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上饶哪个整形医院比较好上饶韩美医院激光去红血丝多少钱It#39;s commonly accepted that honey is better for us, but is that really the case? The short answer is because it is made of 55 per cent fructose (fruit sugar), eating honey is little more beneficial for our bodies than eating granulated sugar. And here#39;s why.大家普遍认为蜂蜜对我们的身体更有益。但事实确实如此吗?简单来说,由于蜂蜜中含有55%的果糖,所以吃蜂蜜一点也不比吃白砂糖健康到哪里去。Refined table sugar (sucrose) is processed in our bodies by insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. Honey is about 55 per cent fructose, a fruit sugar that#39;s processed by the liver. Despite the chemical difference, our bodies still react to honey in much same way as it reacts to refined sugar - with a blood-sugar spike.在我们体内的蔗糖是由胰腺分泌的胰岛素来分解的。而蜂蜜中包含的55%的果糖,是通过我们的肝脏来分解的。虽然在体内发生的化学变化不同,但人体对蜂蜜和对糖分的反应是一样的,都会造成血糖迅速升高。This encourages the pancreas to produce insulin, which leads the body to store fat and gain weight. When eaten to excess, products containing fructose contribute to obesity, heart problems and liver disease, just like products with granulated sugar. Other research has shown fructose drains minerals from your body.这会刺激胰腺分泌胰岛素,进而导致身体储备更多脂肪和体重上升。如果过量食用包含果糖的制品,那么就和食用含砂糖的制品一样,会导致肥胖、心脏病、肝病等问题。还有研究显示果糖还会消耗体内的矿物质。#39;There#39;s an idea that sugar is a pantomime villain and honey is the pantomime hero,#39; says nutritional therapist Ian Marber. #39;It#39;s not accurate. Loading honey onto a bowl ofporridge or breakfast cereal isn#39;t much better for our bodies than layering that cereal up with granulated sugar.“有人认为糖分就像是坏蛋,而蜂蜜像是大英雄。”营养治疗师伊恩·马伯说:“这种观点是不正确的。早上喝粥或麦片时加入蜂蜜和加白砂糖是一样不健康的。”Honey is also high in calories - more than table sugar. A teaspoon of commercial natural honey contains about 22 calories, a teaspoon of sugar around 16 calories. Many people who swapped honey for sugar found they liberally poured it into yoghurts, herbal teas and the like imagining honey to be superior to other sugars. #39;When people think something is low fat, they eat more,#39; says Ian Marber.另外,蜂蜜的卡路里含量也高于蔗糖。同样一小茶匙的量,蜂蜜含有22卡路里,而蔗糖含有16卡路里。许多用蜂蜜来替代蔗糖的人会随意地、不计量地在酸奶、凉茶中加入蜂蜜,认为蜂蜜比蔗糖健康得多。伊恩说:“当人们认为某种食物脂肪含量低就会大量食用。”#39;Companies use the word #39;honey#39; instead of saying something is #39;sweet#39; because they know it has an implied health benefit,#39; says Ian Marber.伊恩还说:“很多生产商都会用‘蜂蜜’这个词来代替‘甜’这个词,因为他们觉得这样会显得更健康。”While raw, unrefined varieties of honey - from farms and health food stores - do contain trace vitamins and minerals; niacin, riboflavin, thiamine and vitamin B6, they only make up about two per cent of honey#39;s total content.实际上,养蜂场里的和健康食品店中的未经加工的生蜂蜜确实含有多种维生素和矿物质,如烟酸、核黄素、维生素B1、B6等,但它们的总量也只占到2%。Many big-brand honeys and other #39;natural#39; sweeteners in supermarkets have been processed - heated and filtered - to rid them of pollen and naturally-occurring bacteria in raw, varieties. But it also removes these vitamins and minerals.而那些超市里售卖的大品牌蜂蜜以及其他号称“天然”甜味剂的蜂蜜是经过加工的蜂蜜,它们被加热或被过滤,这样花粉和细菌被除掉了,但同时同时除掉的还有蜂蜜里的维他命和矿物质。Dr Mica Engel, aesthetic doctor at London#39;s Waterhouse Young Clinic says glucose, fructose and carbs in honey will cause collagen damage - just like sugar. #39;Benefits from the few extra vitamins some honey contains won#39;t help to repair damage done to yourcollagen.#39;伦敦沃特豪斯诊所的美学医生迈卡·恩格尔说,蜂蜜中所含的葡萄糖、果糖以及碳水化合物等会和蔗糖一样损害皮肤的胶原蛋白。“蜂蜜中所含有的那点微量维生素无法帮你修复损害掉的胶原蛋白。”Added sugar (refined white sugar or honey) has no nutritional benefit. The NHS says added sugar can safely make up 10 per cent of a daily calorie intake.另外,添加糖(无论是精制白砂糖还是蜂蜜)都没有任何营养价值。英国国民保健务称添加糖在日常卡路里增加值中占10%。But earlier this year I spoke to cardiologist Dr Aseem Malhotra, who is also science director of Action On Sugar, a body campaigning to reduce levels of sugar in our foods, who said the World Health Organisation recommends limiting all added sugars (including honey) to six teaspoons a day.今年年初在同心脏病专家、“对糖分采取行动”(一个旨在减少我们日常食品糖分摄入量的组织)的科学顾问阿西姆·马尔霍特拉士交谈的时候,他说道,世界卫生组织建议每天摄入添加糖(包括蜂蜜)的量最好不要超过6茶匙(30克)。#39;Contrary to what the food industry wants you to believe, the body doesn#39;t need any carbohydrate from added sugar,#39; he said.“和食品生产商所希望的不同,我们的身体其实不需要从添加糖中获取任何糖分。” /201411/339766上饶永久性脱体毛哪家医院好 A mail carrier in British Columbia, Canada, has been unable to deliver a package to a house – and it#39;s all because of a bear on the prowl.因为一只熊在房前徘徊,加拿大英属哥伦比亚省一名邮递员没能投递包裹。Matthew Fane, from a Vancouver suburb, tweeted Wednesday a photo of a note left for him by a Canada Post worker indicating that the reason he was unable to drop off a parcel was because there was a #39;bear at door.#39;周三,居住在温哥华郊区的Matthew Fane在推特上发了一张取件通知的照片,加拿大邮政的邮递员在通知上写下了无法投递的原因——门口有熊。A picture of the decent-sized black mammal has since surfaced to prove the claim, showing the grizzly scarily lurking out front of the house.事件发生后,一只可怕的黑色大灰熊被拍到在房前游荡,明邮递员所言不虚。Fane was impressed with the postal carrier#39;s justification, writing on Twitter: #39;Ok, fair enough @canadapostcorp that#39;s a decent reason to not drop the package off at my door.#39;Fane对邮递员的决定表示认可。他在推特上艾特了加拿大邮政:“有道理。没把包裹放在门口的理由很好。”When the Canadian mail service responded asking Fane to provide his exact location so that they could investigate the incident, the homeowner insisted he had no complaints.当加拿大邮政联系Fane,想知道他的具体住址以调查此事时,Fane表示他并不是投诉什么。#39;The service was great, #39; he tweeted, #39;just thought it was funny.#39; 他在推特上说:“务很棒,我只是觉得这很有趣。” /201410/336229The sneezing. The coughing. The lethargy. It#39;s enough to make a cold sufferer#39;s appetite disappear completely. Studies show that certain foods can help alleviate the symptoms of a common cold-and sometimes shorten its duration. One expert, Sharon Horesh Bergquist, assistant professor at Emory School of Medicine and a primary-care physician with a specialty in internal medicine at Emory Healthcare, offers her take on what to eat and what to avoid.-Heidi Mitchell.打喷嚏,咳嗽,无精打采,这些足以让一位感冒患者胃口全无。研究显示,某些食品可以帮助缓解普通感冒症状,有时还可以缩短病程。埃默里大学医学院(Emory School of Medicine)助理教授、埃默里医疗集团(Emory Healthcare)内科初级治疗医师伯奎斯特(Sharon Horesh Bergquist)是这方面的专家。她提供了有关感冒饮食和禁忌的建议。 /201312/269609武夷山激光治疗痤疮价格

上饶肿瘤医院打美白针多少钱上饶上饶县背部脱毛 Peekaboo is a game played over the world, crossing language and cultural barriers. Why is it so universal? Perhaps because it’s such a powerful learning tool.躲猫猫游戏风行世界各地,跨越语言和文化障碍,为何它如此普遍?也许因为它是一种强大的学习工具。One of us hides our eyes and then slowly reveals them. This causes peals of laughter from a baby, which causes us to laugh in turn. Then we do it again. And again.遮住双眼,手再缓缓移开。这样的动作会把婴儿逗得咯咯笑,我们也就跟着这一连串笑声笑了起来。接着就开始一直玩躲猫猫,一直玩。Peekaboo never gets old. Not only does my own infant daughter seem happy to do it for hours, but when I was young I played it with my mum (;you chuckled a lot!; she confirms by text message) and so on back through the generations. We are all born with unique personalities, in unique situations and with unique genes. So why is it that babies across the world are constantly rediscovering peekaboo for themselves?躲猫猫永远不会过时。现在我女儿还很小,我们玩几个小时,她看上去都很开心;在我小的时候,妈妈也和我玩躲猫猫(“你总是咯咯大笑!”她在短信中确认道。),再回溯数代,均是如此。我们生来都具不同个性,生于不同背景,也有着不同基因。那么,为什么全世界的婴幼儿还是对躲猫猫乐此不疲呢?Babies don#39;t books, and they don#39;t know that many people, so thesurprising durability and cultural universality of peekaboo is perhaps a clue that it taps into something fundamental in their minds. No mere habit or fashion, the game can help show us the foundations on which adult human thought is built.宝宝不懂看书,也不认识那么多人,而躲猫猫游戏惊人的耐玩性,跨越文化的普遍性也许就是一种引导,它能接近孩子们心中最根本的想法。这不仅仅只是一种习惯或流行,它能帮助我们认清成人想法建立的基础。An early theory of why babies enjoy peekaboo is that they are surprised when things come back after being out of sight. This may not sound like a good basis for laughs to you or I, with our adult brains, but to appreciate the joke you have to realise that for a baby, nothing is given. They are born into a buzzing confusion, and gradually have to learn to make sense of what is happening around them. You know that when you hear my voice, I#39;m usually not far behind, or that when a ball rolls behind a sofa it still exists, but think for a moment how you came by this certainty.早期,人们认为婴幼儿喜欢玩躲猫猫的原因是他们惊讶于一些东西消失后又神奇重现。这对于你我这样,因为有着成人思维,也许并不会觉得好笑,但是要理解这个笑声背后的原因,我们必须意识到,对于孩子,他们简单、单纯。他们降生于满腹疑惑的世界,慢慢地才学着搞懂周围发生的一切。你知道当你听到我的声音,我就在你不远处,或是当球滚到沙发背后,球其实还在,并没有消失,但是想想看,你是怎样建立起这样的肯定。The Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget called this principle#39;object permanence#39; and suggested that babies spent the first two years of their lives working it out. And of course those two years are prime peekaboo time. Looked at this way, the game isn#39;t just a joke, but helps babies test and re-test a fundamental principle of existence: that things stick around even when you can#39;t see them.瑞士发展心理学家让·皮亚杰(Jean Piaget)把这种规律称为“物体恒存性”,并表示婴幼儿在出生头两年,都在学习这一规律。当然这两年就是玩躲猫猫的最佳时间。这么看吧,躲猫猫并不仅仅是玩笑,还帮会孩子试验及重新试验存在规律这一根本原理:即使你没看到物体,他仍旧在你周围。Maybe evolution fixed it so that babies enjoy peekaboo for its own sake, since it proved useful in cognitive development, but I doubt it. Something deeper than mere education is going on.也许进化把躲猫猫固化成游戏,所以婴幼儿玩躲猫猫纯粹为了好玩,据实,躲猫猫在人类认知发展过程中起着重要作用,但我仍持怀疑态度。我认为,起作用的是一些比单纯的教育更深层的因素。Surprise element惊奇元素Peekaboo uses the fundamental structure of all good jokes - surprise, balanced with expectation. Researchers Gerrod Parrott and Henry Gleitman showed this in tests involving a group of six-, seven- and eight-month-olds which sound like more fun than a psychology experiment should be. Most of the time the peekaboo game proceeded normally, however on occasion the adult hid and reappeared as a different adult, or hid and reappeared in a different location. Videos of the infants were rated by independent observers for how much the babies smiled and laughed.躲猫猫有着玩笑共同的基本元素--惊奇与期望并存。研究人员谢拉德·帕洛特(Gerrod Parrott )及亨利· 格雷特曼(Henry Gleitman)对一组婴儿进行一系列测试,有六个月、七个月大的,也有八个月大的,结果看起来比心理学实验更有趣。大多数时候,躲猫猫按部就班地玩,然而有时,一个人躲起来,而一个人出现;或者藏起来后,这个人出现在另一地点。这些视频由一些独立的员评级,看看孩子们笑得开心程度。On these “trick trials” the babies smiled and laughed less, even though the outcome was more surprising. What#39;s more, the difference between their enjoyment of normal peekaboo and trick-peekaboo increased with age (with the eight-month-olds enjoying the trick trials least). The researchers#39; interpretation for this is that the game relies on being able to predict the outcome. As the babies get older their prediction gets stronger, so the discrepancy with what actually happens gets larger - they find it less and less funny.在这些“花样测试”中,婴幼儿笑得更少,尽管结果更令人惊奇。另外,婴幼儿在普通躲猫猫及花样躲猫猫中的享受程度差异,随着年纪增大而增加(其中八个月大的最不喜欢花样测试)。研究人员对此解释说,这个游戏依赖于对结果的预测能力。婴幼儿越大,预测力就越强,所以他们做的预判与实际情况出入越大,他们就觉得越不好玩。The final secret to the enduring popularity of peekaboo is that it isn#39;t actually a single game. As the baby gets older their carer lets the game adapt to the babies#39; new abilities, allowing both adult and infant to enjoy a similar game but done in different ways. The earliest version of peekaboo is simple looming, where the carer announces they are coming with their voice before bringing their face into close focus for the baby. As the baby gets older they can enjoy the adult hiding and reappearing, but after a year or so they can graduate to take control by hiding and reappearing themselves.躲猫猫经久不衰的最终秘密就是,其实它并不是一款游戏。随着宝宝一天天地长大,带孩子的人会调整游戏以适合孩子新掌握的能力,使得孩子与大人都喜欢玩躲猫猫,纵然游戏相似,玩法却不一。最早的版本很简单,在孩子看到大人前,大人告诉孩子自己要来了。孩子长大后,他们懂得从大人的躲藏及反复出现找乐趣,但大概一岁多,他们逐渐学会自己躲起来,然后再出现。In this way peekaboo can keep giving, allowing a perfect balance of what a developing baby knows about the world, what they are able to control and what they are still surprised by. Thankfully we adults enjoy their laughter so much that the repetition does nothing to stop us enjoying endless rounds of the game ourselves.这样一来,躲猫猫能够不断提供及保持一种完美平衡,介于发育中的婴儿对世界的认知、他们能控制什么及他们仍然什么感到惊讶。谢天谢地,我们大人还是很喜欢他们的笑声,不断的重复游戏并没有妨碍我们喜欢这个可以无限循环的游戏。 /201404/292967横峰县妇幼保健人民中医院激光去痣多少钱

铅山县人民医院隆胸多少钱Since ancient times, the elusive concept of wisdom has figured prominently in philosophical and religious texts. The question remains compelling: What is wisdom, and how does it play out in individual lives? Most psychologists agree that if you define wisdom as maintaining positive well-being and kindness in the face of challenges, it is one of the most important qualities one can possess to age successfully — and to face physical decline and death.自古以来,智慧的概念一直在哲学和宗教文献中占据了显赫的地位。相关问题至今仍难以捉摸,引人深思:什么是智慧?它在一个人的生活中发挥了怎样的作用?大多数心理学家都认同,如果智慧的定义就是在挑战面前仍可以保持积极健康和慈悲的心态,那么,可以说它是一个人能够顺利步入老年阶段,并直面体力的衰退乃至死亡所需拥有的最重要的品质。Vivian Clayton, a geriatric neuropsychologist in Orinda, Calif., developed a definition of wisdom in the 1970s, when she was a graduate student, that has served as a foundation for research on the subject ever since. After scouring ancient texts for evocations of wisdom, she found that most people described as wise were decision makers. So she asked a group of law students, law professors and retired judges to name the characteristics of a wise person. Based on an analysis of their answers, she determined that wisdom consists of three key components: cognition, reflection and compassion.维维安·克莱顿(Vivian Clayton)是加州奥林达市的一名老年神经心理学家。在20世纪70年代攻读研究生时,她就对智慧作出了自己的定义,并在其后以此为基础就这一课题展开研究。她遍查了古籍中关于智慧的描述,发现被大多数人冠以“智者”之名的人都是决策者。于是她分别要求法律系学生、法学教授和退休法官列举出他们各自心目中智者的特征,并对他们的进行了分析。根据分析的结果,她认定智慧包含三个关键的组成部分:认知(cognition)、反思(reflection)和悲悯(compassion)。Unfortunately, research shows that cognitive functioning slows as people age. But speed isn#39;t everything. A recent study in Topics in Cognitive Science pointed out that older people have much more information in their brains than younger ones, so retrieving it naturally takes longer. And the quality of the information in the older brain is more nuanced. While younger people were faster in tests of cognitive performance, older people showed ;greater sensitivity to fine-grained differences,; the study found.不幸的是,研究表明,认知功能运作会随着人体的衰老而减慢。但速度并不能代表一切。《认知科学论题》杂志(Topics in Cognitive Science)上最近刊登的一项研究指出,老年人头脑中的信息要多比年轻人多得多,因此要提取信息自然也就需要更长的时间。此外,老年人头脑中的信息质量也更加细致。研究发现,虽然年轻人在认知能力测试中速度较快,但老年人“对细微的差异显示出更大的敏感性”。It stands to reason that the more information people have in their brains, the more they can detect familiar patterns. Elkhonon Goldberg, a neuroscientist in New York and author of ;The Wisdom Paradox,; says that ;cognitive templates; develop in the older brain based on pattern recognition, and that these can form the basis for wise behavior and decisions.按理说,人头脑中的信息越多,就越容易甄别出熟悉的模式。纽约的一名神经科学家、《智慧悖论》(The Wisdom Paradox)一书作者艾克纳恩·戈德堡(Elkhonon Goldberg)指出,在模式识别的基础上,老年人的头脑中可建立起“认知模板”,而这将为明智的行为和决策奠定基础。According to Dr. Clayton, one must take time to gain insights and perspectives from one#39;s cognitive knowledge to be wise (the reflective dimension). Then one can use those insights to understand and help others (the compassionate dimension).克莱顿士认为,要成为一名智者,一个人必须花费时间从认知性知识中提取出深层次的见解和观点(反思构面)。然后再使用它们来理解和帮助他人(悲悯构面)。Working from Dr. Clayton#39;s framework, Monika Ardelt, an associate sociology professor at the University of Florida in Gainesville, felt a need to expand on studies of old age because of research showing that satisfaction late in life consists of things like maintaining physical and mental health, volunteering and having positive relationships with others. But this isn#39;t always possible if the body breaks down, if social roles are diminished and if people suffer major losses. ;So these people cannot age successfully? They have to give up?; she recalled asking herself.从克莱顿士的框架出发,佛罗里达大学(University of Florida,位于美国盖恩斯维尔市)的社会学副教授莫妮卡·阿尔德特(Monika Ardelt)在工作中体会到,有必要加强关于老年人的研究,这是因为研究显示,对晚年生活的满意度包含维持身心健康、不求回报付出、与他人保持积极的关系等要素。但如果一个人身体衰弱,或他承担的社会角色有所减弱,又或者他遭受了重大损失,很可能就无法满足这些要素。“那么,这些人是不是就不能安享晚年了?他们是否只能放弃希望?”她记得曾这样问自己。Wisdom, she has found, is the ace in the hole that can help even severely impaired people find meaning, contentment and acceptance in later life.事实并非如此。阿尔德特教授发现还有一张王牌,即使是深受重创的人,也可以藉此找到人生意义,在晚年中怡然自安,这张王牌就是智慧。She developed a scale consisting of 39 questions aimed at measuring three dimensions of wisdom. People responding to statements on Professor Ardelt#39;s wisdom scale — things like ;a problem has little attraction for me if I don#39;t think it has a solution,; or ;I can be comfortable with all kinds of people; and ;I#39;m easily irritated by people who argue with me; — were not told they were being measured for wisdom. Respondents later answered questions about hypothetical challenges and crises, and those who showed evidence of high wisdom were also more likely to have better coping skills, Professor Ardelt found. In general, for example, they said they would be more active than passive about dealing with hardship.她制定了一份由39个问题组成的量表,以期衡量智慧的三重构面。在这张量表中,可以读到诸如此类的陈述:“如果我觉得某个问题根本没办法解决,那么它对我就没什么吸引力”,“我跟形形色色的人都相处得很好”,或者“我很容易被跟我争论的人激怒”等等。但她并没有告诉受访者这是一项衡量智慧水平的测试。然后,她又假设了一些挑战和危机,让受访者回答了相关问题。综合上述结果,阿尔德特教授发现,在测试中显示出大智慧的人也拥有更高明的处事技巧。譬如一般来说,他们在应对困难时心态往往更为主动积极。An impediment to wisdom is thinking, ;I can#39;t stand who I am now because I#39;m not who I used to be,; said Isabella S. Bick, a psychotherapist who, at 81, still practices part time out of her home in Sharon, Conn. She has aging clients who are upset by a perceived worsening of their looks, their sexual performance, their physical abilities, their memory. For them, as for herself, an acceptance of aging is necessary for growth, but ;it#39;s not a resigned acceptance; it#39;s an embracing acceptance,; she said.心理治疗师伊莎贝拉·S·比克(Isabella S. Bick)说,总是想着“我真受不了我现在的样子,因为我跟以前简直判若两人”,这是通往智慧人生的一大阻碍。虽然已经81岁高龄,她仍时不时离开她位于康涅狄格州沙伦市的家,从事非全职的治疗工作。在她的客户中,有一些老人因自己的外貌、性能力、体力或不如以往而大感沮丧。对于他们(以及她自己)而言,接受衰老是成长的必要条件,她说,但“这不是听天由命的不得已而为之;而是欣然地接受自然规律”。;Wise people are able to accept reality as it is, with equanimity,; Professor Ardelt said. Her research shows that when people in nursing homes or with a terminal illness score high on her wisdom scale, they also report a greater sense of well-being. ;If things are really bad, it#39;s good to be wise,; she said.“智者能够接受现实本来的面目,并泰然处之,”阿尔德特教授说。她的研究显示,住在养老院的人或绝症患者的智慧量表得分较高,他们所报告的幸福感也较强。“如果现实已经够糟糕了,保持明智就更加重要,”她说。The Berlin Wisdom Project, a research effort begun in the 1980s that sought to define wisdom by studying ancient and modern texts, called it ;an expert knowledge system concerning the fundamental pragmatics of life.; A co-founder of the project, Ursula M. Staudinger, went on to distinguish between general wisdom, the kind that involves understanding life from an observer#39;s point of view (for example, as an advice giver), and personal wisdom, which involves deep insight into one#39;s own life.“柏林智慧项目”(Berlin Wisdom Project)是一项于20世纪80年代启动的研究,该项目通过研读古代和现代的文献,将智慧定义为:“关于生活基本实用领域的专业知识体系。”该项目的创始人之一,厄休拉·M·斯托丁格(Ursula M. Staudinger)还进一步将其区分为一般智慧和个人智慧,前者指从观察者(比方说,从一个提供建议的外人)的角度来认识生命,后者指深入洞察自己的人生。True personal wisdom involves five elements, said Professor Staudinger, now a life span psychologist and professor at Columbia University. They are self-insight; the ability to demonstrate personal growth; self-awareness in terms of your historical era and your family history; understanding that priorities and values, including your own, are not absolute; and an awareness of life#39;s ambiguities.现任美国哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)生涯发展心理学家的斯托丁格教授表示,真正的个人智慧包括五个要素,分别为:自我洞察力;明个人成长的能力;对所处的历史时代和家族史的自我意识;认识到凡事(包括你自己)的先后缓急和价值都不是绝对的;认识到生活中充满了不确定性。Wisdom in this sense is extremely rare, Professor Staudinger said, and research has shown that it actually declines in the final decades. As a coping strategy, it is better to be positive about life when you are older, she said, and the older people skew that way. They are more likely to look back on their lives and say that the events that occurred were for the best; a wise person would fully acknowledge mistakes and losses, and still try to improve.斯托丁格教授说,满足上述意义的智慧实际上极为罕见,而且研究表明,在人生的最后几十年它还会呈下降趋势。她说,应对策略之一是在晚年也要尽量保持积极的生活态度,这样才可能逆转这一趋势。智慧的老年人更有可能回过头去审视他们的生活,并认可迄今所发生的所有事情都是为了追求最好的结果;他们勇于承认自己的错误和损失,并始终尽自己所能去改善现状。True wisdom involves recognizing the negative both within and outside ourselves and trying to learn from it, she said.她补充道,真正的智慧包括认识到自己内外部的负面因素,并试图从中汲取教训。Modern definitions of wisdom tend to stress kindness — even if it#39;s not on the order of Buddha, Gandhi or the Dalai Lama. Wisdom is characterized by a ;reduction in self-centeredness,; Professor Ardelt said. Wise people try to understand situations from multiple perspectives, not just their own, and they show tolerance as a result.智慧的现代定义往往更强调慈悲——尽管佛陀、甘地和达赖喇嘛的教诲中并没有这么一条。智慧的显著特点在于“减少自我中心”,阿尔德特教授说。智者会尝试从多个角度而不仅从他们自己的立场来了解情况,因此表现得更加宽容。;There#39;s evidence that people who rank high in neuroticism are unlikely to be wise,; said Laura L. Carstensen, a psychology professor and founding director of the Stanford Center on Longevity in California. ;They see things in a self-centered and negative way and so they fail to benefit emotionally from experience, even though they may be very intelligent.;“有据表明,神经质指数偏高的人不太可能会很明智,”加州斯坦福长寿研究中心(Stanford Center on Longevity in California)的创始主任、心理学教授劳拉·L·卡斯滕森(Laura L. Carstensen)说:“他们以自我中心和消极的方式来看待世界,所以他们无法从经验中获得情感层面上的效益——即使他们可能相当聪明。”Professor Carstensen does not consider herself a wisdom researcher because ;there#39;s a piece of me that thinks it#39;s not useful to use a term that#39;s been around for 1,000 years.; Some researchers are skeptical about testing for such an amorphous trait as wisdom.卡斯滕森教授并不认为自己是一名“智慧”的研究人员,因为“在我心里,总有个小小声音说:使用一个已经有1000来年历史的术语没什么用处。”还有一些研究人员对检测像智慧这样含糊的特性持怀疑态度。But Professor Carstensen does study emotional regulation, and says that is a key component of wisdom.但卡斯滕森教授对情绪调节也进行了研究,并表示这是智慧的一个重要组成部分。If you are wise, she said, ;You#39;re not only regulating your emotional state, you#39;re also attending to another person#39;s emotional state.; She added: ;You#39;re not focusing so much on what you need and deserve, but on what you can contribute.;作为智者,“你不仅要有能力调节自己的情绪状态,还要能顾及他人的情绪状态。”她接着补充道:“你不会对自己需要或应得的东西斤斤计较,反之,你更在乎可以做出什么贡献。”Daniel Goleman, author of ;Focus; and ;Emotional Intelligence,; said, ;One aspect of wisdom is having a very wide horizon which doesn#39;t center on ourselves,; or even on our group or organization.《专注力》(Focus)和《情商》(Emotional Intelligence)的作者丹尼尔·戈尔曼(Daniel Goleman)认为,“智慧的特征之一是拥有宽广的见识,且并不以自己”甚至自己所在的团体或组织为中心。He said an important sign of wisdom was ;generativity,” a term used by the psychologist Erik Erikson, who developed an influential theory on stages of the human life span. Generativity means giving back without needing anything in return, Dr. Goleman said. The form of giving back could be creative, social, personal or financial, and ;the wisest people do that in a way that doesn#39;t see their lifetime as limiting when this might happen,” he said.心理学家埃里克·埃里克松(Erik Erikson)提出了人生社会心理发展阶段这一影响深远的理论,他还使用“慷慨”这一术语来形容智慧。戈尔曼士说,“慷慨”是智慧的一个重要标志,它表示不求回报的付出。付出的形式多种多样,可以是创造力方面的,社会意义上的,个人角度上的,也可以是经济层面上的,此外,“智者还认为,生有涯,贡献却无涯,”他说。Dr. Goleman interviewed Erikson, along with his wife, Joan, in the late 1980s, when both were in their 80s. Erikson#39;s theory of human development had initially included eight stages, from infancy to old age. When the Eriksons themselves reached old age, though, they found a need to add a ninth stage of development, one in which wisdom plays a crucial role. ;They depict an old age in which one has enough conviction in one#39;s own completeness to ward off the despair that gradual physical disintegration can too easily bring,; Dr. Goleman wrote in The Times.20世纪80年代后期,戈尔曼士采访了年已八旬的埃里克松及其妻子琼(Joan)。最初,埃里克松的人生社会心理发展理论包括从幼年直至老年的八个阶段。然而,当埃里克松夫妇自己迈入老年之后,他们发现还需要补充第九个发展阶段,且智慧在这一阶段里发挥着至关重要的作用。“他们描绘了这样的一种晚年图景:老年人对自己身心的完善充满了自信,这种信心足以抵挡因身体逐渐衰老所带来的绝望情绪,”戈尔曼士在《纽约时报》上写道。In the final years of life, ;Even the simple activities of daily living may present difficulty and conflict,; Joan Erikson wrote in an expanded version of her husband#39;s book, ;The Life Cycle Completed.; ;No wonder elders become tired and often depressed.; The book adds: ;To face down despair with faith and appropriate humility is perhaps the wisest course.;到了暮年,“即便是日常生活中的简单活动也可能成为难题,”琼·埃里克松在她丈夫的著作《生命周期的完成》(The Life Cycle Completed)的扩展版中写道。“无怪乎老年人开始感到疲惫,时而觉得沮丧。”这本书补充道:“以信念和适度的谦逊来面对绝望或许是最明智的选择。”;One must join in the process of adaptation. With whatever tact and wisdom we can muster, disabilities must be accepted with lightness and humor.;“适应是每个人都必须迈进的过程。我们要调动起所有的机敏和智慧,以轻松和幽默的态度来接受残障。”Whatever the nature of one#39;s limitations, simplifying one#39;s life is also a sign of wisdom, Dr. Clayton said, for example, by giving your things away while you are still alive. Some people have trouble with the idea of settling for less — ;they#39;ve gotten so used to the game of acquiring more,; she said.无论有着怎样的局限性,都能够将复杂的生活简单化,例如,在你仍然活着的时候主动放手也是智慧的一个标志,克莱顿士说。有些人对“知足常乐”这种想法并不买账——“他们已经太过于习惯不断索取,”她说。Settling for less and simplifying is not the same as giving up. In fact, when older people lack challenges, self-absorption and stagnation may take over, the Eriksons said. The key is to set goals that match one#39;s current capacities.知足常乐和简单生活不等同于放弃。埃里克松解释道,事实上,老年人在缺乏挑战时,“自我专注”(self-absorption)就可能占据他人生的主导地位,人也会随之变得死气沉沉。设定符合自己现有能力的目标非常关键。Continuing education can be an important way to cultivate wisdom in the later years, researchers say, for one thing because it combats isolation. But training in practical skills may be less useful for older people than courses in the humanities that help people make sense of their lives, Professor Ardelt says. She and other researchers recommend classes in guided autobiography, or life review, as a way of strengthening wisdom. In guided autobiography, students write and share their life stories with the help of a trained instructor.研究人员称,接受继续教育可作为老年人培养智慧的重要途径,其原因之一是它可以使人不再那么孤独。阿尔德特教授说,不过对于老年人来说,引导人们如何更有意义地生活的课程可能比实际操作技能的培训更加有用。她和其他研究人员建议老年人参加“引导性自传”(guided autobiography)或“生命回顾”(life review)之类的课程,以增进智慧。在“引导性自传”课程中,受过专业培训的指导人员将帮助学生们撰写并分享他们的人生故事。Dr. Clayton says there#39;s a point in life when a fundamental shift occurs, and people start thinking about how much time they have left rather than how long they have lived. Reflecting on the meaning and structure of their lives, she said, can help people thrive after the balance shifts and there is much less time left than has gone before.克雷顿士指出,这一刻,人生发生了根本性转变:人们开始思考他们的生命还剩下多少时间,而不是已经过去了多久。反思自己生活的意义和安排,可以帮助人们自如地应对这种重心的转移,享受人生最后的夕阳红。 /201410/335710 江西上饶市鼻部修复多少钱上饶德兴市脂肪移植隆胸费用



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