旅游  |  攻略  |  美食  |  自驾  |  团购
您的位置: 青海省旅游网 / 规划 / 新闻动态 / 青海要闻


来源:好健康    发布时间:2019年06月27日 14:05:57    编辑:admin         

Lexington莱克星顿Still in the trenches仍深陷战壕A pre-Christmas lull in political combat probably means less than meets the eye政治斗争在圣诞前夕暂息,其意义也许低于表面价值THE idea of the Christmas truce is a potent one. A celebrated example took place in December 1914, when first-world-war troops climbed warily from trenches at points along the Western Front. As freezing fog swirled, British and allied soldiers met German foes to barter cigarettes, sing carols and kick footballs on no-mans-land. The moment passed into myth, inspiring poems, films and a (pretty terrible) Paul McCartney song. Britain is marking the centenary lavishly, with a new monument and memorial football matches around the world. Far-off Washington was not left out, with British and Canadian diplomats playing a German-embassy team in Americas capital on December 14th.圣诞休战的想法很强大,最有名的例子是1914年的12月,在一战西线战场上,战士们疲惫地从战壕中爬出,弥漫的寒雾中,英国及其联盟国的战士和他们的德国对手聚在一起,抽香烟,唱颂歌,在无人区踢足球。这一刻被写成了传说故事与振奋人心的诗歌,还被拍成了电影,编成了一首惹人生厌的保罗·麦卡特尼歌曲,以这些形式流传了下来。值其百年之际,英国对此进行了大肆庆祝,新建了一座纪念碑,还发起了世界范围的纪念足球赛。远方的华盛顿也不甘落后,12月14日,英加外交官在美国首都迎战德国使馆队。Yet the meaning of Christmas 1914 is in danger of being muddled. In too many tellings, the truce is hailed as something between a protest and a premonition: a declaration of shared humanity by ordinary soldiers, before heartless commanders sent them to their deaths. Historys record is more complicated. That first December the trenches were newly dug, and both sides could imagine that total victory was at hand. The small-scale Christmas truces of 1914 were as much a display of misplaced confidence as an outbreak of pacifism. The truces moral is rather bleak: those embarking on the first industrial war had little idea of the murderous stalemate that lay ahead. After bitter reality sank in, few called for cheery Christmas games with the enemy.但1914年圣诞背后的含义有被混说之嫌。在许多传说中,那次休战被看做战士们在对命运的不祥预感之下,做出的一种无声抗议,是无情的指挥官把他们送往坟墓之前,寻常战士做出的人性宣言。但它在历史记载中显然更复杂。那是一战经历的第一个12月,战壕刚被挖好,交战双方都以为胜券在握。1914年那场小规模的圣诞休战,若说它代表了反战主义,那它一定也代表着交战双方错寄的信心。休战的意义很模糊,史上首次工业战争的参与者几乎不了解,前方有多少鏖战。当他们意识到苦涩的现实,就少有人有心情呼唤敌军,一起做欢乐的圣诞游戏了。Without stretching the analogy too far, lessons are there for Congress, after members marked the holiday season with a moment of unusual comity. After a tense few days, including a Saturday session in the Senate, members of the House of Representatives and senators avoided shutting the government down, crossing party lines to pass a .1 trillion spending bill. This marked a win for the Republicans “governing wing”: party members who believe that voters, having handed them control of both chambers of Congress in Novembers mid-term elections, expect them to do more than shout “No” during President Barack Obamas final two years in office. Such Republicans formed coalitions with moderate Democrats to push back populists on the right and left who opposed elements of the spending bill with enough fervour to flirt with closing down the government. Front-page headlines hailed a “rare bipartisan success”, and Senate veterans used such words as “hope”.如果进行有限的类比,美国国会的确可以从中学到一些东西,其成员为了庆祝这一节日,正展现出难得的礼让。此前,他们经历了一段时间的剑拔弩张—包括参议院在周六的会议—两会议员努力避免政府被关闭,相互合作通过了一个1.1万亿美元的出方案,这标志着共和党“执政派系”想法的胜利,即,共和党人相信,在11月的中期选举中,选民将两会的控制权赋予他们,并不只是为了让他们在奥巴马任期的最后两年中拒不合作的。抱着相同想法的共和党人与民主党中的温和派联手,逼退了左右派中的民粹主义者—他们反对开议案中的内容,还充满狂热地想轻率的关闭政府。报纸头版用“罕见的跨党派成功”,参议院中的老练议员更是用上了“希望”这样的词语。In a striking display of establishment confidence, Republican senators publicly berated their colleague Ted Cruz of Texas, a darling of the grassroots, putative presidential contender and the man chiefly responsible for forcing the Senate back into session over the weekend. Mr Cruz had held up the spending bill to demand a show-vote on whether the constitution allows Mr Obama to shield millions of migrants from deportation—a ploy that had no chance of stopping the president but did delight Cruz supporters (and inadvertently allowed Democrats extra time to confirm some contested presidential nominees before ceding control of the Senate). Though 21 colleagues felt it prudent to join Mr Cruz in a symbolic vote condemning Mr Obamas immigration policy, many more opposed him.在一片前景光明的言论中,共和党参议员公开斥责他们的同事、德州议员特德·克鲁兹,他出身草根,是潜在的总统候选人,主要负责在周末期间,斡旋让参议院恢复开会。他曾经阻拦开议案,以此要求对奥巴马庇护千万非法移民的问题进行投票(因此无意中,让民主党人有更多的时间,在失去参议院控制权前,确认以后会与他们敌对的总统提名候选人)。尽管当时有21名同事参加了克鲁兹象征性的投票,谴责奥巴马的移民政策,但真正反对奥巴马的人,可能更多。A rebellion on the Democratic left was also seen off. Its leader, Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts, vocally opposed a provision in the spending bill which, at Wall Streets behest, weakens a part of the Dodd-Frank financial-reform law that forces banks to shift some derivatives away from government safety nets. Like Mr Cruz, Ms Warren has a talent for reducing complex policy to stirring battle-cries, calling the spending bill—an unlovely collection of gifts to special interests, with goodies for Democrats and Republicans, but few big policy shifts—“a vote for future taxpayer bail-outs of Wall Street” which, if repeated, might leave America with “no financial regulations at all”.民主左派中的反叛也初见苗头,其领袖,马萨诸塞州参议员伊丽莎白·沃伦,公开反对开议案中的一项条款,这一由华尔街促成的议案会削弱多德弗兰克法案,迫使将其一些附属机构移出政府的安全网。和克鲁兹一样,沃伦擅长将复杂的政策变为足以撩拨起战争的口号,她把这项开议案称为送给特殊利益阶层的大礼,十分不讨喜,尽管这对两党都有利,但大的方针政策几乎没变,“这是投票决定纳税人以后是否要出资让华尔街拜托困境”,而这种事情如果一再发生,美国会“毫无金融秩序可言”。Other Democrats saw a larger interest in taking the best deal they could get, in the last days before Republicans assume control of both the House and the Senate in the new year. During their Saturday session such pragmatic Democrats joined a bipartisan group of senators singing carols around a piano just off the Senate floor, and crooning “Ill Be Home for Christmas”.至于其他民主党人,他们在共和党新年掌控两院之前,从他们能够得到的最好交易中看到了更大的利益。在周六的会议中,这样的务实民主党与一群两党参议员一起,在参议院的钢琴旁唱着颂歌,并低声吟唱着“我要回家过圣诞”。Alas, the signs are that powerful forces in both parties saw the spending deal as a momentary, tactical ceasefire. Detached observers may see American democracy as increasingly locked in a 50-50 stalemate, in which Democrats dominate urban areas and enjoy a slight majority among the overall population, while Republicans have the edge among those citizens (notably older, whiter and richer folk) who reliably vote. Both parties may have fought each other to a draw in a technological arms race, perfecting gerrymandering, data-mining, and voter-targeting tools which allow core supporters to be fired up and turned out to vote with unprecedented efficiency. But—like massed armies in 1914—partisans still dream that sweeping victories are within grasp.可悲的是,这种信号太过强大,两党都把开议案看做了一次短暂的战略性停火。冷眼旁观的观察员则认为,美国民主越来越陷入势均力敌的僵局中—民主党主导城镇地区,在大众中开始占据微弱的多数优势,共和党则在市民(即更年长、更富有的白人)中占有优势,而这类人是实实在在的选民。两党在高科技战中也许战平了,完善了选区划分、数据挖掘和选民定制工具,让主要持者能被煽动、以前所未有的效率投票。但就像1914年的大军一样,党派人士仍幻想着压倒性胜利是垂手可得的。One more heave, and on to victory向着胜利再进一步Many on the right think that Republicans have a simple mandate once they fully control Congress: to thwart Mr Obama on every front until a proper conservative takes the White House in 2016 (two-thirds of Republicans told a recent Pew Research Centre poll that their party leaders should “stand up” to Mr Obama, even if less gets done in Washington as a result). Many on the left are sure that a majority of Americans loathe Wall Street and believe that the middle classes have been stiffed, giving a fiery economic populist like Ms Warren a clear path to power (on December 13th more than 300 former Obama campaign staff signed a letter calling on the Massachusetts senator to run for president).许多右派人士认为,共和党控制议会后有一个简单的使命,即在所有问题上都一一瓦解奥巴马,直到保守党能够在2016年入主白宫。(2/3的共和党人在近日的一次皮尤调查中都表示,他们的党派领袖应该站出来反对奥巴马,即使政府因此会耽误一些事务)。而许多左派人士则确信,多数美国人仍憎恶华尔街,并相信中产阶级仍在受压迫,这让沃伦等极端的经济民粹主义者有了一条清晰无比的争权之路(12月13日,300名奥巴马竞选团队的前成员签署了一封信,呼吁这位马萨诸塞州议员竞选总统)。In short, too many partisans on left and right look at an unhappy electorate and see woes that can be harnessed to bring them victory without the need to compromise. It is a relief that Americas government was not shut down this Christmas. But do not mistake a lull in combat for lasting peace.简而言之,左右两派中的许多人都在盯着不开心的选民,在不妥协的前提下,将这种不满为自己所用以带来胜利。让人松一口气的是,美国政府在这个圣诞节没有停摆。但不要把暂时的平静误认做永久的和平。翻译:杨雪 校对:靳方方 译文属译生译世 /201412/351097。

The European Commission欧盟委员会Friends in the right places处在正确位置的朋友The British are down, the Germans and east Europeans are up英国势力不在,德国和东欧的势力崛起“I AM French, I am deeply French, but here I will stand as a European commissioner.” Thus Pierre Moscovici, a French former finance minister, when seeking the European Parliaments approval as economics and finance commissioner this autumn. Commission officials similarly plead European ambitions over national interests. But home ties are hard to break, so governments are keen to place their own in key posts.“我是一个法国人,一个纯正的法国人,但我现在以欧盟委员会的身份站在这里。”今年秋天,法国前财政部长皮埃尔·莫斯科维奇在寻求欧洲议会批准其为经济和金融委员的时候如是说。委员会官员同样辩解称欧盟发展大于国家利益。但是国家情结很难打破,因此各国政府都力争谋求欧盟委员会的关键职位。New members have made their mark in recent years (see left-hand chart). Italys representation has plummeted from almost 25% of the total in the 1980s. As host country, Belgium still does well. But the most striking recent trend has been the rise of Poland and Romania. In 2011 Poland slipped ahead of Britain, which now accounts for just 4.5% of the commissions total staff.欧盟新成员国在最近几年里取得了很大的进步(见左边图表)。意大利代表在欧盟委员会中的比例自19世纪80年代的25%暴跌至今。作为东道国,比利时仍然表现不错。但是近来最令人惊叹的变化是波兰和罗马尼亚代表人数在欧盟委员会中的上升。2011年,波兰代表在委员会中所占职位比例首次超过仅占4.5%的英国。The old guard clings on at the top, however. At the end of 2013, of the 128 most senior positions, Germany held 20, Britain 13 and France 11. German influence in commissioners private offices (cabinets) has risen in the new commission led by Luxembourgs Jean-Claude Juncker (whose chef de cabinet is German). Germany is also seen as dominant in the European Parliament.但是老牌大国仍然坚守在欧盟委员会的顶端。2013年末,在128名最高级的职位中,德国占据了20个,英国13个以及法国11个。在由卢森堡的让 - 克洛德·容克(他的内阁大臣是德国人)领导的委员会中,德国在私人办公室(即内阁)的影响力逐渐上升。德国也被视为欧洲议会的主导者。What about the future? Intriguingly, for junior administrative grades, the top two countries are now Poland and Romania. France is struggling to keep up—its influence in Brussels is declining. Britain does even worse at junior than at senior level, with a share of below 3% (see right-hand chart). As one senior official says, the commission can attract the brightest and best from newer members, but struggles to do so from Britain.未来又会怎么样呢?有趣的是,对于初级的行政级别,现在所占人数比例最多的两个国家是波兰和罗马利亚。法国正在努力追赶——它在欧盟的影响力正在下降。英国人在初级职位上所占的比例比高级职位更少,甚至低于3%(见右边图表)。一个高级官员说到,欧盟委员会可以吸引新成员国最聪明最好的人才,但是在英国却不吃香。One problem is Britons poor foreign-language skills (job applicants must speak at least two). This is aggravated, ironically, by todays preponderance of English in the work of EU institutions. The risk of a British exit after a referendum also makes the commission a shaky career choice. Young Britons are drawn to China or America instead. The British governments attempt to do better is not working, either: since it relaunched its “EU fast stream” process with much fanfare in 2010, not a single candidate has gone on to join the commission.问题之一是英国人蹩脚的外语能力(欧盟委员会申请人必须会两门语言以上)。讽刺的是,如今英国人在欧盟机构工作的优势更加使他们的外语能力愈发差劲。公投后英国有可能退出欧盟的风险同样让英国人把欧盟委员会列入不稳定的职业选择。相反,之前年轻的英国人所在的岗位吸引了大量的中国人和美国人。英国政府试图改善的措施也并不见效。自从政府于2010年大张旗鼓地重新启动“欧盟快流”计划以来,没有一个候选人加入欧盟委员会。译者:胡雅琳 校对:邵夏沁 译文属译生译世 /201412/351094。

According to a new study, drinking beer does make you friendlier, happier and less inhibited. 根据一项新的研究,饮用啤酒会使你更友好、快乐和自在。The studys lead researcher, Matthias Liechti, who is the head of psychopharmacology research at University Hospital in Basel, Switzerland, says, 这项研究的首席研究员,瑞士巴塞尔大学医院的精神药理学主管Matthias Liechti说,We found that drinking a glass of beer helps people see happy faces faster, and enhances concern for positive emotional situations.我们发现喝一杯啤酒有助于人们更快获得快乐,并增强积极的情绪状态。Researchers came to their conclusion after studying two groups of 30 men and 30 women. 研究人员在研究两组30名男性和30名女性后,得出了他们的结论。Before and after alcohol consumption, both groups performed various tasks, including facial recognition as well as tests of their empathy and even sexual arousal.在饮酒前和之后,这两组人员进行了各种任务,包括面部识别、同情心测试、甚至性兴奋试验。译文属。201609/467487。

A self-professed introvert, which is fitting for a company that sells itself on textual communication, he values efficiency and candour. After Yahoo bought Flickr, he worked there for a few years. “Everything was horrible, ugly, slow, difficult to use and confusing,” he says, frankly.他自称性格内向——这恰恰适合靠文本通讯谋生的公司——并且珍视效率和坦诚。雅虎收购Flickr之后,他在那里工作了几年。“一切都很可怕、丑陋、缓慢、难用、混乱。”他毫不掩饰地说道。In retrospect, Flickr was sold too soon. The sale marked the beginning of the technology industrys resurgence after its crash in the early 2000s. Now Mr Butterfield has a second chance. Investors do not want to see him sell Slack too early. Earlier this year there were reports that Microsoft considered bidding around billion for the company. Mr Butterfield says that Slack has never received a formal offer from anyone and is planning to go public. Last year it started submitting itself to voluntary audits, in what appears to be preparation for a public debut. But it seems even more likely that a large tech giant will see the strategic value of Slack and try to snap it up first for an even splashier sum.回想起来,当年卖Flickr卖得太早了。那一次并购标志着科技产业在经历21世纪初崩溃后的复苏。如今巴特菲尔德有了第二次机会。投资者不愿意看到他过早卖掉Slack。今年早些时候有报道称,微软考虑出价80亿美元收购该公司。巴特菲尔德则表示从未收到任何人的正式报价,而公司正计划上市。去年,公司做了一次外部审计,似乎是为公开上市准备。但貌似可能性更大的是某家科技巨头会意识到Slack的战略价值,以更高的出价抢先将其收归麾下。Mr Butterfield says that Slack could achieve billion in revenue if it signs up 100m knowledge workers, of which there are around 850m worldwide. That is far easier said than done. For one thing, Slack still needs to woo larger companies outside the technology world. Currently it holds particular appeal among workers at firms in the internet, media and advertising industries, and among teams of software developers within larger firms. Conquering traditional businesses may prove harder. Slacks yearly minimum of per employee is steep for companies with tens of thousands of workers.巴特菲尔德表示,假如全球约8.5亿的知识型劳动者中有一亿成为Slack的付费用户,那么公司的年收入将达到100亿美元。这说起来容易,实际难度却大得多。一方面,Slack还须取非科技业大公司的青睐。目前,Slack特别受互联网、媒体、广告公司员工的欢迎,大公司内部软件开发团队的员工也很爱用。但征传统公司可能会更难。Slack每人80美元的最低年费对拥有数以万计员工的企业来说是一项不菲的开。For another, Slack has rising competition to fend off. Aly, rival products are taking aim at the market for workplace collaboration, including one, Atlassian, from an Australian software company, which is called HipChat, and bundled with its other services. There is also Symphony, a rival startup backed by several banks that specialises in highly regulated industries such as financial services, which require more compliance controls. Tech giants such as Microsoft, Oracle and Facebook have collaborative work apps, but these are only modestly successful.另一方面,Slack还要抵御不断加剧的竞争。已有不少竞争产品瞄准办公协作的市场,其中包括澳大利亚软件公司Atlassian推出的HipChat,该产品还捆绑提供公司的其他务。另一对手是拥有多家持的创业企业Symphony,其产品专门针对金融务等受高度监管的行业而设,这些行业要求更多的合规控制。微软、甲骨文和Facebook等科技巨头也有协同工作应用,但都成绩有限。Slacks greatest challenge may be peoples own habits. To some, its endless stream of chatter may be worse even than e-mail, because the barriers to commenting rapidly are lower. The introverted Mr Butterfield should welcome the chance to appeal to people who do not want constant interaction, even when it comes in textual form.Slack面临的最大挑战可能是人们自身的习惯。一些人认为,这种没完没了地唠叨也许比电子邮件还要糟糕,因为不假思索地大发议论的屏障降低了。内向的巴特菲尔德也该考虑怎样吸引那些不喜欢持续互动的人,即便是以文本形式互动。 /201606/447674。