国电视剧和音乐的兴趣日益增强,这帮助提升了该公司护肤品在中国以及亚洲其他地区的销售额。Young Asian women, especially Chinese tourists, are flocking to Seoul to buy moisturising creams and foundations, with the help of ads featuring South Korean stars from the films, soap operas and music that have taken Asia by storm over the past decade.年轻的亚洲女性(特别是中国游客)正涌入首尔,购买保湿护肤霜和保湿粉底,韩国的电影、电视和音乐明星们拍摄的广告对此推波助澜,过去10年,韩国的这些产业犹如风暴一般席卷亚洲。“The Korea Wave has certainly been helpful in raising our brand awareness in the region,” says Sean Kim, the company’s vice-president in charge of business strategy. “We aim to become the Asian beauty creator by answering Asian women’s strong needs for clean and bright skin.”“‘韩流’肯定有助于提升我们在亚洲地区的品牌认知度,”爱茉莉太平洋负责商业战略的副总裁Sean Kim表示,“我们的目标是成为亚洲的美丽缔造者,满足亚洲女性对于干净明亮肌肤的强烈渴求。”China lies at the heart of the company’s plans to increase international sales to half of its target sales of Won12tn by 2020. Its total revenues amounted to Won3.1tn last year. Despite its fast growth, AmorePacific is still finding its feet in China with just a 1.2 per cent share of the country’s beauty and personal care market, compared with Procter amp; Gamble’s 13.5 per cent and L’Oréal’s 9.1 per cent, according to market researcher Euromonitor International.该公司计划到2020年,将海外销售额增至其12万亿韩元目标总销售额的一半。中国居于这一计划的中心。去年,该公司总收入达到3.1万亿韩元。根据市场研究机构欧睿国际(Euromonitor)的数据,尽管增长迅速,但爱茉莉太平洋仅占据中国美容和个人护理市场1.2%的份额,而宝洁(Procter amp; Gamble)高达13.5%,欧莱雅(L’Oréal)占9.1%。“China is the biggest and most important market for us,” says Mr Kim, forecasting Chinese sales will jump more than 40 per cent a year to top Won3tn by 2020 from Won338.7bn last year.Sean Kim表示:“对我们而言,中国是最大也是最重要的市场。”他预测,到2020年,该公司在华销售额将每年增长40%以上,从去年的3387亿韩元增至逾3万亿韩元。The company is pinning high hopes on a new cosmetics factory and research centre in Shanghai, which will boost its annual production capacity by 10 times to 100m units, as it tries to wrest share from bigger western rivals such as Pamp;G and L’Oréal.该公司正对在上海新建的化妆品工厂以及研究中心寄予厚望,该中心将令每年的生产能力扩大10倍,至1亿件。爱茉莉太平洋正试图从宝洁和欧莱雅等规模较大的西方竞争对手手中抢夺市场份额。While AmorePacific uses famous South Korean actors and actresses to promote its products, Mr Kim stresses that high quality is essential to ensure that Chinese consumers keep buying its products. The company, which has about 3,500 shops in China, is expanding its product line-up tailored toward Chinese customers such as ultra-hydrating creams, cleansing creams and collagen drinks to address their concern about pollution and dry weather.尽管爱茉莉太平洋利用韩国著名演员来推销其产品,但Sean Kim强调,高质量对于确保中国消费者继续购买其产品至关重要。该公司在中国大约有3500家门店,正扩大针对中国消费者的产品系列,例如超级补水霜、洗面奶和胶原蛋白口液,以解她们对于污染和干燥天气的担忧。Chinese sales are driven by mid-priced lotions and face creams under brand names such as Laneige and Innisfree, which highlight natural ingredients such as green tea from the scenic Jeju island. Yet its luxury cosmetics range, Sulwhasoo, based on traditional herbal medicines such as ginseng, is also gaining increasing popularity.爱茉莉太平洋在华销售额受到兰芝(Laneige)和悦诗风吟(Innisfree)等品牌的中档价位化妆水和面霜的推动,这些产品强调天然成分,例如来自景色美丽的济州岛的绿茶。而该公司基于人参等传统中草药的高端化妆品系列雪花秀(Sulwhasoo),也正受到越来越多消费者的欢迎。“While emotional communication is effective for Korean consumers, Chinese women often ask for more scientific functions such as whitening and anti-ageing,” says Mr Kim.Sean Kim表示:“尽管情感沟通对韩国消费者有效,但中国女性经常会要求更多科技功效,例如美白和抗衰老。”About half of the company’s overseas sales come from China but the company products such as whitening creams and “air cushion” foundations soaked in a sponge are also popular in southeast Asia. Mr Kim says however that the company must expand further into western markets to achieve its long-term vision of joining the top five global brands by 2020 as well as becoming the number one cosmetics company in Asia.该公司海外销售额的一半左右来自中国,但美白霜和浸入海绵之中的“气垫”粉底在东南亚也很受欢迎。然而Sean Kim表示,该公司必须进一步向西方市场扩张,以实现到2020年跻身全球5大品牌的长期目标,同时成为亚洲头号化妆品公司。Its Lolita Lempicka perfume was once one of France’s top five-selling fragrances although sales in the French market have stagnated in recent years. The company is now trying to revive momentum in France after acquiring premium perfume brand Annick Goutal in 2011. In the US, the company is also trying to position itself as a high-end niche player, focusing on premium brands such as Sulwhasoo.该公司的洛俪塔(Lolita Lempicka)香水曾经是法国最热销的5款香水之一,但最近几年,这款产品在法国市场的销售额陷于停滞。在2011年收购高端香水品牌Annick Goutal之后,该公司正努力在法国恢复往日神采。在美国,该公司也正努力将自己定位为高端利基品牌,专注雪花秀等高端品牌。“Asia is still our main market but we will have to go beyond the region eventually to become a truly global company,” says Mr Kim. “It will probably be an uphill battle, given our low brand recognition in western markets. However, we see an optimistic sign in westerners’ growing interest in Asian beauty.”“亚洲仍是我们的主要市场,但我们必须将目光放远,最终成为一家真正的国际性企业,”Sean Kim表示,“鉴于我们在西方的品牌认知度较低,这可能会是一场硬仗。但西方人对亚洲美的兴趣正日益增强,我们从中看到了乐观迹象。” /201412/346577。

7.Dressing Up7.盛装打扮I love my yoga pants as much as the next gal, but occasionally I find myself yearning for the days when people really cared about how they looked in public. Church just isn#39;t the same when you#39;re standing one pew behind someone with gaping holes in their saggy jeans, and don#39;t even get me started on adults wearing pajamas in public. It#39;s not. That hard. To put. On pants.我很喜欢像瑜伽裤那样休闲随意的穿着,这种喜欢不亚于对下任女友的喜爱,但有时我也会强烈地怀念以前那些日子,那时候人们还非常在意自己在公众场合的穿着。而如今教堂里的情形都不同以往了,站在你前一排的人可能会穿着松垮的乞丐牛仔裤做礼拜,更别提那些在公众场合穿着睡衣的成年人了。好好穿裤子就那么难吗……Men and women used to don suits and dresses to fly the friendly skies, but they also didn#39;t have to go through the extensive parking, transportation and security hassles that we endure nowadays. So I say, dress for comfort when traveling and save the etiquette lessons for more pressing matters, like not hogging the armrests. Unless you#39;re trying to get a free upgrade to first class.曾经人们坐飞机时都要好好打扮一番,男士们都要穿西装,女士们则穿连衣裙。不过那时候的人们倒也不像我们今天这样,忍受着无休止的停车困难,交通拥挤和出行不安全的问题。要我说,除非你打算免费升级到头等舱,要不旅行时还是穿得舒点儿吧,且在紧要关头还是应该遵守礼节,比如不霸占扶手。The shift to casual dress, while welcome in everyday life, seems to be bleeding over into fancier events where more people are ignoring formal and semiformal dress guidelines. ;I go to a lot of formal events, and this is a huge pet peeve of mine,; says Staci-Jill Burnley of Alexandria, Virginia. ;Nothing looks tackier than a man in dress uniform or tux with a woman in a cocktail dress.; A fancy enough event will indicate semiformal (knee-length cocktail dress) or formal (long or floor-length gown). If you don#39;t have the appropriate attire on hand, hit the mall or go shopping in a friend#39;s closet. You really don#39;t want to draw Staci-Jill#39;s ire. Trust me.如今人们在日常生活中更倾向于穿休闲的装了,不过也有越来越多的人忽视了在正式场合的正式和半正式着装规则,这可真是让人痛心疾首。来自弗吉尼亚州亚历山大市的史戴西-吉尔·伯恩利(Staci-Jill Burnley)说:“我去过很多正式场合,没有什么比看到一个穿着正式晚礼的男人牵着一个穿着酒会小礼的女人更俗气的事了,在正式场合穿错礼是我最忌讳的事情。”在一个非常盛大的场合就意味着人们的穿着为半正式的(及膝礼)或正式的(长的或拖地晚礼)。如果你没有合适的衣,那就去商场逛逛,或者看看朋友的衣柜里有没有合适的。相信我,你可千万别激怒史戴西-吉尔。6.Talking About Money6.谈论金钱Discussion of money and all things related used to be a faux pas of Rockefeller-sized proportions. In the olden days no one would be tacky enough to assign a figure to their net worth or disclose the cost of their new Rolls Royce. Today, people barely bat an eye when discussing salary and lifestyle, often showcasing their good fortune on social media for all their friends to see and covet. Equally off-putting are the folks who feel quite free to ask you how much you paid for your home or your car.同拥有洛克菲勒同等资产的富人谈论钱及相关的话题都是失礼的。在过去,没有人俗气到派人计算他的净资产,也不会向外人透露新买的劳斯莱斯的价格。如今,当人们讨论薪水和生活方式时,几乎连眼睛都不眨一下,还经常在社交媒体上炫耀自己的好运气,好让好友们看到并心生羡慕。同样令人不快的是,人们会毫不避讳地问你在房子和车子上花费了多少钱。It is one thing to be proud of your accomplishments, and quite another to brag, particularly when it#39;s to people who might be having a tough time financially. The experts over at The Emily Post Institute encourage manner-minded people to revert back to the days when dollar signs were rarely discussed, certainly not in envy-inducing specifics. Even when asked outright about income, there are easy enough ways to dance around the topic, with the canned Post response being, ;I make enough to get by;. And if someone asks you about the price of your house, make a joke (;We paid more than we liked!;) or just be honest (;I#39;m sorry, I#39;m not really comfortable discussing that;). A rude question doesn#39;t deserve a straight answer.对自己获得的成就感到骄傲是一回事,但吹牛又是另一回事了,特别是对那些正处在经济困难时期的人炫耀。艾米莉·波斯特研究所(The Emily Post Institute)的专家们鼓励有礼貌的人回到过去不怎么谈及金钱的日子,当然这种情况并不会诱发嫉妒。即使当我们被直截了当地问及收入情况时,我们也有足够多且简单的方法跳出这个话题,波斯特专家们对此会回复道:“我的收入足以维持生活。”如果有人问你房子的价格,开个玩笑告诉他:“比我们想的要多。”或者诚实地告诉他“对不起,我不想谈论这个问题。”这样粗鲁的问题不值得我们直接坦率地回答。5.Punctuality5.守时I don#39;t know when the phrase ;fashionably late; became popular and regularly practiced, but it has taken off with abandon. In fact, if you#39;re prone to promptness like me, chances are you#39;ll be the only person at any given party for at least a half-hour after the indicated start time. That#39;s because arriving extremely late has become the standard. In stark contrast, most etiquette experts agree that the window of fashionable tardiness is a mere five to 15 minutes. The train seems to have left the station on this etiquette infraction, with no signs of turning back. Since it makes my eye twitch to be late, I#39;ll enjoy the small crowd and extra finger food while everyone else trickles in slowly.我不知道何时“时髦的迟到”变得流行,并且经常发生,但这种情况已经在生活中恣意地蔓延。事实上,如果你像我一样守时,很有可能你会成为在聚会指定时间开始后至少半个小时内到场的唯一一个人。那是因为如今迟到很久已经成为一个标准。与之形成鲜明对比的是,大部分礼仪专家也同意“时髦的迟到”,但能接受的范围仅仅是5到15分钟。时光的列车早已在违反礼仪的轨道上离站,没有回头的迹象。可是我依然会做个守时的人,因为我迟到会眨眼,这会让我极不舒,所以当别人还在慢慢地赶过来时,我倒可以享受宽敞的空间和额外的零食。The only time a late arrival may be acceptable is when it#39;s a cultural norm among your family, friends or social group. If that#39;s the case, then an on-time arrival might mean catching the hostess running frantically in her underwear to take something out of the oven.只有在一种情况下,迟到是可以接受的,即在你的家庭,朋友或者社会团体里,迟到已经成为一种文化规范。如果是那样的话,准时来访也就意味着可能会看到女主人只穿着内衣,火急火燎地从烤箱拿出食物为即将到访的客人做准备。4.Chivalry4.骑士精神Although chivalry is typically associated with men, make no mistake — women can be courteous in many of the same ways. In fact, most ladies no longer expect to be treated with kid gloves as was common in decades past. We fought long and hard to be respected as strong, intelligent and self-sufficient people! As a youngish, able-bodied woman, I have absolutely no problem opening my own doors, carrying heavy boxes and pulling out my own chair. If someone offers to assist, I won#39;t turn them down, but it#39;s usually a pleasant surprise. My issue with today#39;s lack of assistance etiquette has more to do with failure to help people who really need it.尽管骑士精神是男士的标配,但毫无疑问女性也可以在同样场合下做到举止端庄,彬彬有礼。事实上,和过去不同,现在的女性并不再十分希望得到男性的温柔照顾。为赢得尊重,让社会认可女性同男性一样独立、智慧、充满力量,我们一直为之作着漫长而又艰苦的斗争。作为一个年轻充满活力的女性,我完全可以自己开门下车,搬运重箱子,拉出椅子更没问题。如果有人热心提供帮助,我也不会拒绝,但通常来说这并不是必须,权当做社交中的意外惊喜吧。而我想说的是,抛开这些礼节性的帮助,今天我们真正匮乏的是去帮助那些确实需要我们照顾的人们。;When I lived in New York City I constantly saw young, healthy men and women on the subway who were so rude or engrossed in their phones or books that they let the obviously pregnant, handicapped, injured and elderly passengers stand while they comfortably commuted,; says Monique Johnson, who currently resides in Washington D.C., and has called out many a passenger for failing to give up a seat for someone who really needs it. ;It#39;s easy enough to get your head out of the clouds and not be a jerk.;现居华盛顿特区的莫尼克·约翰逊(Monique Johnson)说:“住在纽约的那段时间,我经常在地铁里看见身强体健的上班族疯抢座位,沉浸在自己的手机或书上,完全无视身边站着的老人、妇、残疾人以及伤员等这些需要帮助的弱势群体。”说完这些,他还指出现在许多人都不会给真正需要座位的乘客让座。“放下手头的事,别总是云里雾里,多关注你身边的人,为他们提供帮助吧,这样我们才称得上有绅士风度。”Think about it this way: Doing someone else a solid by simply giving up your seat, holding the elevator or spotting them a dollar can change the trajectory of their day for the positive, all at very little effort to you. Plus, you might need the favor returned one day.这样想,给更需要的人让出你的座位;扶残疾人坐电梯;给乞讨的人一美元……你的这些小小举动很可能就会让这些人正能量一整天。要相信,总有一天当你面临困难时,你付出的爱心社会也会同样给予你。审校:浅芷湄 Freya然 /201507/385489。