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2019年07月19日 04:05:54来源:安健康

中国正在大力建造清洁城市和宣扬使用可再生清洁能源同时,然而中国的煤炭能源的一步扩大使用正在阻碍这种努力。总所周知,煤炭来来是中国的主要能源之一,仅在”中国火炉”重庆,每年就有几千个矿工因为挖煤而失去自己的宝贵生命,如何减少对煤炭的依赖,快速建立清洁城市呢?Clean Cities and Dirty Coal Power--China's Energy Paradox(矛盾) CHONGQING—This year China surpassed (超越)the U.S. as the world’s largest emitter(释放者) of greenhouse gases. And coal is largely to blame. The dirty black rock is burned everywhere, from industrial boilers to home stoves, and generates 75 percent of the nation’s electricity. More than 4,000 miners die every year digging the fossil fuel (挖煤)out of China’s heartland. One consequence of the country’s reliance on coal is most visible in the air. Smog cloaks cities, reducing the sky to little more than a blue patch amid a blanket of haze. As the pollution builds, it forms a brown cloud, visible from space, that in a week’s time crosses the Pacific Ocean to the western U.S., where it accounts for as much as 15 percent of the air pollution.The haze means no true horizon can be seen when one is walking the streets of Chongshy;qing, an inland port city on the Yangtze River that produces most of China’s motorcycles as well as other industrial goods. It seems the entire Rust Belt (美国工业老区,传统的制造业中心)of the U.S. has been crammed into this “furnace of China,(中国的火炉)” as it is known—a single community of more than 30 million people, twice the size of the New York City metropolitan region.Chongqing’s men, women and children breathe air filled with lung-clogging soot and smoke(可以进入呼吸道的没煤灰微粒). Nationally, health care associated with respiratory ills(呼吸道疾病) costs China an estimated 0 billion a year, according to the World Bank(世界). Furthermore, the foul air can literally stunt the growth of the next generation, according to recent research from Frederica P. Perera of Columbia University and her Chinese colleagues.The Chinese have been burning coal for centuries. They now consume 2.5 billion tons a year—more than double that of the U.S.—and imports are rising despite extensive domestic mining. In 2007 the country’s 541 coal-fired power plants pumped out 554,420 megawatts(兆瓦) of electricity, according to the Chinese State Electricity Regulatory Commission(中国国家电力监管委员会)—roughly equivalent to the output of 550 large nuclear reactors. On average, China opens one coal-fired plant every week to serve its 1.3 billion people and the massive industries that manufacture cheap goods, largely for the U.S. and Europe.Notwithstanding its deeply polluted state, China is also working feverishly(兴奋地) to clean up. It plans to reduce pollutants(污染物) by as much as 10 percent over the next five years. Part of the effort involves creating carbon-neutral cities and expanding renewable energy sources, as described in the stories that follow. Much of the strategy, however, is simply to shutter small, inefficient coal plants and replace them with larger ones that are more efficient. “To close small plants, it will be very effective to improve air quality,” Sarah Liang, a spokesperson in Greenpeace’s Beijing office, tells me. But that still leaves a load of pollution.Greener Generation(更环保的能源生产)Despite the surfeit(过量) of soot(烟灰), the average Chinese citizen accounts for a mere fraction(一小部分) of the greenhouse emissions of the average American. Sheer population overcomes the small per capita number, however, and the country is not bound by any international treaty to reduce its pollution. Nevertheless, the government has at least started to tackle the problem by launching a pilot project to capture and store the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from burning coal at a demonstration power plant dubbed GreenGen.The project, in the Yellow Sea port city of Tianjin northeast of here, will proceed in three phases. First, a consortium of power and coal companies will construct a so-called integrated gasification (气化)combined cycle power plant. In this design, coal is converted into a gas, and pollutants are removed before the gas is burned. Such technology could cut acid rain–causing sulfur dioxide emissions by more than 90 percent and smog-forming nitrous oxides by 75 percent—as well as capturing more than 80 percent of the CO2 emitted by 2015 and storing it in nearby depleted (大大减少的)oil fields.The -billion GreenGen plant became the world’s leading clean coal project in January after the U.S. government pulled the plug on FutureGen, a similar demonstration plant in Mattoon, Ill., that lost steam as construction costs skyrocketed(突升). The cancellation came despite the fact that the ed Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and leaders of the world’s eight richest nations (the G8), including President George W. Bush, had called the development of clean coal technology essential to preventing the consequences of climate change.Completing GreenGen, which will generate up to 250 megawatts of electricity, may prove daunting, however. “There’s no co-benefit to doing the carbon capture and storage,” says energy technology expert Kelly Sims Gallagher of Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government. “There’s an argument for doing GreenGen in terms of research and getting experience with it, but from a commercial point of view it doesn’t make sense.” The reason: extra energy is consumed to turn the coal into gas and subsequently to then capture the CO2—in effect requiring the burning of more coal to generate the same amount of electricity.GreenGen is a for-profit power plant, so economic gains or losses will determine whether its owners ever proceed with the capture-and-storage step. One argument in its favor would be to pump the extracted CO2 into underperforming oil wells to recover more of the oil. In an environment where oil is more expensive than ever, that approach could be “economically viable and valuable for nations that are rich in coal,” says Vic Svec, a senior vice president at U.S. coal giant Peabody, which is part owner of GreenGen.Better Enforcement Needed(需要更有效的管理)Residents of Chongqing got a glimpse of cleaner skies in the years leading up to the recent Olympics, as factories were shifted to the outskirts of towns and small, inefficient coal power plants were closed to clear the air for visiting media and tourists. “When I was young, the sky was green, and we [could not] see stars at night,” says local government official David Lee, a lifelong Chongqing resident. “This year we see blue skies and stars. We think it’s much better.”The air can still be tasted on the tongue, however, and felt in the lungs. And it still obscured the horizon for this observer. Among the culprits (罪犯)are companies that flout (轻视)clean air laws—as well as lackluster efforts to enforce those laws. Factories and power plants turn on the pollution-shy;control equipment when government officials visit, but when they leave the controls are shut off to boost power production. “The government cannot check every day,” Lee says. But regulators “need to enforce the environmental laws if they want blue skies,” insists Li Junfeng, secretary general of the Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association.Other cities, such as Zhengzhou in China’s most populous province of Henan, have little hope of clear skies any time soon. The atmosphere in the provincial capital is thick with pollution because the movement of factories and power plants away from signature cities such as Beijing has put them closer to less well-known metropolises.Despite a ban on coal burning and billion spent on clean air measures in the past decade, smog is still an issue in Beijing, in part because cars have proliferated in recent years. “It is bitter air that you can feel,” says resident Timothy Hui, a program manager in the Beijing office of the Natural Resources Defense Council, a U.S.-based environmental group. “People hate it. They complain.”Some analysts place part of the blame on Western countries. A full 23 percent of China’s greenhouse gas emissions can be linked to the production of goods exported to the West, according to the Tyndall Center for Climate Change Research in England. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University put the share even higher: at 33 percent.That demand doesn’t absolve(赦免) China from cutting back on noxious emissions or taking more responsibility for the fate of the world’s climate, which in no small part will be forged in the crucible of its industrial cities. “Gradual warming of the earth’s atmosphere is caused by the developing countries as well as the developed countries,” says Wang Xiansheng, professor of English at Zhengzhou University. “The whole world should get united to deal with the problem.”Keke View:有关专家预测,在今后50年内煤炭仍将长期是我国的主要能源。煤炭工业要在“十一五”期间实现资源节约型、环境友好型和走新型工业化道路的发展目标,确保国家能源安全,必须大力发展煤炭科技,促进科技成果的转化,不断提高煤炭资源安全开采与洁净利用的水平。成立能源与安全科技园,组建技术研发平台,转化能源科技成果,有利于促进我国煤炭工业、能源工业实现节约发展、清洁发展、安全发展以及可持续发展。 /200907/79659。

  • When you think Harley-Davidson, you probably think about leather, beards, and loud engines. Now, though, you can picture a fully electric bike with a digital display.一提到哈雷戴维森托车( Harley-Davidson),大家可能就会想到皮革、胡须,以及轰隆的引擎声。但现在,大家可以把它想象成是一辆配备数字显示屏的全电动单车。The iconic American motorcycle manufacturer held an event in New York City Monday afternoon showing off Project LiveWire, a prototype of the company’s first electric motorcycle.上周一下午,这家标志性的美国托车制造商在纽约市举办了一场活动,隆重推出了它的第一款电动托概念车:LiveWire。The new bikes look mostly like a traditional motorcycle, with a few notable exceptions. There is a digital display in between the handlebars where speed and efficiency are displayed. Also, there is no clutch on the left handlebar, since there are no gears. The bike can go from zero to 60 in about 4 seconds, and can reach up to 92 m.p.h. It does not have the traditional loud Harley rev-up sound, though there is a slight hum from the electric engine starting.这款新单车看起来跟传统的托车相差无几,但也存在几个显著的不同之处。它的车把之间有一个能够显示速度和效率的显示屏。此外,左车把没有离合器,因为它没有齿轮。这款单车从零加速到60英里(约合96公里)大约只需4秒,最高时速为92英里。它没有传统哈雷托那种响亮的转速声,但它的电动引擎会发出轻微的嗡嗡声。Harley President Matt Levatich said it would be a few years before the bikes were y to be manufactured and put on sale. In the meantime, it is still tweaking the design and listening to its customers.哈雷公司总裁马特o雷瓦迪克表示,这款单车准备在几年后量产销售。与此同时,这家公司将继续调整设计,同时聆听消费者的意见。“We don’t have specific date,” he said. “We need time to incorporate that feedback.“我们还没有确定具体的日期,”他说。“我们需要时间来吸收顾客的反馈信息。”It was a uniquely diverse crowd gathered at the Harley-Davidson HOG 0.00% dealership in Lower Manhattan — a near equal mix of buttoned-up journalists lumbering onto the LiveWire simulator (think a motorcycle stuck in place that can be “revved up” without actually going anywhere) and Harley-Davidson Riders Club Members, many of whom sported well-worn patched vests and beards that would give Rasputin a run for his money.各色人等聚集在位于曼哈顿下城哈雷戴维森旗舰店。一群沉默寡言的记者缓慢地爬上LiveWire模拟装置(想象一下,你骑在一辆被卡住的托车上,可以“加速”,但托车根本不会动),试驾者当然少不了哈雷骑士俱乐部成员(Harley-Davidson Riders Club Members),其中许多人穿着打满补丁的旧背心,蓄着可以跟一代巫师拉斯普廷相媲美的大胡子。One of those riders, Juan Marmol, said that the new bike ran great, though he was concerned about the relative short range of the bike on a single charge of its battery. The bike can only travel around 55 miles after a three hour charge.一位叫胡安o马莫尔的车手说,这款新单车的驾驶感觉非常棒,但他担心,一次充电能够撑的里程相对较短。经过三小时充电之后,这款单车只能行驶大约55英里。“It was awesome,” he said. “The biggest downfall to it right now based on what their telling us is the charge time.”“感觉很棒,”他说。“根据他们目前的说法,最大的缺点是充电时间。”For hardcore Harley riders who sometimes go up to 400 miles a day, the current battery just wouldn’t work, Marmol said. But he did think that the new bike could change Harley-Davidson’s image and maybe bring some new people into the hog-riding family.马莫尔说,铁杆哈雷车手有时候一天要骑行400英里,对他们来说,目前的电池根本不够用。但他的确认为,这款单车可以改变哈雷戴维森的形象,或许能够吸引一些新人加入重型托手的行列。“I believe this will change kind of the mindset that Harley’s are for old guys,” he said.他说:“我相信它多少会改变那种认为哈雷粉丝都是老家伙的观点。”Levatich agreed, also noting that Harley would not be forgetting its core customers who want old-fashioned motorcycles. “We’re absolutely not abandoning any of that,” he said. “We’re going to continue to invest in great traditional Harley-Davidson motorcycles. LiveWire has nothing to do with that. It’s all of that, plus opening the doors to some people that are maybe on the outside of the sport, on the outside of the brand.”雷瓦迪克同意这种看法,但他还指出,哈雷永远也不会忘记那些钟情于老式托车的核心客户。“我们绝对不会放弃任何一款老车型,”他说。“我们将继续投资于拥有伟大传统的哈雷戴维森托车。LiveWire与老车型无关。推出这款车是想给一些或许还没有喜欢上这项运动、没有尝试过这一品牌的人们打开一扇门。”Of course, Harley-Davidson isn’t the only motor cycle maker exploring electric bikes. In fact, Other companies such as Mission Motors have aly put their models on sale.当然,哈雷戴维森并不是唯一一家正在开发电动单车的托车制造商。事实上,包括使命托(Mission Motors)在内的其他公司已经开始销售电动车型。Harley-Davidson’s roadshow will travel across the ed States this year and next in addition to going to Canada and Europe. The LiveWire Experience Tourcontinues next week in Milwaukee, Wis.哈雷戴维森今年将在美国各地举行路演活动,明年还打算远赴加拿大和欧洲。LiveWire体验之旅下周将移师威斯康星州密尔沃基市。 /201407/308788。
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