明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年12月08日 08:31:45
Stroke patients are more likely to regain their cognitive functions if they speak more than one language, new research has discovered.最新研究发现,如果中风患者会说不只一种语言,那么他们更有可能恢复认知能力。A study of more than 600 stroke victims found 40.5% of those who are multilingual had normal mental functions afterwards, compared to 19.6% of patients who only speak one language.这项针对600多名中风患者的研究发现,会说多种语言的人中,有40.5%的人病后恢复了到了正常心智,而只会说一种语言的病人中,19.6%的人恢复了正常心智。The study was carried out by a team from the University of Edinburgh together with the Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences in Hyderabad - with the Indian city chosen as the location for the study because its multi-cultural nature means many languages are commonly spoken.发布该研究的团队来自爱丁堡大学和印度海得拉巴市的尼扎姆医学研究所。之所以选择印度城市海得拉巴作为研究对象,是因为多元的文化使得多语人士在当地很常见。Researchers took into account other factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes and age to ensure results could not be attributed to having a healthier lifestyle.研究人员将其他因素也列入考虑范围,比如吸烟、高血压、糖尿病和年龄等,以确保该研究结果与更健康的生活方式无关。The study, published in the American Heart Association journal Stroke, found #39;results support the notion of a protective role of bilingualism in the development of post-stroke cognitive impairment#39;.研究发表在美国心脏协会的《中风》杂志上,研究发现:“该结果肯定了这一概念——双语对中风后认知障碍的发展具有保护作用。”It is the first time a study has been done looking at the relationship between the number of languages spoken and a patient#39;s cognitive outcome after stroke.这是首次有研究关注“会说几种语言”与“中风后患者的认知程度”之间的关系。#39;The percentage of patients with intact cognitive functions post-stroke was more than twice as high in bilinguals than in monolinguals,#39; the paper said.该论文称,“中风后认知功能未受损的双语患者的百分比数量是单语患者的两倍多。”#39;In contrast, patients with cognitive impairment were more common in monolinguals.#39;“相反,认知功能障碍在单语患者中更常见。”Researchers believe the study, which was funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, suggests the mental challenge of speaking multiple languages can boost cognitive reserve - an improved ability of the brain to cope with damaging influences such as stroke or dementia.这项调查由印度医学研究委员会提供资金持。研究人员认为,该研究说明多语能力对神经构成一种挑战,该挑战提高了认知储备——进而改进了大脑功能,能应对像中风或痴呆这种疾病的破坏性影响。Co-author Thomas Bak, of the University of Edinburgh#39;s school of philosophy, psychology and language sciences said: #39;Bilingualism makes people switch from one language to another, so while they inhibit one language, they have to activate another to communicate.共同作者之一、爱丁堡大学哲学、心理学和语言科学学院的托马斯·鲍克说:“双语让人们从一种语言转换到另一种语言,所以当一种语言被抑制时,他们不得不用另一种语言去交流。”#39;This switching offers practically constant brain training which may be a factor in helping stroke patients recover.#39;“这种转换提供了几乎连续不断的大脑训练,这可能是帮助中风患者恢复的一个因素。” /201511/412158

  With a passion for pork products and rising incomes, the Chinese have entered the market for Iberico hams with gusto.由于对猪肉类产品的热爱与收入的增加,中国人兴致勃勃地进入了伊比利亚火腿的市场。The way that pigs from Spain#39;s Iberico breed are fed and raised makes the cured ham a delicacy prized for its unique texture and taste, which is enhanced by the sweet and nutty flavor of the acorns the pigs eat.西班牙伊比利亚猪的喂养方式使得这种猪肉腌成的火腿拥有独特的口感与味道,又因为这些猪食用的橡果的甜美坚果风味而更上一层楼。In fact, the Chinese appetite for Spanish pork stretches all the way down its production chain.事实上,中国人对西班牙猪肉的胃口一路扩大到了生产链的所有环节。Fresh pork exports to China from Spain - including heads, ears and other parts - rose 35% last year, making it the second-largest market in volume, according to figures from the Spanish Meat Export Office.西班牙肉类出口办公室的数据显示,去年西班牙向中国出口的新鲜猪肉产品(包括猪头、猪耳朵和猪的其他部位)增长了35%,就出口量而言,中国已成为西班牙猪肉出口的第二大市场。 /201512/413963

  How shapes can predict your tolerance of ‘deviancy’如何用形状来推测你的容忍度Here’s a simple question that can tell us an awful lot about you. Is this a circle?这是一个简单的问题,却可以让我们了解你很多信息。这是一个圆吗?If you said: “Yeah, sure, close enough,” then you are probably politically liberal, and strongly support the idea of government aid for the homeless and unemployed. You are also likely to support same-sex marriage and legalisation of marijuana for recreational use.如果你说:“是的,当然了,非常接近,”那么你很可能在政治上是个自由主义者,并且强烈持政府救助无家可归者以及失业者。你还很可能持同性恋婚姻以及大麻的消费立法。If you said: “No, of course not,” then you are probably politically conservative, and strongly support the idea of protecting the rights of business owners and having a strong military. You are likely to take a particularly dim view of illegal immigration, and would come down strongly on even relatively low-level crime, such as drug use and prostitution.如果你说:“不,当然不是了,”那么你很可能在政治上很保守,强烈持保护企业所有者的权利,并持拥有强大的军事实力。你很可能对于非法移民持有模糊的态度,并且强烈反对甚至相对低水平的犯罪,例如毒品和卖淫。Although this sounds like some sort of satire, these were – broadly speaking – the findings of a recent study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. People who are tolerant of deviance from the norm when judging a circle (or triangle, square, rectangle or ellipse) are tolerant of deviant or otherwise marginalised groups in society. In fact, they’re not just tolerant of these groups, they actively want to help them. So if you meet someone new and don’t know how to broach the subject of their political orientation, just show them a “circle”.总的来看,尽管这听起来像是嘲讽,这其实是发布在人格与社会心理学杂志上的一篇最新的研究。那些可以容忍一个圆(或三角形,方形,矩形或椭圆)偏离常态的人可以容忍不正常的人或者社会上边缘的人群。事实上,他们不仅可以容忍这些人群,他们还很积极地想要帮助他们。所以如果你遇到了不认识的人并且不知道如何确定他们的政治倾向,那就给他们看一个“圆”。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201602/425178。

  The doctor looked at his patient#39;s tongue, felt his pulse, knocked on his chest, and began: ;Same old story, my friend. Too much confinement. Do not deny it. What you need is plenty of outdoor exercise. Walk, Walk.;医生看了看病人的舌头,号了号脉。 敲了敲他地胸部,说道:“还是老问题,朋友, 运动量太小,不要否认这个事实。你需要大量的户外运动。 走路。 走路。 ”;But, doctor...;“不过,医生……”;Don#39;t argue with me. I am the doctor. Take my advice. Walk ten times as much as you do now. That#39;s the only thing that will cure you.;“不要同我争辩,我是医生。遵照我的嘱咐,走10倍于你现在所走的路,这是治愈你的疾病地唯一方法。 ”;But my business...;“然而我的工作是……”;That is just the trouble. Your business! Well, change your business, so that you can get a chance to walk more. What is your business?;“这正是问题所在。你的工作!好吧,换一个工作。 这样一来,你就有机会多走动了。 你是干什么的?”;I#39;m a letter-carrier.;“我是一名邮递员。 ” /201511/412189

  It has long been known that regular, moderate exercise is one of the best things you can do for your health, with studies showing that trained athletes have increased levels of natural killer cells that fight infection. But as anyone who practises endurance sports probably knows, hard training for an event like a cycle race or a marathon run can leave you with a dandy head cold or other upper respiratory tract infection (URTI).人们很早以前就知道,定期而适度的锻炼是对健康最有益的事情之一。研究表明,受过训练的运动员体内抗感染的“自然杀伤细胞”水平升高。不过,练习耐力运动的人也许都知道,为参加自行车比赛或马拉松长跑这样的赛事而开展的艰苦训练,可能会让你患上头伤风或其他上呼吸道感染(URTI)。At the moment I’m trying to fight off a suspicious soreness in my throat, a warning sign that a URTI may be on the way. I wondered: what is it about working out and sweating heavily that makes you more vulnerable to illnesses?眼下,我正在对付自己喉咙中的可疑疼痛感,这是个警告信号,显示我可能已得了上呼吸道感染。我奇怪的是:锻炼和大量出汗怎么会令人更容易得病呢?David Nieman, a researcher, tracked 2,311 participants in the 1987 Los Angeles marathon and came up with some startling results: during the week following the race, 12.9 per cent of runners reported being sick, compared with 2.2 per cent of control runners who did not take part in the race that year.研究人员戴维尼曼(David Nieman)通过追踪1987年洛杉矶马拉松的2311名参赛者,得出了一些令人吃惊的结果:在比赛结束后的那周里,12.9%参赛者曾报告身体不适;相比之下,没有参加比赛的对照组跑步者感到不适的比例只有2.2%。One of Dr Nieman’s findings was that prolonged intense exercise caused the athletes’ immune systems to respond as if they were fighting infections, with a sharp increase in stress hormones and inflammation-fighting cells called neutrophils and monocytes after the run.尼曼的一个发现是,长时间的高强度锻炼,会使运动员的免疫系统做出仿佛在对抗炎症的反应。在跑完马拉松之后,选手们的应激激素、以及被称为中性粒细胞及单核白血球的抗炎细胞因子急剧升高。In addition, other research has found that mucosal systems — the moist bits in the mouth, nose and eyes — produce a substance called secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), which is the body’s first line of defence against pathogens such as colds and the flu.此外,其他一些研究发现,人的粘膜系统(口腔、鼻腔和眼睛中的湿润部位)会产生一种叫做“分泌型免疫球蛋白A”(SIgA)的物质,这是躯体抵御感冒和流感等病原体的第一道防线。But SIgA has been shown to decline after a heavy stretch of training. “Consensus exists that reduced levels of saliva SIgA are associated with increased risk of URTI during heavy training,” said one study.然而,在经过持续大量锻练之后,研究显示SIgA的水平会下降。研究报告表示:“存在这样一个共识,高强度锻练期间,唾液中SIgA水平的下降与患上呼吸道感染的风险增大存在联系。”Everyone’s mother has a favourite treatment for a cold, but here are a few with scientific support.每一位妈妈都有各自偏爱的治疗感冒的方法,这里却要列举几个有科学依据的疗法。One of the most widely studied is the mineral zinc, which has been shown to inhibit replication of the rhinovirus, which is the cause of about 40 per cent of colds. The Journal of the American Medical Association reported in 2014 that “oral zinc is associated with a shorter duration of the common cold in healthy people”, but other studies have found mixed results.被研究得最多的治感冒药物之一是矿物锌,它被明能抑制鼻病毒的复制,后者是约40%感冒的罪魁祸首。《美国医学会杂志》(Journal of the American Medical Association)曾在2014年称,“口锌与健康人群普通感冒持续时间缩短有关”。不过,其他研究则显示了相互矛盾的结果。The primary reason, according to George Eby, the US researcher who discovered zinc’s effect on colds, is that only positively charged ionic zinc is effective against infections, so athletes should look for lozenges containing zinc acetate or zinc gluconate, not commonly available zinc citrate.发现锌对感冒有用的美国研究人员乔治伊比(George Eby)认为,主要的原因在于,只有带正电荷的锌离子具有抗感染功效。因此,运动员应该用含有乙酸锌或葡萄糖酸锌的药片,而不是常见的柠檬酸锌。One Cochrane Review of data in 2013 found that the much touted Vitamin C generally failed to protect against colds, although it may offer some benefit to heavy exercisers.2013年《考科蓝回顾》(Cochrane Review)的一项数据显示,倍受吹捧的维生素C通常不能预防感冒——尽管它可能对高强度锻炼者有某些益处。Another nutritional supplement recently studied is a green alga known as chlorella. One relatively small study found that athletes who took chlorella during heavy training did not suffer the same reduction in SIgA that other athletes did.另一种最近被研究的营养补充剂是一种被称为小球藻的绿藻。一项规模相对较小的研究发现,在高强度训练期间用小球藻的运动员并未出现与其他运动员一样的SIgA减少现象。Finally, a simple but effective protection and cure that is common in Japan, but less so in North America or Europe: gargling. A randomised controlled trial in Japan showed that the occurrence of respiratory tract infections was significantly reduced in people who gargled several times a day. The most effective gargle was tap water, not the various medicinal gargles available, most probably because chlorine added to drinking water inhibits viruses.最后,一个很简单而又有效的防治方法是漱口,这种方法在日本十分常见,在北美或欧洲却不那么普遍。在日本开展的一项随机对照试验显示,在一天多次漱口的人群中,呼吸道感染的发生率显著降低。最有效的漱口水是自来水,而不是市面上可以见到的各种药用漱口水,最有可能的原因是饮用水中添加的氯能够抑制病毒。 /201601/419735Subway employees will have to use a ruler to prove the chain is serving foot long sandwiches after a lawsuit found they were only 11 inches.赛百味曾因三明治仅11英寸(约28厘米)遭诉讼,以后其员工将不得不使用直尺,明该连锁店制作的三明治足够一英尺长(约30厘米)。The world#39;s largest fast food chain came under fire two years ago when a photo showing one of its sandwiches next to a tape measure went viral, which revealed it was just 11 inches.两年前,一张照片在网上疯传,照片中赛百味三明治旁边有把卷尺,它显示三明治仅有11英寸长。这个世界上最大的快餐连锁店因此遭受责难。This led to a class-action lawsuit from Subway consumers who said they were cheated out of an inch of their sandwiches.赛百味消费者发起集体诉讼,声称被骗了一英寸的三明治。Subway will now ensure their restaurants are adhering to the new rules and selling the correct length sandwiches.如今,赛百味需确保各家连锁店遵守新规,销售标准长度的三明治。The furore started in 2013 when Australian Matt Corby, uploaded a picture of a Subway sandwich to Facebook with a ruler on top showing the sandwich at 11 inches.这起轰动事件源起于2013年,当时澳大利亚人马特·科比(Matt Corby)在Facebook上传了一张赛百味三明治的照片,图中三明治上方有把尺子,显示三明治长度是11英寸。Separate lawsuits were then filed by plaintiffs in Chicago and on the East Coast, each seeking damages over a missing inch or more.随后多名原告分别在芝加哥和东海岸提起了诉讼,要求对不足的尺寸赔偿或更多。A lawsuit in Chicago was brought by Nguyen Buren, who claimed his Subway was less than 11 inches long and alleged a #39;pattern of fraudulent, deceptive and otherwise improper advertising, sales and marketing practices#39;.一位叫做阮·布伦(Nguyen Buren)的消费者在芝加哥提起上诉,声称他买的赛百味三明治不足11英寸,指控赛百味采取“欺骗、欺瞒等不正当的广告、销售和营销手段”。Attorney Tom Zimmerman, who is representing Mr Buren against Subway parent Doctor#39;s Associations Inc, was ed in the Chicago Tribune as saying: #39;This is no different than if you bought a dozen eggs and they gave you 11 or you bought a dozen doughnuts and they gave you 11. It#39;s no different, and yet you#39;re paying for 12.#39;汤姆·齐默尔曼(Tom Zimmerman)是布伦起诉赛百味母公司Doctor#39;s Associations案的代理律师。据《芝加哥论坛报》(Chicago Tribune)的报道,他表示:“这无异于付12个鸡蛋的钱却只买到11个,付12个甜甜圈的钱却只买到11个。这没什么差别,可你付的是12个的钱。”At the same time, two men filed a similar suit in New Jersey state court, seeking damages in excess of million.与此同时,两名男子在新泽西州法院对赛百味提起了类似的诉讼,要求500多万美元的赔偿。Mr Zimmerman said he hopes their suit will be withdrawn and moved to federal court so they can be combined.齐默尔曼说他希望这两个人的诉讼被撤销,移至联邦法院,令针对赛百味的诉讼能合并审理。As part of the new proposals, Subway will provide new training materials to make sure staff sell the full 12 inch sandwich.根据最新提议,赛百味将采用新训练材料,确保员工销售的三明治足够12英寸。Subway will also enforce stricter penalties to stores that fail to meet the new standards.赛百味还将对未能执行新标准的连锁店采取更严格的惩罚措施。A hearing for final approval of the terms has been set for January 2016.这些提议的最终批准听会定于2016年1月举行。It had previously responded to the original complaint made in Australia.赛百味之前回应过澳大利亚的第一起控告。A spokesman said: #39;We have redoubled our efforts to ensure consistency and correct length in every sandwich we serve.一位发言人说:“我们已加倍努力,确保始终为顾客提供标准长度的三明治。”Our commitment remains steadfast to ensure that every Subway Footlong sandwich is 12 inches at each location worldwide.#39;“我们仍坚定地承诺将确保赛百味在全球各地销售的每块一英尺长三明治都有12英寸。” /201510/405204






  The Vatican says Pope Francis, head of the Roman Catholic Church, has recognized a second miracle attributed to the late Mother Teresa, clearing the way for her elevation to sainthood.梵蒂冈说,罗马天主教教宗方济各确认已故修女特蕾莎生前施展的第二次神迹,为册封她为圣人扫清了道路。Vatican officials said Friday that the pope has approved a decree that attributed a miracle to Mother Teresa#39;s intercession.梵蒂冈官员星期五表示,教宗批准了一项法令,把第二个神迹归功于特蕾莎修女的代祷。The miracle named in the decree is the inexplicable cure in 2008 of a Brazilian man suffering from brain tumors. The man is said to have been cured after his wife prayed for Mother Teresa#39;s intercession.法令中提到的神迹说,2008年,一位患脑瘤的巴西男子神奇地得到治愈。据说,这名男子是在他妻子祷告请求特蕾莎修女代祷之后得到治愈的。Italian media report the formal canonization ceremony is expected to take place in September 2016, making it one of the highlights of Pope Francis#39; so-called ;Holy Year of Mercy.;据意大利媒体报道,正式的封圣仪式预计将在2016年9月举行,它将成为教宗方济各所称的“慈悲禧年”的一大亮点。Mother Teresa was famed for her lifetime of service to the poor, establishing homeless shelters, orphanages, soup kitchens and clinics around the world.特蕾莎修女因为毕生务于穷人,在全球建立无家可归者收容所、孤儿院、爱心厨房和诊所而闻名。 /201512/418311

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